EXAMPLE SYSTEM DESIGN

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1 Exarnvle Svstern Design Contents -Page ex -i EXAMPLE SYSTEM DESIGN

2 EXAMPLE SYSTEM DESIGN l2semxe Page INTRODUCTION EX-1 SECTION t. CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS... EX-1 Owner/Architect/Engineer Conference... EX-1 Conceptual Site Survey... EX-1 Preliminary Load Estimate... EX-1 Conceptual PerforrnancetCost Study... EX-2 Conceptual Array Sizing Method... EX-2 Preliminary System Cost Estimate... EX-3 Evaluation of Cost Effectiveness... EX-3 SECTION 2. FEASIBILIN STUDY... EX-9 Application Review... EX-9 Data Gathering and Conservation Measures... EX-9 Thermal Load Requirements... EX-9 Sizing/Performance Analysis... EX-9 Computer System Simulation... EX-9 Construction Costs... EX-1 2 Economic Evaluation... EX-1 3 SECTION 3. DETAILED DESIGN... EX-30 Overall System Schematic... EX-30 Collector Subsystem Design... EX-30 Array Design... EX-30 Piping Design... EX-31 Collector Subsystem Component Requirements... EX-32 Storage Subsystem Design EX-50 Storage Tank Design... EX-50 Piping Design... EX-50 Storage Subsystem Component Requirements... EX-51

3 Example System Design Contents -Page ex - iii EXAMPLE SYSTEM DESIGN CONTENTS (continued) Page 3.5 Instrumentation and Controls Subsystem Design... EX Solar Energy System Operational Controls... EX Solar Energy System-to-Load Interface Controls... EX Operational instrumentation... EX System Performance Monitoring Instrumentation... EX Instrumentation and Control Component Requirements... EX Perforrnance/Cost Verification... EX Verification of Thermal Performance... EX Cost Estimate... EX Economic Evaluation... EX-76 TABLES First Economic Evaluation of Solar Energy System... EX-14 Results of F-CHART Runs for Variety of Array Sizes... EX-15 Results of TLCC Calculations for Various Solar f nergy System Sizes... EX-15 Second Economic Evaluation of Solar Energy System... EX-16 Design Cost Estimate Detail... EX-77 Solar Energy System Goals... EX-5 Service Hot Water Data... EX-6 Building Information... EX-7 Collector and Storage Locations... EX-8 Building Information EX-1 7 Site and Environmental Considerations... EX-21 Energy Conservation Measures... EX-23 Service Hot Water Data... EX-27 Construction Cost Estimate Summary... EX-29 *Only those checklists applicable to this specific system design were used. Other designs may require use of all checklists.

4 EXAMPLE SYSTEM DESIGN FlGURES Page Building Sketches... EX-4 Example System P & ID... EX-33 Typical 8-Collector Bank... EX-34 Location of Collector Banks on Roof... EX-34 Collector Pipe Sizes and Flow Rates EX-34 Typical Collector Bank Piping... EX-34 CollectorlPipe Support... EX-35 Storage Tank... EX-35 Storage Tank Details... EX-35 Collector Sensor Locations... EX-53 Storage Tank Sensor Locations... EX-53 PEClFlCATlON WORKSHEETS Flat Plate liquid Collectors... EX-36 Heat Transfer Fluids... EX-39 Pumps... EX-40 Expansion Tanks... EX-42 Air Separator Valve... EX-43 Flex Couplings... EX-44 Insulation... EX Aidlent,.,..,... =.,...T... =...,.--.T...I...:.... EX-46 Check Valves... EX-47 Pressure Relief Valves... EX-48 Piping... EX-49 Thermal Storage Tanks... EX-54 Heat Exchangers... EX-55 Pumps... EX-57 Tempering Valve... EX-59 Pressure Temperature Relief Valves... EX-60 Insulation... EX-61 Air Vent... EX-62 Check Valves... EX-63 Pressure Relief Valves... EX-64 Piping... EX-65 Differential Temperature Controller... EX-66 Temperature Switches EX-67 Temperature Sensor... EX-68 Btu Meters... EX-69 Pressure/Temperatu re Ports... EX-71 Pressure Gauges... EX-72 Thermometers EX-73

