Prepared for: Prepared by: Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC Canada) November 2012 CM PROPRIETARY

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1 Annual Report for Prepared for: Natural Resources Canada Ressources naturelles Canada Prepared by: November 212 CM2171

2 Third Party Use Statement of Limitations This report has been prepared for the Town of Okotoks and National Resources Canada. Any uses which a third party makes of this report, any reliance on the report, or decisions based upon the report, are the responsibility of those third parties unless authorized by SAIC Canada to do so. SAIC Canada accepts no responsibility for damages suggested by any unauthorized third party as a result of decisions made or actions taken based upon this report. Warranty SAIC Canada makes no representation or warranty with respect to this report other than the work was undertaken by trained professional and technical staff in accordance with generally accepted engineering and scientific practices current at the time the work was performed. Reliance on Third Party Information Any information or facts provided by others and referred to or utilized in the preparation of this report was assumed by SAIC Canada to be accurate. The material in this report reflects SAIC Canada's best judgment in light of the information available to it at the time of preparation. CM2171 i

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Third Party Use... i Warranty... i Reliance on Third Party Information... i 1 Drake Landing Solar Community Energy Overview Scope Additional Information Terminology and Standards Energy Flow Diagram Summary Performance Reporting Incident Solar Energy Solar Thermal Energy Collected Solar Thermal Energy Collected Solar Energy Collection Efficiency Solar Energy Delivered to Short Term Thermal Storage Tanks Long Term Energy Storage (BTES) BTES Temperatures Thermal Energy Delivered to HX Energy Delivered to District Loop Gas Usage Solar Fraction Solar PV Energy Delivered Fluid Flow Rates Fluid Properties Electrical Energy from Local Utility Ambient Temperatures Performance Analysis Solar Collectors Collector Efficiency Collector Flow Distribution Heat Exchanger Performance Heat Exchanger 1- Efficiency Heat Exchanger 1- Effectiveness Heat Exchanger 2- Efficiency Heat Exchanger 2- Effectiveness District Loop Household Heat Meter Readings Weather Data Comparison University of Calgary Irradiation APPENDIX A Effectiveness Mathematic Description APPENDIX B System Schematic APPENDIX C List of Issues APPENDIX D System Control Modifications CM2171 ii

4 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1-1 System Energy Flow Diagram... 6 Figure 2-1 Weekly Incident Solar Energy for Figure 2-2 Weekly Totals of Solar Energy Collected... 9 Figure 2-3 Weekly Totals of Solar Energy Injected Into STTS Figure 2-4 Weekly BTES Energy Flow Figure 2-5: Annual BTES Energy Flow Figure 2-6: BTES Core Temperature Figure 2-7: BTES Lateral Temperatures Figure 2-8 Weekly Solar Thermal Energy Delivered to HX Figure 2-9 Weekly Energy Delivered to District Loop... 2 Figure 2-1 District Energy Distribution Figure 2-11 Weekly District Energy Distribution by Source Figure 2-12 Weekly PV Energy Figure 2-13: Collector Loop Flow Figure 2-14: STTS HX-1 (P2) Flow Figure 2-15: BTES Charging Flow Rate (P6) Figure 2-16: BTES Discharging Flow Rate (l/s) Figure 2-17: STTS HX Figure 2-18: District Loop Figure 2-19: Glycol ph Figure 2-2: Glycol Concentration Figure 2-21: Energy Centre Electrical Consumption... 3 Figure 2-22 Ambient Temperatures Figure 3-1: Collector Efficiency Figure 3-2 Block 1 vs. All Blocks Figure 3-3: HX-1 effectiveness Figure 3-4: HX-2 effectiveness Figure 3-5: District loop Temperature Drop Figure 3-6: District Loop Supply Temperature Figure 3-7: District Loop Return Temperature Figure 3-8: Heat Meter Readings CM2171 iii

