Codes and High Performance Hot Water Systems. Gary Klein Affiliated International Management, LLC

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1 Codes and High Performance Hot Water Systems Gary Klein Affiliated International Management, LLC

2 Annual Energy Use for Heating Water Natural Gas Gallons Per Day 60 Electricity Gallons Per Year 21,900 Energy into Water 16.4 Million Btu Efficiency Cost per Unit $1.00/therm $0.10/kWh Cost per Year $275 $535 Assumes hot water is 90 degrees F above incoming cold water. Cost per year has been rounded off. Add about $130 per year for water and sewer (at $0.006 per gallon combined)

3 How Big is Hot Water? Water heating is the 1 st or 2 nd largest residential energy end use: 15 30% of a house s total energy pie. What is number 1? Number 3? Percentage grows as houses and appliances get more efficient How does this compare to your: Cell phone bill? Internet bill? Cable or Satellite bill? Designer coffee bill?

4 The Hot Water System Treatment and Delivery to the Building Use in the Building Water Heater Piping Fixtures, Fittings and Appliances Behavior Water Down the Drain Waste Water Removal and Treatment How do the interactions among these components affect system performance? Which is the biggest variable in determining water and energy use?

5 Typical Simple Hot Water System Hot Water Energy Cold Water Mixed Temperature Water Hot Water Outlet Water Heater Drain Indoor Boundary Fuel Source Water Source Sewer

6 Typical Central Boiler Hot Water System Indoor Boundary Hot Water Storage Tank Standard Hot Water Circulation Loop Boiler Boiler Loop Energy Cold Water Mixed Temperature Water Apartment, or Hot Water Outlet Drain Fuel Source Water Source Sewer

7 Do You Know: Anyone who waits a long time to get hot water somewhere in their house? At their job? In their favorite restaurant? Someone who has ever run out of hot water? Any Communities that have a you can t build unless you can guarantee a long term supply of water ordinance? Someone who has a routine that they do while waiting for hot water to arrive at their shower? At the kitchen sink? For the dishwasher? Anyone who wants instantaneous hot water? Someone who thinks that a tankless water heater is instantaneous? Anyone who thinks that a whole house manifold plumbing system will save water? Someone who is confused about how to implement the LEED, NAHB, Water Sense, Build it Green or other hot water distribution system credits? Anyone who would like to learn how to get hot water to every fixture wasting no more than 1 cup waiting for the hot water to arrive? Someone who wants to know the answer?

8 Typical Hot Water Event Water Heater Temperature Temperature Useful Hot Water Temperature Delivery Use Cool Down Time

9 How do we use hot water? Frequent short, low flow rate draws Occasional long draws at low flow rates High flow rate and high volume draws are rare

10 How Do We Conserve Hot Water? Use less hot water (volume) per event Begins with the water heater Passes through the hot water distribution system Discharges through the fixture fittings and appliances Mixed temperature water runs down the drain Total is due to a combination of structural and behavioral considerations. The supply of hot water ends at the fixtures and appliances, not at the customer s meter, The future of water conservation programs depends on getting the structural considerations correct today. Begin with the end in mind How much do you want to waste?

11 Remember What People Want Hot Water Now = Instantaneousness Need hot water available before the start of each draw. A tank with hot water Heated pipes Need the source of hot water close to each fixture or appliance Point of Use is not about water heater size, its about location Never Run Out in My Shower = Continousness Need a large enough tank or a large enough burner or element Or, a modest amount of both

12 Four Questions 1. Where is the location of the hot water event in relation to the source of hot water? 2. How long is the time until the next hot water event? 3. What is the temperature of the hot water needed for that subsequent event? 4. What is the volume of water in the pipe that eventually cools down?

13 Water Waste as a Function of Flow Rate Flow Rate (Really Velocity) ¾ inch Nominal Diameter Pipe Relative Water Waste Percent Approximate Velocity Feet per Second Greater than 4 gpm Just over 100% Greater than 3 4 gpm 110% gpm 120% gpm 130% gpm 150% gpm Roughly 200% gpm???? 0.17 The velocity of 0.5 gpm in ¾ inch nominal pipe is roughly equivalent to the velocity of 2 gpm in 1.5 inch nominal pipe

14 The Ideal Hot Water Distribution System Has the smallest volume (length and smallest possible diameter) of pipe from the source of hot water to the hot water outlet. Sometimes the source of hot water is the water heater, sometimes a trunk line. For a given layout (floor plan) of hot water locations the system will have: The shortest buildable trunk line Few or no branches The shortest buildable twigs The fewest plumbing restrictions Insulation on all hot water pipes, wall thickness = pipe diameter

15 To Improve the Delivery Phase: Get hotter water sooner by minimizing the waste of water, energy & time Reduce the volume of water in the pipe (smaller diameter, shorter length) Reduce the number of restrictions to flow (decrease effective length ) Increase the face velocity (smaller diameter pipe or a demand controlled pump) Insulate the pipe (becomes critical for very low flow rates and adverse environmental conditions)

16 To improve the use phase: Minimize the thermal losses the water heater needs to overcome in the piping during a hot water event. Insulate the pipes Increases pipe temperature and reduces heat loss during a hot water event. This is particularly important for low flow fixtures and appliances. Take advantage of the energy savings: Keep the water heater temperature the same and change the mix point Reduce the water heater temperature setting. Combine both strategies.