5 Example System Design Conceptual Analysis- Page EX-I EXAMPLE SYSTEM DESIGN INTRODUCTION An example solar energy system design was prepared following the guidelines of the design manual. The example is intended to show how the equations, tables, figures, checklists, worksheets, and evaluations are used in the solar energy system design process. The system selected for the example application is a closed-loop antifreeze system that can be used to supplement heating of service water for a dormitory. The example system uses flat plate collectors that are mounted on the roof of the dormitory. Numbers used to identify sections, headings, tables, figures, checklists, and worksheets for the example are directly related to those used in the main text of the design manual. The example solar energy system design was performed using the inch-pound (I-P) units and symbols. SECTION 1 CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS 1.2 Owner/Archltect/Englneer Conference The "owner" is a college in Tucson, Arizona, that is considering a solar energy system to supplement the service hot water load in a men's dormitory. Checklist 1-1 summarizes the owner's goals. 1.3 Conceptual Site Survey Preliminary Load Estimate Ideally, either historical records of service hot water usage or real-time data collection would be used to estimate the service hot water load. In this example, these methods were not available for use. The load is estimated based on the ASHRAE 1980 Systems Handbook guidelines for hot water demand (Table 6 of the Service Water Heating section). The dormitory contains 100 rooms, 25 per floor, and there are three students per room. The school is on the trimester system with about h2lf the capacity during the summer trimester (May to August). The hot water load, by month, is determined below using the equation from Worksheet 1-1. The average hot water demand is 13.1 gavstudent per day.

6 Example System Design Conceptual Analysis- Page EX-2 Cold Water Hot Water Month Gallons Temperature (OF) Temperature (OF) Load(Btu/month) January February March April May June July August September October November December 122, x loa 110, x 10e 122, x 10e 118, x 10" 61, x 10" 59, x , x 1 Og 61, x , x , x 10B 118, x 10s 122, x 108 Total x 1 Os Load {Btu/month) = (gavmonth)(8.3 Ib/gal)(l Bt~/lb.~F)(f, - TJ F Physical Constraints A sketch of the dormitory building is illustrated by Figure A. Checklists 1-4 and 1-5 outline the results of the building site survey. 1.4 Conceptual System Selection Due to the relatively large static head, approximately 50 ft, and the freeze potential at the site, the conceptual system selected for this site is a closed-loop antifreeze system, as illustrated by Figure 1-3 of the manual Conceptual PerforrnanceICost Study Conceptual Array Sizing Method The expected performance of the system, for both an average flat plate and an average evacuated tube collector, can be found in Table 1-3 of the manual. Flat plate performance - 269,000 Btu/ft&yr Evacuated tube performance = 287,000 BtuMGyr I

7 Exam~le Svstem Design Conceptual Analysis- Page EX-3 The estimated required array, storage, and mechanical room sizes are calculated per Section as follows. a. Array area = (806 x 10%~ x 0.80) + (269, ft2 (flat plate) b. Array area = 2250 ft2 (evacuated tube) c. Storage size = 2250 to 2400 gallons d. Mechanical room size = 100 to 150 ft Preliminary System Cost Estimate The cost estimate will be based on the assumption that flat plate collectors will be used. The sytem cost range is estimated as follows. a. Minimum cost = $40/ft2 x 2400 ft2 = $96,000 b. Maximum cost = $801ft2 x 2400 ft2 = $192,000 A representative 40-ft2 flat plate collector can currently be purchased for $520. This represents less than 30% of the system cost and is acceptable Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness The simple payback period can be calculated following the steps in Section a. Output = 269,000 Btu/ft2*yr x 2400 ft2 = 646 x 1 O6 Btu/yr b. The cost of electricity in Tucson, Arizona, is $19,92/MMBtu C. Therefore, the value of the annual energy saved is 646 x 1 O6 Btulyr x $ x 10" Btu = $1 2,870Jyr d. The simple payback periods for both the minimum and maximum cost estimate are Minimum = $96,000 + $1 2,870Jyr = 7.5 yr The payback periods are within the owner's goal of 15 years. The allowable first cost can be calculated following the steps in Section e. Value of energy saved = $12,87O/yr f. From Table 5, using an interest rate of 12% (estimated over the life of the system, an economic life of 20 years and a fuel price change of +2.50/dyr, the economic factor is Qw The allowable first cost is then $1 2,870 x = $1 15,300 This is in between the minimum and maximum cost estimates of the system. The system will be cost-effective if it can be installed for this amount or less.