5 LIST OF TABLES Table 1-1 Summary... 7 Table 2-1 Incident Solar Energy for Table 2-2 Energy Collected for Table 2-3 Solar Energy Injected to STTS for Table 2-4 BTES Energy for Table 2-5 BTES Core Temperatures for Table 2-6 BTES Lateral Array 1 Temperatures for Table 2-7 BTES Lateral Array 2 Temperatures for Table 2-8 Solar Thermal Energy Delivered for Table 2-9 Thermal Energy Delivered to DHL for Table 2-1 Gas Usage for Table 2-11 PV Energy for Table 2-12 Electrical Utility Consumption for Table 3-1: TMY Annual Heating Degree Comparison Table 3-2: Environment Canada Annual Heating Degree Comparison... 4 Table 3-3: CWEC Annual Solar Irradiation Comparison: SR Table 3-4: CWEC Annual Solar Irradiation Comparison: SR Table 3-5: TMY Annual Solar Irradiation Comparison CM2171 iv

6 1 Drake Landing Solar Community Energy Overview 1.1 Scope This document describes the thermal energy generated and used within the Drake Landing Solar Community in Okotoks, Alberta. The purpose of this document is to describe the energy inputs and outputs at various points throughout the system; Section 2: Performance Reporting summarizes the energy flow at the key points in the system. The data is presented in the form of annual totals and weekly plots and is based upon data collected during the period of July 211 to June 212. The data summarized in Section 2 is analysed and discussed in Section Additional Information For further background information on the Drake Landing Solar Community please visit the following website: Terminology and Standards BTES Borehole Thermal Energy Storage FM Flow Meter HX Heat Exchanger PV Photovoltaic SI System International STTS Short Term Thermal Storage TS Temperature Sensor SI units are used throughout this report unless otherwise indicated. The location of the data acquisition components (temperature sensors, flow meters etc.) referenced in the text, are shown in a system schematic in APPENDIX B. CM2171 5

7 1.4 Energy Flow Diagram Figure 1-1 depicts the solar energy system, showing the energy flow for the year. Figure 1-1 System Energy Flow Diagram GJ Incident Solar Energy 459.9* GJ Energy Delivered to STTS Energy Delivered to BTES STTS Energy Extracted from BTES Energy Delivered to HX-2 HX-2 Solar Energy Delivered to District Loop Gas Energy Delivered GJ Total Energy Delivered to District Loop District Loop Solar Energy Collected GJ 92.6 GJ 67.6* GJ GJ HX-1 Solar Thermal Collectors Gas Boilers GJ BTES * Calculations are based on measurements using sensors with questionable calibration CM2171 6

8 1.5 Summary Table 1-1 provides a summary for Table 1-1 Summary Total Incident Solar Energy GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ Total Solar Energy Collected GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ Total Solar Energy Delivered to STTS GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ Total Energy Delivered to BTES GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ Total Energy Extracted from BTES 92.6 GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ Total Energy Delivered from STTS to HX GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ Total Solar Energy Delivered to District Loop GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ Natural Gas Energy Used GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ Boiler Thermal Energy Delivered to the District Loop 67.6 GJ 43.3 GJ GJ GJ GJ Total Energy Delivered to District Loop GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ Average Solar Collector Efficiency 34.1% 32.5% 33.6% 31.6% 33.5% Average Efficiency of HX % 96.8% 94.6% 98.6% 92.% Average Efficiency of HX % 89.2% 79.3% 9.4% 71.2% Average BTES core temperature 55.6 C 51.9 C 44.3 C 41.4 C 39.7 C PV energy generated GJ GJ GJ GJ 1.72 GJ Solar Fraction 96.7% 85.9% 79.6% 6.4% 55.% Heating Degree Days (18 C ref.) CM2171 7

9 2 Performance Reporting This section summarises the energy flow at key locations in the system. The calculations are performed using instantaneous readings as reported every 1 minutes by the data acquisition system. The energy is shown on a weekly basis. Note: In all weekly plots, week 1 is the first week of July Incident Solar Energy Incident solar energy is based on pyranometer irradiance readings integrated over time and over the total area of the solar collectors. (Area is based on 798 collectors with a gross area of 2.87 m² for a total area of 2,29 m².) Figure 2-1 provides weekly incident energy totals for , starting on July 1, 211. Pyranometer readings show small negative values at night. This is typical with pyranometers and is not unexpected. For clarity, the negative readings are considered to be zero. The pyranometer labelled SR-1 is mounted horizontally and the pyranometer labelled SR-2 is mounted at the same slope as the solar collectors (45 degree slope and south facing). Both are mounted on the north bank of garages. A new set of pyranometers was installed on the energy centre in April 212. All data from the year is from the original pyranometers (SR-1, SR-2); data from the new pyranometers will be used in the following year. Figure 2-1 Weekly Incident Solar Energy for SR-1 SR Energy (GJ) Week CM2171 8