17 To improve the cool down phase: Increase the availability of hot water and minimize the waste of water, energy and time Insulate the pipes Increases the time pipes stay hot between events. R 4 insulation doubles cool down time with ½ inch pipe, triples it with ¾ inch pipe. Equal heat loss per foot, regardless of pipe diameter Is there a priority to insulating the pipes? Trunks, branches, twigs? Duration of hot water events? Time between hot water events?

18 Improved Hot Water Event Temperature Water Heater Temperature Useful Hot Water Temperature Delivery Use Cool Down Time

19 The Key to Efficient Hot Water Distribution Reduce the volume of water between the source of hot water and the hot water outlet. Delivery time: consistent and short How much do you want to waste? 1 gallon or more? 0.5 gallons? 0.25 gallons (4 cups)? gallons (2 cups)? gallons (1 cup)?

20 Allowable Volume from Source to Use System without a Circulation Loop or Heat Traced Line (ounces) System with a Circulation Loop or Heat Traced Line (ounces) Comments IPC No limit No limit 2012 maximum of 50 feet. (currently 100 feet) IECC Res No Limit No Limit IECC Non Res No Limit No Limit GPMCS IgCC Proposed: 2 oz. for Lavatory Faucets 64 oz. for other fixtures

21 Original IgCC Table702.8

22 Revised IgCC Table

23 Pipe Insulation IECC Requires insulation for large diameter and long pipe. Kitchen runs. Not necessary to insulate if the volume from the source to the fixture is less than roughly 1 quart (table shows feet) Must individually insulate all hot water piping in home run systems. Residential: Minimum R 3, non circulating, circulating for pipes less than or equal to 1 ; R 4 for larger circulating pipes Non Residential: Minimum R 4

24 Pipe Insulation GPMCS and IgCC GPMCS and IgCC: both implement the idea of equal heat loss per foot, regardless of diameter. Wall thickness of insulation is equal to the nominal diameter of the pipe. GPMCS and IgCC: both address protection, installation and removal of buried pipe GPMCS separates hot water from chilled water and steam. Table for chilled water and steam comes from ASHRAE rows by 8 columns. Down from 14 by 8 in draft! Same table in IECC non residential IgCC covers hot water, chilled water and steam in a simple table Wall thickness is double for steam

25 Original 90.1 Pipe Insulation Table

26 Revised 90.1 Pipe Insulation Table

27 The Answer Part 1 Wring out the waste. Decrease the volume between source of hot water and the use Insulate the hot water piping Utilize the waste heat running down the drain Improve the efficiency of using hot water. Reduce hot water outlet flow rates Reduce the volume of hot water needed for each task Increase the efficiency of making hot water. Preheat solar, heat pump, off peak electric Select a very efficient booster that works with preheated water to reach the desired temperature and for continuousness Combine water and space heating

28 Combi Systems One Thermal Engine How many days a year do we use hot water? In a BA home, how many days a year do we need heating? Size of heating peak? Size of water heating peak? Why are we still so focused on condensing furnaces and not on condensing water heaters that can also heat the house?

29 Can We Solve a Problem? Space within assemblies. The space within building assemblies shall be large enough to accommodate the mechanical, electrical, plumbing and insulation systems installed within them, including those that must cross. Rough Ins for Renewables Applicability Access for future installation

30 What Makes for Good Code? How we get compliance that results in intended performance? Precision in tables? Calculations before construction? Costs of calculations? Moving mass markets? Compliance based on calculation? Signature of contractor? Verification before certificate of occupancy? Is it memorable? Is it easy to inspect?

31 Has Someone Moved Our Cheese?

32 Energy Pie 1990 Heating and Cooling Water Heating Refrigeration Lighting Clothes Drying Television Computers Vampires Miscellaneous 100 Units of Energy

33 Energy Pie 2010 Heating and Cooling Water Heating Refrigeration Lighting Clothes Drying Television Computers Vampires Miscellaneous 89 Units of Energy

34 Energy Pie 2020 Heating and Cooling Water Heating Refrigeration Lighting Clothes Drying Television Computers Vampires Miscellaneous 45 Units of Energy

35 Annual Energy Use Pattern Peak Base Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan

36 Annual Energy Use Pattern Peak Base Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan

37 Annual Energy Use Pattern Peak Base Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan

38 Looking Into the Future High Performance Programs Consistent Analysis; Targeted Improvements Set Maximum Operational Costs Pay for Long term Persistence Simplify Code Compliance Pipe Insulation Measure Installed Quality of Systems Before Certificate of Occupancy Sizing Peak Heating and Cooling Capacity BTU/Hour/Square Foot Systems Trump Components Feedback

39 Sizing Example to Consider:

40 Given human nature, it is our job to provide the infrastructure that supports efficient behaviors.

41 The Answer Part 2 R i i g g h h t SHORT, STRAIGHT,-SMOOTH, t r pipe s i z e d

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