8 Basement Entrance Roof Plan Floor Plan i Furnace Ground Level,~.~Cr.~.cc,rrr.rr Storage * 1 r & : Sohr ; Workspace Existing j Equipment Water R o o m : Heater d 1 # I Mechanical Room Plan Scale: 1 in. = 50 ft Figure A. Building Sketches Sob Design Manual

9 Example System Design Conceptual Analysis- Page EX-5 CHECKLIST 1-1 SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM GOALS Building ownerluser Address A college in Arizona Tucson, Arizona (name) Desired solar application: Hot water only -X-Space heating Space heating and hot water Reasons for interest (rank in order): -- 2 Promotion of renewable energyfwnservation of fossil fuel -- 1 Save money -- 3 Own a solar system Expected solar f radon: Hot water heating (%) -80- Space heating (%) -NIA- Overall expected cost benefits Maximum initial investment allowed ($)-200,000- Maximum years allowed to pay back investment (yr) 1 5 Minimum yearly fuel cost saving ($/yr)--

10 CHECKLIST 1-2 SERVICE HOT WATER DATA A. Building Hot Water Requirements 1. Daily Load 22 gal/day (maximum per student), (average per student) How determined? ASHRAE 1980 Systems Guidelines 2. Daily use pattern Mostly daytime, 7 days/week 3. Temperature 1 2OP0F 4. Load profile (list monthly hot water load estimates) (gallons): (000 omitted) Jan Feb 110- Mar Apr May Jun -59- Jul-61 Aug61Sep~118Oct~122~Nov~118~ Dec Total annual load 1,I 96,000 gallons B. Main Heating System 1. Energy source: Gas Electric X O i l Steam 2. Hot water heaterhtorage capacity 1070 gallons 3. Hot water circulation: Yes No x - 4. Cold water temperature 79-OF (max) O F (min)

11 Example System Design Conceptual Analysis- Page EX-7 CHECKLIST 1-4 BUIL1)ING 1NFORMATlON Date July 1987 Building A college in Tucson 1. Primary building use: Dormitory 2. Number of floors: 4 Total floor area -77,350-ft2 3. Utilities available: Natural gas Propane gas Fuel oil Electric: -1 20/208- volt, - 1/3- phase, kw 4. Water quality: ph -8.5 Dissolved solids c10- pprn Solar Desi~n Manual

12 CHECKLIST 1-5 COLLECTOR AND STORAGE LOCATIONS 1. Potential collector location: Roof -X- Ground Wail If roof, type: Fiat -X- Pitched If pitched, pitch line direction and slope Roofing material B uilt up with cap sheet Area available for collectors ft (N/S) x ft (UW) Potential shading problems elevator equipment room Provide sketch showing shape, overall dimensions, and location and type of any obstructions or potential shading sources. 2; Potential storage location: Indoor -X- Outdoor If indoor, available area 50- ft x ft; Ceiling height -1 5-ft Access to storage location: 2 0 x 8- door sues other 3. Potential mechanical equipment location: indoor X Outdoor If indoor, available area 5 ft x 7. 5 ft 4. Approximate distance collector to HX or storage ft (elev), ft (horiz) 5. Approximate distance HX to storage 0 ft (elev), -1 0-ft (horiz)

13 Example System Design Feasibility Study- Page EX-9 SECTION 2 FEASIBILITY STUDY 2.2 Appllcatfon Revlew Data Gathering and Conservation Measures Checklists 2-1 through 2-4 are filled out as attached. The only conservation measure is to lower the tank set temperature to 120 F Thermal Load Requirements The ASHRAE data for hot water usage calculated in Section 1 still applies. 2,3 Sizing/Perforrnance Analysis Computer System Simulation The example system simulation program chosen for this example feasibility study is F-CHART version 5.5. The initial input required to run F-CHART 5.5 is determined using Appendix 2B and the F-CHART user's manual. Collector Parameter Set 1. Number of collector panels As a first cut, 54 collectors are estimated. This is an area, 10% less than that calculated in Section , ai. Collector pane[ area = 40 ft2 FRUL = 0.792; this is the value for an average flat plate collector as shown in Section 1.5. F,m = ; this is the value for an average flat plate collector as shown in Section 1.5. Collector slope = 32". For this first run, this is set to the site latitude. Collector azimuth = default value (0). Incidence angle modifier = 8, for the program to calculate the modifier values. Number of glazings = 1. incidence angle modifier constant = (no input required). Incidence angle modifier values = (no input required). Collector flow rate/area = 17.5 Ib/h*ft2, as recommended in Appendix 28.