10 Based on SR-1 and SR-2, the total annual global horizontal irradiation (GHI) received at the project location was 4,723.3 MJ/m² and the plane of array (POA) was 5,664.8 MJ/m². The GHI is 5% lower than the typical value of 4,974 MJ/m² expected for this area, as found in the CWEC (Canadian Weather for Energy Calculations) file for Calgary Airport. The two previous years however were even lower than (See section 3.6 for more information). Table 2-1 provides the annual total incident irradiation in GJ. The energy received for each 1 minute interval during the month is calculated and totaled to give the total energy for the year. 2.2 Solar Thermal Energy Collected Solar Thermal Energy Collected Table 2-1 Incident Solar Energy for Description SR-2 (Sloped 45 ) [GJ] Annual Total Figure 2-2 shows a weekly plot of the energy collected and sent to HX-1; Table 2-2 shows the annual total of collected energy. 2 Figure 2-2 Weekly Totals of Solar Energy Collected Energy (GJ) Week CM2171 9

11 Table 2-2 Energy Collected for Description Energy [GJ] Highest Weekly Value Lowest Weekly Value 19.1 Average Weekly Value 84.4 Annual Total According to the data, 4,428 GJ of energy was collected from the collectors; this is the highest annual total in the past four years Solar Energy Collection Efficiency Annual average collection efficiency for the year is the ratio of solar energy collected to solar energy available GJ Collected GJ Available Collection Efficiency = Collected Available = 34.1% The collector efficiency is the highest annual average since the system became operational in 27. The lowest annual efficiency was recorded as 31.6% in Solar Energy Delivered to Short Term Thermal Storage Tanks CM2171 1

12 Figure 2-3 shows a weekly plot of the energy collected into the STTS tanks from HX-2 and Table 2-3 shows an annual summary of the solar energy sent to the STTS. CM

13 2 Figure 2-3 Weekly Totals of Solar Energy Injected Into STTS Energy (GJ) Week Table 2-3 Solar Energy Injected to STTS for Description Energy [GJ] Highest Weekly Value Lowest Weekly Value 2.3 Average Weekly Value 87.4 Annual Total The 4,59.9 GJ delivered to the STTS is 3.6% higher than the value for solar energy collected. This corresponds to heat exchanger efficiency higher than 1%. This unrealistic value is likely due to sensor calibration issues, this is discussed further in section 3.2. CM

14 2.3 Long Term Energy Storage (BTES) Figure 2-4 shows the energy sent to the BTES and the energy recovered from the BTES; Table 2-4 shows an annual summary of the energy injected into and extracted out of the BTES. Figure 2-4 Weekly BTES Energy Flow 2 18 Sent to BTES Extracted From BTES Energy (GJ) Week Table 2-4 BTES Energy for Description Sent to BTES [GJ] From BTES [GJ] Maximum Energy Week Minimum Energy Week.. Average Weekly Value Annual Total The system injected 2,517.7 GJ into the BTES (11% more than the previous year) and recovered 92.6 GJ (26% lower than the previous year). The relatively low BTES recovery was expected due to the relatively warm winter. The controls were also modified to avoid unnecessary short term energy injection and extraction from the BTES during the winter months; thus efficiency using the solar energy collected. Figure 2-5 shows the energy injected and extracted from the BTES for all five years of operation. The system injected 2,517.7 GJ into the BTES (11% more than the previous year) and recovered 92.6 GJ (26% lower than the previous year). The relatively low BTES recovery was expected due to the relatively warm winter. The CM

15 controls were also modified to avoid unnecessary short term energy injection and extraction from the BTES during the winter months; thus efficiency using the solar energy collected. Figure 2-5: Annual BTES Energy Flow Delivered Extracted Energy (GJ) BTES Temperatures The temperature sensors in the BTES field (lateral and core) are located on or near the piping therefore they essentially measure the fluid temperature rather than the temperature of the soil between the boreholes. A schematic showing the BTES temperature sensors can be found in APPENDIX B. Figure 2-6 shows the temperature reading when fluid flow in the BTES has been off for at least 4 hours. These readings probably better represent the actual earth temperature in the core of the BTES. Since some of the temperature sensors have failed, the readings are taken from the remaining reliable temperature sensors: TS22-1, TS22-5 and TS22-7. A weighted average of the three sensors is taken where TS22-5 (the sensor located in the middle) is weighted as double. Seasonal variations are evident, as is the upward annual trend since the first year of operation. Every year the ground temperature is at its highest in September and lowest in late February. The peak temperatures for the past two year are the highest values yet, exceeding 65 C. The minimum temperature in 212 is approximately 6 higher than the previous year; this is due to a warmer winter as compared to the previous year. The relatively low minimum value in February of 211 was due to a change in the control which allowed for more heat to be drawn from the BTES during the heating season. This control change, which allows the BTES to operate effectively at a lower average temperature, will lessen overall thermal losses from the BTES, and thereby increase the average solar fraction of the system in future years. The CM

16 CM

17 Figure 2-6: BTES Core Temperature Table 2-5 summarizes BTES core temperatures measured when flow was off for at least 4 hours. Table 2-5 BTES Core Temperatures for Description Depth (m) Max. Average Min. ( C) ( C) ( C) TS TS TS Average Average Average Average Note: Some erroneous data was ignored in Table 2-5: TS-22-2, TS-22-3, TS-22-4 and TS-22-TS-22-6 have failed. The failing sensors were ignored when calculating average values in The annual average is taken as a weighted average where TS22-5 (closest sensor to the centre) is weighted as double. CM

18 Table 2-6 and Table 2-7 summarize the lateral BTES temperatures measured when the flow was off for at least 4 hours. Table 2-6 BTES Lateral Array 1 Temperatures for Description Min. ( C) Max. ( C) Average ( C) TS-23-1 (Centre) TS TS TS TS TS TS-23-7(Outside Edge) Table 2-7 BTES Lateral Array 2 Temperatures for Description Min. ( C) Max. ( C) Average ( C) TS-24-1 (Centre) TS TS TS TS TS TS-24-7(Outside Edge) As seen in Figure 2-6, the maximum BTES temperature occurs in the month of September and the minimum occurs in the month of February; Figure 2-7 shows the BTES lateral temperature profile for both months at an instant when the flow was off for at least 4 hours- the specific points were chosen since they are the maximum and minimum temperatures reached in the BTES. The plot also shows the lateral BTES temperatures for the previous year. Note that TS-24-3 has not operated properly since May 21. CM

19 Figure 2-7: BTES Lateral Temperatures Temperature ( C) September 211 February 212 September 21 February 211 CM

20 2.5 Thermal Energy Delivered to HX-2 Figure 2-8 shows a weekly plot of the energy sent to HX-2 from the STTS tanks. The district loop runs occasionally during the summer months as seen in weeks 1 to 8. For the balance of the year, the district loop operates continuously. 16 Figure 2-8 Weekly Solar Thermal Energy Delivered to HX Energy (GJ) Week Table 2-8 Solar Thermal Energy Delivered for Description Energy (GJ) Highest Weekly Value Lowest Weekly Value 1.3 Average Weekly Value 46.2 Annual Total CM

21 2.6 Energy Delivered to District Loop Figure 2-9 shows a weekly plot of the energy delivered to the district loop. The solar energy is sent to the district loop through HX-2; solar energy calculations are based on readings from TS-23, TS-24 and FM-3. Figure 2-9 Weekly Energy Delivered to District Loop Solar Boilers 12 1 Energy (GJ) Week Table 2-9 Thermal Energy Delivered to DHL for Description Solar Boiler Energy (GJ) Energy (GJ) Total (GJ) Highest Weekly Value Lowest Weekly Value Average Weekly Value Annual Total The solar energy delivered to the district loop, shown in Figure 2-9, is delivered from the STTS tanks which may have been directly collected from the solar collectors or recovered from the BTES. The 2,47.9 GJ delivered to the district loop is less than the average of the previous four years by 26%. The most dominant factor in determining the amount of heat delivered to the district loop is the average temperature throughout the year (or heating degree-days). This value is also influenced by the behaviour of the residents (e.g. thermostat settings, open windows). It is also affected by the district loop supply temperature set points. CM2171 2