14 Solar Design Manlral Collector fluid specific heat = Btu/lbe F, the value for 50/50 pmpyleoe gly Modify test values = 2, for no modification. Test collector flow ratehrea = (no input required). Test fluid specific heat = (no input required). City call number = 215 for Tucson, Arizona Water storage volume = 2140 gallons, 1 gawt2 of array area Building UA = 0 for DHW only Fuel = 1 for electricity Efficiency of fuel usage = 100% Domestic hot water = 1 Daily hot water usage; the monthly values are input by typing "7 V" Jan 3936 May 1968 Sept 3933 Feb 3929 June t 967 Oct 3936 Mar 3936 July 1968 Nov 3933 AP~ 3933 Aug 1968 Dec 3936 Water set temperature = 120 F City water temperature; the monthly values are input by typing '9 Vw Jan 60 May 65 Sept 70 Feb 60 June 75 Oct 70 Mar 65 July 75 Nov 65 AP~ 65 Aug 75 Dec 60 DHW storage tank size = 2140 gallons UA of auxiliary storage tank = 23.8 Btu/hm F; the auxiliary tank is 1070 gallons. 4.5 diameter, and 9 ft high. The installed insulation is 2.5 inches thick with a k = Pipe heat loss = 2 Inlet pipe UA = (no input required) Outlet pipe UA = (no input required) Relative load heat exchanger size = I, the default value Collector storage heat exchanger = 1,

15 Example System Design C - Feasibility Study- Page E X4 17. Tank side flow rate = Ib/hr*ft2; calculated as 5% greater than collector side flow rate (1.05)(17.5 Ib/hr.ft2) = Ib/hraft2 18. Heat exchanger effectiveness = 0.60, as recommended in Appendix 28 Results are listed below. Tucson, AZ Design Handbook Sample Run 1 Water Storage System Flat Plate Collector Jan Feb Mar AP~ May Jun Jul Aug S~P Oct Nov Dec Yr Note: MMBtu = Btu x 106 Solar Heat DHW MMBtu* MMBtu* MMBtu* i Aux MMBtu* J The results show that with 54 collectors, the solar fraction will be 0.79, meeting 100% of the load during the months of May through August. Assuming that the example simulation program overestimates the output by 20%, the installed performance can be estimated by: Installed Solar Contribution = (DHW - Aux) Installed Solar Fraction = MMBtu

16 2.3.2 Construction Costs Following the guidelines of Appendix 2C (Casts are expressed in 1985 U.S. dollars and must be adju the year of proposed construction) : The National Average "Bare Costs" are: 1. Collector + Thermal Storage Tanks BC = 9.13(2,160 ft2) + 21,308 = $ Mechanical Material BC (2,160 ft2) + 5,337 = $- 3. Electrical Material BC = (2,160 ft2) + 2,432 = $ Mechanical Labor BC = 2.93 (2,160 ft2) + 18,662 = $ Electrical Labor 6. Other BC = (2,160 ft2) + 1,550 = $1.608 BC = (2,160f12) +743 = $ Freight Costs - $1000 assume for this example Bare Cost at Tucson, Arizona B C ~ ~ ~ n = 41,029 + (.989)(20,565) + (1.022)(2,721) + (.961)(24,991) + (.953)(1,61)6) + (.961)(782) = su&z Subtotal Cost at Tucson, Arizona Subtotal Cost = 90, (41, , ,721) + ( )(24, ,606) =$ Total Cost Total Cost ~($98, ,000)(1.296) = $ where: $1,000 = freight cost Cost/ft2 ~$59.71 /ft2 Solw Design Manual

17 Exam~le System Design Feasibility Study- Page EX Economic Evaluation The system is evaluated economically by looking at the total life cycle costs (TLCC) of the existing system and of the solar retrofit system. The two TLCCs are assumed to be: where: PMT = design and installation costs PV,,,, = present value of the annual auxiliary fuel expenses Pv~,~ = present value of the annual solar energy system O&M casts No tax credits or salvage value is included in this example, and the design cost is exduded. Also, the existing system is assumed to last as long as the solar energy system. To convert the annual auxiliary fuel and O&M costs to a present value, the modified uniform present worth (MUPW) formula is utilized as follows: (Note: Table 5 of Section 1 can be used, also.) MUPW = A. [(i + e)/(d - e)] [I - ((1 + e)/(i + d)in] where: A, = annual cost at beginning of study period ($/yr) e = annual energy escalation rate (decimal) d -- annual discount rate (decimal) N = study period, yr For this example, the following values are assumed: Therefore, MUPW = A, The annual auxiliary fuel cost is determined from the F-CHART run. Aux fuel cost = Aux MMBtu x $19.92/MMBtu The annual operating costs are assumed to be 5% of the solar energy collected, or: The annual maintenance cost is assumed to be 20h of the installed costs. The first cut of the economic evaluation is as shown in Table I.