22 Figure 2-1 shows the cumulative annual distribution of the energy sent to the district loop by the boiler, direct solar energy and indirect (BTES) energy. Figure 2-11 shows the same data, but in a weekly format that clearly shows that the gas boilers are only used during peak heating times, and also shows that the size of the load being met by heat recovered from the BTES (indirect solar) decreases steadily from January through February, as expected. Figure 2-1 District Energy Distribution Cumulative Heat Supplied to District Loop (GJ) Jul 11 Aug 11 Boilers Indirect Solar (BTES) Direct Solar Sep 11 Oct 11 Nov 11 Dec 11 Jan 12 Feb 12 Mar 12 Apr 12 May 12 Jun 12 3% 43% 54% CM

23 Figure 2-11 Weekly District Energy Distribution by Source Heat Supplied to District Loop (GJ) Boilers Indirect Solar (BTES) Direct Solar Jul 11 Aug 11 Sep 11 Oct 11 Nov 11 Dec 11 Jan 12 Feb 12 Mar 12 Apr 12 May 12 Jun Gas Usage The natural gas data is based on readings from the utility gas meter which is manually read on monthly inspections. Each pulse of the gas meter is 1 cubic feet (ft³). Gas volume is converted to energy values using an energy content factor of 1.34 MJ/ft³. Table 2-1 Gas Usage for Usage Equivalent Description (1ft 3 ) Energy (GJ) Annual Total Energy delivered to the district loop: 67.6GJ. Equivalent gas energy input: 65.14GJ. Boiler Efficiency = Boiler Energy Delivered Gas Energy Input = 13.7% The measured boiler efficiency of 13.7% is unrealistic and is likely caused by sensor calibration issues. CM

24 2.8 Solar Fraction The solar fraction is the percentage of the solar heat delivered to the total heat delivered to the district loop. Solar Energy Delivered: GJ. Total Energy Delivered: GJ. Solar Fraction = Solar Energy Delivered Total Energy Delivered = 96.7% The solar fraction increased annually in the first five year of operation; 96.7% is the highest yet. The exceptionally high solar fraction is in part due to the warm winter as well as optimizing the BTES and glycol controls. 2.9 Solar PV Energy Delivered Figure 2-12 shows the weekly PV energy delivered as 24 V AC power from the original 3.6 kw photovoltaic system. The system was expanded in April 211, however the monitoring of this system was not implemented until May 212 so data for the year is yet not available..5 Figure 2-12 Weekly PV Energy Energy (GJ) Week CM

25 Table 2-11 PV Energy for Description Energy (GJ) Highest Weekly Value.45 Lowest Weekly Value.53 Average Weekly Value.251 Annual Total Fluid Flow Rates The following figures show a flow rate cumulative hour plot (similar to a load curve ) for various flow streams. Each point on the plot is an instantaneous flow rate reading, ignoring no flow conditions. Figure 2-13: Collector Loop Flow Flow Rate (l/s) Hours Figure 2-13 shows the cumulative flow rate for the collector glycol loop. The glycol pump controls were modified to maximize the temperature obtained by the collectors by varying the flow rate. Due to the control modifications, the flow curve for shows that the glycol pumps spend approximately half the time at 1% as compared to the previous years. The plot also shows that the glycol is running for approximately 25 hours in , whereas in the previous two year the pump runs for approximately 25 hours. This is likely caused by a sunnier year with more available irradiation. The step function of the curve shows a control bias to operate at 1%, 5% and 25%. The step at 5% is due to start up conditions, where the pumps are run at 5% while bypassing the heat exchanger (HX-1), until the stagnant glycol is warmed sufficiently to deliver heat across HX-1 CM

26 Figure 2-14: STTS HX-1 (P2) Flow Flow Rate (l/s) Hours Figure 2-13 and 5% while bypassing the heat exchanger (HX-1), until the stagnant glycol is warmed sufficiently to deliver heat across HX-1 Figure 2-14 show that the collector loop (P1) and STTS - HX-1 loop (P2) have similar flow distributions as expected. They operated at maximum flow for approximately 5 hours in the year; this is less than the previous year where the glycol flow was at maximum flow for approximately 75 hours. Figure 2-14 shows that in past years the tendency was to operate the cold side of HX-1 at maximum and minimum values; however in , the pump spends more time at variable speeds. CM

27 Figure 2-15 shows the flow through the BTES while charging and Figure 2-16 shows the flow while discharging (P6) Figure 2-15: BTES Charging Flow Rate (P6) Flow Rate (l/s) Hours Figure 2-16: BTES Discharging Flow Rate (l/s) Flow Rate (l/s) Hours CM

28 The BTES pumps (P 6.1, P6.2) are variable speed pumps which serve for both charging and discharging, and are expected to provide a flow rate in the range of 3 l/s. The pumps have recently been replaced; in the past year the pumps were constant speed. Figure 2-15 shows that there were approximately 5 less hours charging the BTES in than the previous two years; this is due to the controls being manually overridden to avoid needlessly charging the BTES. Figure 2-16 shows a clear step at 5% in the BTES discharge flow during the year. The variable speed pumps were manually overridden to trickle charge the STTS when cold weather was expected. The trickle charging ensures higher temperatures in the STTS. The plot also shows that P6 was operated approximately 5 hours less than the previous years. This corresponds with the relatively low amount of heat extracted from the BTES, as discussed in section 2.3. Figure 2-17, below, shows the flow from the STTS to HX-2 (P4); this flow transfers heat from the STTS to the district loop. Figure 2-17: STTS HX Flow Rate (l/s) Hours The low flow rate in (shown in Figure 2-17) was caused by pump issues and deposits in HX-2. Unlike the previous years, in the flow was rarely above 3 l/s. This is likely due to warmer weather and control modifications which produced higher temperatures from the collectors to maintained higher temperatures in the STTS. CM

29 Figure 2-18 shows the district loop flow rate; the flow has remained relatively constant from year to year. In the flow was slightly higher doe to cold weather. Figure 2-18: District Loop Flow Rate (l/s) Hours 2.11 Fluid Properties The following plots show a summary of the results from fluid property tests of the collector loop glycol. Figure 2-19 shows the glycol ph and the reserve alkalinity. Note that during early operation, through April of 29, the fluid properties were checked frequently. After initial system problems were resolved and the system operation and fluid properties were demonstrated to be more stable, the time between inspections has been increased. Currently the fluid is only tested when an incident causes a need for testing it is recommended that regular fluid testing resumes. Figure 2-19 shows the ph and reserve alkalinity of the glycol and Figure 2-2 shows the glycol concentration of the glycol water solution. CM

30 ph Figure 2-19: Glycol ph May-12 Mar-12 Jan-12 Nov-11 Sep-11 Jul-11 May-11 Mar-11 Jan-11 Nov-1 Sep-1 Jul-1 May-1 Mar-1 Jan-1 Nov-9 Sep-9 Jul-9 May-9 Mar-9 Jan-9 Nov-8 Sep-8 Jul-8 May-8 Mar-8 ph Reserve Alkalinity Reserve Alkalinity Figure 2-2: Glycol Concentration Glycol Concentration 56% 54% 52% 5% 48% 46% 44% 42% 4% Sep-12 Jul-12 May-12 Mar-12 Jan-12 Nov-11 Sep-11 Jul-11 May-11 Mar-11 Jan-11 Nov-1 Sep-1 Jul-1 May-1 Mar-1 Jan-1 Nov-9 Sep-9 Jul-9 May-9 Mar-9 Jan-9 Nov-8 Sep-8 Jul-8 May-8 Mar-8 CM

31 2.12 Electrical Energy from Local Utility The Energy Centre electric meter connected to the data collection system (EM-1) has operated only sporadically throughout the year. The data collected is insufficient to allow appropriate analysis for the season. A new electric meter was installed in May 212. The utility meter readings were recorded throughout the year, Figure 2-21 summarizes the electrical usage of the Energy Centre between July 25, 211 and July 3, 212. Figure 2-21: Energy Centre Electrical Consumption Jun 11 Jul 11 Aug 11 Sep 11 Oct 11 Nov 11 Electrical Consumption (kwh) Dec 11 Jan 12 Feb 12 Mar 12 Apr 12 May 12 Jun 12 Jul 12 Table 2-12 Electrical Utility Consumption for Description kwh Annual Total CM2171 3

32 2.13 Ambient Temperatures Minimum, maximum, and average weekly temperatures for the year are given in Figure Values are based on the outside air temperature readings from TS-1, which is mounted on the north facing (shaded) wall of the energy centre. Figure 2-22 Ambient Temperatures DLSC Max DLSC Min DLSC Average EnvCan Calgary EnvCan Okotoks Ambient Temperature ( C) Week Figure 2-22 also shows the average ambient temperature, recorded by Environment Canada, at the Calgary Airport and a weather station in Okotoks. See section 3.5 for a more detailed comparison of various weather data sourced. CM