18 Table 1 - First Economlc Evaluation of Solar Energy System Aux. Oper- Mainte- Design and Aux. Energy Energy ating nance Installat Ion Requlrernent Costs Costs Costs System Costs ($) (MM Bt utyr) ($/Y r) ($/Y J') ($1~ r) TLCC ($ No solar , ,861 With solar 128, , , ,961 As can be seen from Table 1, the TLCC with the solar energy system is much greater than the TLCC without a system. Therefore, some optimization is required. The first step in optimization is to maximize the output of the system. The second step is to reduce the array area and, therefore, the system cost until the TLCC, with solar, is less than the TLCC without solar. Since the maximum load exists during the winter months, the system output can be increased by increasing the collector slope. This results in an optimum slope of 42", with the corresponding F-CHART run shown below. Tucson, AZ Water Storage System Flat Plate Cotlector Solar MMBtu Heat MMBtu DHW MMBtu Aux MMBtu Jan Feb Mar Ap r May Jun Ju l Aw S~P Oct Nov Dec Yr Table 2 summarizes the F-CHART runs for a variety of array sizes..i

19 Examde System Design Feasibilitv Studv- Puae EX-15 Table 2 - Results of F-CHART Runs for Varlety of Array Sizes 20% Reduction In F-CHART Output Number of Panels Solar MMBtu Aux MMBtu F Aux MMBtu F The first cut at the economic evaluation assumes that the installation cost remains $59.711ft2. Table 3 summarizes the results of the TLCCs for the various system sizes. Table 3 - Results of TLCC Calculations for Various Solar Energy System Sizes Aux. Oper- MaIntesystem Design and Aux. Energy Energy sting. nance (No. of lnstallatlon Requ lrement Costs Costs Costs panels) Costs ($) (MMBtulyr) ($1~ r) ($1~ r) ($1~ r) Tux ($) As can be seen, none of the systems have a lower TLCC than the existing nonsolar water heater. To complete this example, Table 4 summarizes a second economic evaluation with an assumed electrical energy cost of $39.84/MMBtu.

20 Table 4 - Second Economic Evaluation of Solar Energy System Aux. Oper- Malnte- System Design and Aux. Energy Energy atlng nance (No. of Installation Requirement Costs Costs Costs panels) costs ($) (MM Btulyr) ($1~ r) ($/Y r) ($1~ r) 'These values are based on the cost estimating procedures of Section 2 instead of the assumed cost of $59.71 /ft2. Using the assumed installation cost of $59.71/ft2, the installation is economical from approximately 35 panels down to at least 20 panels. Using the installation cost estimating procedure outlined in Section 2, the TLCC bottoms out at 40 panels and at that level is approximately $30,000 more than the TLCC without a solar energy system. This example solar system will be designed using 40 panels. Solar Desi~n Manual

21 Example System Design Feasibility Study- Page EX-1 7 CHECKLIST 2-2 BUILDING INFORMATION Date July 1987 (Sheet 1 of 4) Building A college in Arizona BUILDING CONSTRUCTION CHARACTERISTICS Primary building use: Dormitory Provide sketchtplan with overall dimensions and orientation. Number of floors: 4 Volume of occupied space: -61 8,800- ft3 Gross floor area: -7?,350- ft2 Window glazing: -Xsingle - X double Window shading coefficient: Windows, number and area: north windows ea. west east south - ft2 = ft2 - ft2 r ft2 ft2 = ft2 - ft2 = ft2 Door types and number: north west east south TOTAL single vestibule revolving - - doors - - single vestibule revolving = doors - single vestibule revolving = - doors - single vestibule revolving = - doors ft2 Gross wall area: north Gross wall area: west Gross wall area: east Gross wall area: south it2 TOTAL ft2 *Items 8 through 19 are not applicable.