33 3 Performance Analysis This section analyses the data presented in the section above. A number of diagnostic analyses were performed to determine if the system is performing as expected and to study sources of inefficiencies. 3.1 Solar Collectors Collector Efficiency Figure 3-1 shows a filtered scatter plot of instantaneous collection efficiency of DLSC as a function of reduced temperature ((Ti Ta)/ G), along with a linear fit to this data. The inlet and outlet temperatures of each bank is measured in the dog house (TS-4 and TS-5 ). The inlet and outlet temperature used in calculating collector efficiency was taken as the average of each bank. The plot also shows the efficiency curve for the model of collector used at Drake Landing. The efficiency curve shown in Figure 3-1 is derived from a series of tests performed at the National Solar Test Facility (NSTF) and is a standard method of classifying solar thermal collector performance. The test is performed where the inlet fluid temperature (Ti) is varied to produce the curve. Measures are taken to keep incident irradiation (G), incident angle, atmospheric temperature (Ta), wind speed, mass flow rate and fluid properties constant. In the real system, these parameters are not constant and can change dramatically in a short period of time. Because of these transient effects and the instantaneous measurements, unrealistic values may be measured occasionally (e.g. exceptionally high or low efficiencies). Because of the transient nature of the system, there are some data points which were neglected. The efficiency plot in Figure 3-1 neglects flow rates less than 1 L/s and includes irradiation measurements between 7 and 1 W/m². The NSTF test also maintains a constant incident angle; this is accounted for by filtering the data to include only measurements taken between 11: and 13: (solar time) when the incident angle is close to normal, and thus to laboratory test conditions. Some transient data was also eliminated by only including 3 minutes or more of consecutive measurements which meet the criteria described above. The first and last measurements in each time sequence that met the conditions were also ignored, as they may well have contained some time with transient operations. Figure 3-1: Collector Efficiency 1% 9% 8% Measured Efficiency (η) 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% Measured Efficiency (η) NSTF Efficiency Curve Measured data - Linear Trend 1% % (Ti-Ta)/G ( C m²/w) CM

34 As seen in Figure 3-1, the collector efficiency measured at DLSC differs slightly from the predicted collector efficiency from the NSTF report. This is to be expected as the NSTF efficiency curve is derived under ideal, controlled conditions Collector Flow Distribution Collectors Block 1 vs. All Blocks: The flow distribution through the collectors can be studied by comparing the flow through block 1 (FM-6) and the total flow through all the collectors (FM-1). There are a total of 798 collectors and block 1 has 184 collectors; therefore, the expected percentage of flow rate through block 1 vs. all blocks is 23%. To demonstrate the flow distribution between block 1 and all blocks, the following figure shows a plot of flow meter 1 as a function of flow meter 6. A trend line was fitted to the scatter plot; the slope of the equation is the fraction of flow rate through block 1 to the total collector flow rate. The fraction (slope) shown in Figure 3-2 is approximately 22% which is close to the expected 23%. The plot shows some random scatter at low flow rates but the overall trend is stable. Figure 3-2 Block 1 vs. All Blocks 4. y =.226x 3. Block 1 Flow (l/s) Total Collector Flow (l/s) For unknown reasons, at high flow rates, it appears that the flow through block 1 reaches a maximum at 3.25 L/s. The flow meter (FM6) has a maximum flow rate of 4 L/s so the measurements are likely accurate. 3.2 Heat Exchanger Performance The heat exchanger performance is demonstrated with two parameters: efficiency and effectiveness. Heat exchanger efficiency simply shows the amount of heat lost in the heat exchanger; a perfectly insulated heat exchanger would have an efficiency of 1%. The efficiency is calculated as a means to check the instrumentation; if an efficiency significantly over 1% or significantly less than 1% is reported then the instrumentation performance is questioned. The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is a more descriptive parameter which measures heat transfer performance, but is also very difficult to measure dynamically. Heat exchanger effectiveness compares the amount of heat transferred to the best case scenario. See APPENDIX A for more details on heat exchanger effectiveness. Similar to the collector efficiency analysis, transient effects and instantaneous data measurements CM