22 CHECKLIST 2-2 BUILDING INFORMATION "U" Value 20.' Net wall area: north ft2 (Net E gross less window and door area) 21. Net wall area: west ft2 22. Net wall area: east ft2 23. Net wall area: south ft2 TOTAL ft2 24. Roof construction: Support structure Surface material Slope Area ft2 "U" Value 25. Floor: Over unheated space ft2 "U" Value BUILDING USE CHARACTERISTICS 26. a. Number of occupied hours per week: hours b. Number of occupants: occupants (for offices, employees and visitors; for stores, employees and customers; for religious buildings, schools only count occupants) 27. Number of custodial hours per week: after dark, summer -N/A- hours *Items 20 through 25 are not applicable. after dark, winter -N/A- hours Saturdays - N/A- hours Sundays - N/A- hours Solar ueszgn Manual

23 Example System Design Feasibility Study- Page EX-I 9 CHECKLIST 2-2 BUILDING INFORMATION (Sheet 3 of 4) 28.' Temperature and relative humidity inside canditions: Season Temperature Humidity a. heated - winter Occupied hours OF % RH Unoccupied hours OF % RH b. air-conditioned - summer Occupied hours O F % RH Unoccupied hours OF % RH 29. Ventilation, outside air: a. during occupied hours - onloff: amount in total dm = ft3/min b. cfm per person (line 29a +- line 26b) = dmfperson c. during unoccupied hours - on/off; amaunt in total cfrn = ft3/min 30. Type and location of space heating equipment: Single unit Multiple units Boosters OutsrdeJocati~ - - Inside, location Type and location of water heating equipment: X Single unit Multiple units - Outside, location -- X Inside, locatian - Basement 31. Utilities available Natural gas Propane gas Fuel oil Electric: -1 2O/208- volt, phase 32. Water quality: ph 8.5- Dissolved solids < 0- I ppm Solids -None- Dormitory has installed water treatment system. *Items 28 through first part of 30 are not applicable.

24 CHECKLIST 2-2 BUILDING INFORMATION 33. Collector and thermal storage locations a. Collector location -- Roof - X Ground Wall If roof, type - Flat X Pitched If pitched, pitch line direction Area available for collectors and slope ft (N/S) x 325- ft (EM) Provide sketch showing shape and overall dimensions of collector location with location and type of any obstructions or potential shading sources. b. Thermal storage location - Indoor -X- Outdoor Provide sketch/plan showing all dimensions and access. c. Mechanicalequipmentlocation-IndoorXOutdoor Provide sketcnplan showing all dimensions and access. d. Approximate distance collector to HX or storage -50-ft (elev), -25 ft (horiz) e. Approximate distance HX to storage -Q-fi (elev) ft (horiz)

25 Example System Design FeasibiZiO Study- Page EX-21 CHECKLIST 2-3 SITE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Building location Tucson- (City), -Arizona-(State) (Sheet 1 of 2) 3 2 (Latitude), 1 1 OW (Longitude) Local population If small city or noncity, distance city of 50,000 or more miles Local zoning ordinances affecting solar Yes NoX- If yes, describe Local code requirements affecting solar system Yes NoX- If yes, describe: Building: Plumbing: Electrical: Fire: Other: 5. Requirement for double separation between antifreeze solutions and water Yes No X 6. Long-term climatic condition (as available: use NWS data or SERl Atlas') Maximum daily temperature 81.5-OF Minimum daily temperature OF Maximum monthly average temperature OF (Aug.) ' Minimum monthly average temperature OF (Jan.) Heating degree days -1,751- Maximum global insolation - Daily Minimum global insolation - Daily Btu/ft2 - Monthfy -2,730-Btu/ft2 (June) Btulft2 - MonthJy -995-Btu/ft2 (Dec.) Clear days per year -K, =,679- Clearest month -May- Cloudiest month Dee.- Daily cloud pattern: a.m. p.m. Maximum (mean) snowfall -6- inches Maximum wind velocity -8-mph Direction of maximum wind N W- Direction of prevailing windnw- * "Climatic Atlas of the United States," U.S. Department of Commerce, SERI/SP , "Solar Radiation Energy Resource Atlas of the United States," October SERVSP , "Insolation Data Manual," October 1980.

26 CHECKLIST 2-3 SITE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSlDERATlONS (Sheet 2 of 2)

27 Example System Design Feasibility Study- Page EX-23-6 CHECKLIST 2-4 A. NO COSTJLOW COST ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES HVAC (Sheet 1 of 4) To be Implemented _Yes& Install locking thermostats Adjust supply or heat transfer medium temperature Install nighttime thermostat setback Restrict heat and air conditioning in unoccupied areas Clean radiators, air registers, filters, condenser coils Check operation of automatic controls Reduce heat in garages, dock, and platform areas Balance heating system Evaluate humidification system Check operation of all electric heating units Establish a regular program to inspect, clean, and tubricate equipment Lower (winter} or raise (summer) indoor thermostat settings Replace filters. VENTILATION Shut down system in unoccupied areas Improve operation controls (tirneclocks) Reduce ventilation rates to code allowables Reduce outside air intake ---- TnspectoutdKor air &ampem Balance air intake-to-occupant load Balance intake and exhaust air rate Improve mechanical operation (fans, motors, dampers) lmprove filter maintenance Maintain positive interior pressure Inspect all central systems and unitary controls. INFILTRATION Repair door and window caulking Repair door and window weatherproofing Replace broken glass Adjust door closer Refit doors and windows Install temporary storm windows. UTlhlTY PLANT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Adjust barometric damper Monitor boiler makeup water Operate minimum number of boilers Isolate off -line boilers Check condensate return system Repair boiler, tank, and pipe insulation

28 Example System Design CHECKLIST ;- As ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES UTILITY PLANT DISTRIBUIION SYSTEMS (Continued) (Sheet 2 of 4) To be Implemented Yes& Check boiler efficiency and monitor combustion Eliminatdturn off gas pilot Reduce steam pressure Repair faulty radiator shutoff valves Check operation of steam traps Repair all leaks Clean plant and distribution system equipment Adjust airfluel ratios. SERVICE WATER SYSTEMS Repair leaks (piping, pump glands, steam traps) Reduce the quantity of water used - add restrictors Lower hot water temperature setting Check efficiency of oil- or gas-fired equipment Raise cold water temperature settings on water fountains Repair insulation on pipes and storage tanks Install timeclock on recirculation pump. Reduce illumination kvek where appropriate Maximize use of daylight Use higher efficiency lamps Reduce or eliminate evening cleaning Ciean lamps and fixtures Improve reflectance of surfaces Utilize task lighting Use lower wattage lamps Turn off when not in use. 8. MODERATE COST/HIGH COST HVAC 1. Shut off air handling units whenever possible Reduce outside air intake when air must be heated or cooled before use; repair or replace outside air dampers if necessary Reduce volume of air circulated through air handling units Shut off or reduce speed of room fan coils Shut off or reduce stairwell heating Shut off unneeded circulating pumps Reduce humidification to minimum requirements Cycle fans and pumps where appropriate - x - 9. Reduce pumping flow - -x- 10. Use damper controts to shut off air to unoccupied areas Raise chilled water temperature Shed loads during peak electrical use periods - 3-

29 ~x~lfle System Design Fearibil* Study- Page EX-25 CHECKLIST 2-4 ENERGYCONSERVATIONMEASURES HVAC (Continued) (Sheet 3 of 4) To be Implemented YssNa Use outside air for free cooling whenever possible Reduce reheating of cooled air Recover heating or cooling with energy recovery units Reduce chilled water circulated during light cooling Loads install minimum sized motor to meet loads Replace hand valves with automatic controls lnstall variable air volume controls Install common manifolding of chillers Insulate ducts and piping Eliminate simuhaneous heating and cooling lnstall night setback controls Install water treatment to prevent tube fouling lnstall multispeed/variable speed cooling tower fans. UTlLlN PLANT DlSTRlBUTlON SYSTEMS Reduce steam distribution pressure Shut off steam to laundry when not in use increase boiler efficiency Insulate boiler and boiler piping - InstalFeG6noflzer lnstall air preheater Install blowdown controls Modernize boiler and chiller controls Convert gas pilot to electronic ignition. Convert to energy efficient systems lnstall reflector systems. BUILDING ENVELOPE Reduce infiltration by caulking and weatherstripping Install storm windows or double-pane windows Install roof insulation Install loading dock seals lnstall vestibules on entrances lnstall solar shading, screening, curtains, and blinds install insulation in walls. PLUMBING lnstall faucets that automatically shut off water flow Decentralize hot water heating or install tankless heaters Add piping insulation Electrically trace hot water supply piping to eliminate return piping and pumps.

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