35 cause scatter in heat exchanger effectiveness. Because of this, the effectiveness is calculated and plotted at design flow rates Heat Exchanger 1- Efficiency The efficiency of heat exchanger 1 is calculated as follows: Energy delivered to STTS: GJ. Solar Energy Collected: GJ. HX-1 Efficiency = Energy Delivered to STTS Solar Energy Collected = 13.7% A heat exchanger efficiency above 1% is unrealistic and is likely caused by sensor calibration issues Heat Exchanger 1- Effectiveness The effectiveness of HX-1 is shown in Figure 3-3 as a function of flow rate. The effectiveness is shown only when the flow rate on the hot side and cold side of the heat exchanger are both above 12.5 l/s. The minimum flow rate is used to reduce scatter in the plot caused by transient effects. Due to sensor calibration issues, data from July to September 211 was ignored. Figure 3-3: HX-1 effectiveness 1.9 y = -.63x Effectiveness Cold Side Flow Rate (l/s) An 8% effectiveness is to be expected in a heat exchanger. It is assumed that scatter in the plot is caused by transient data points. CM

36 3.2.3 Heat Exchanger 2- Efficiency The efficiency of heat exchanger 2 is calculated as follows: Solar Energy Delivered to District Loop: GJ. Energy Extracted: GJ. HX-2 Efficiency = Solar Energy Delivered to Domestic Loop Energy Extracted = 85.3% Heat Exchanger 2- Effectiveness The effectiveness of HX-2 is shown in Figure 3-4 as a function of district loop flow rate. The effectiveness is shown only when the flow rate on the hot side and cold side of the heat exchanger is above 2.5 l/s. The minimum flow rate is used to reduce scatter in the plot caused by transient effects. Figure 3-4: HX-2 effectiveness 1 HX Effectiveness Hot Side Flow Rate (l/s) CM

37 Drake Landing Solar Community Energy Report November 212 District Loop To show when heat is in demand, Figure 3-5 shows ambient temperature and the temperature drop ( T) over the district loop. Figure 3-5: District loop Temperature Drop 35 District Loop Temperature Drop Ambient Temperature ( C) Figure 3-6: District Loop Supply Temperature 65 District Set Point Measured Supply Temperature (TS-25) District Loop Supply Temperature ( C) 6 HX2 Outlet Temperature (TS-24) Ambient Temperature ( C) CM

38 Figure 3-5 shows a clear trend of a larger district temperature drop with low ambient temperatures. Figure 3-6 shows the district loop supply temperature increasing as ambient temperature decreases; the trend follows the control signal. Figure 3-7: District Loop Return Temperature 65 6 District Set Point Measured Return Temperature District Loop Supply Temperature ( C) Ambient Temperature ( C) CM

39 3.4 Household Heat Meter Readings Figure 3-8 shows a running summary of the heat delivered to the district loop (as measured in the energy centre) and the heat meter billing values. Figure 3-8: Heat Meter Readings 25 Metasys Billing Heat Meters 2 Heat Consumption (GJ) Metasys GJ May 11 Jun 11 Jul 11 Aug 11 Sep 11 Oct 11 Nov 11 Dec 11 Jan 12 Feb 12 Mar 12 Apr 12 May 12 Jun 12 Jul 12 Billing Meters GJ CM

40 3.5 Weather Data Comparison Table 3-1 shows a monthly comparison between measured data at DLSC and the Calgary Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather file that is used in simulating system performance. Heating degree day references the average ambient temperature of each day to 18 C (Heating degree day =18-(daily maximum daily minimum)/2) 1. Table 3-1: TMY Annual Heating Degree Comparison Heating Degree Day TS-1 CWEC July August September October November December January February March April May June Total % Difference TMY -2.7%.5% -6.1% -5.5% -28.3% 1 The reference temperature used for the heating degree day is equal to that used by Environment Canada CM

41 Table 3-2: Environment Canada Annual Heating Degree Comparison Heating Degree Day Environment Canada CWEC Black Diamond Azure Okotoks Calgary TS-1 July August September October November December January February March April May June Total Table 3-3 is a monthly summary of the available solar energy on a surface at a tilt 45 facing south. The solar irradiation measured at DLSC from the tilted pyranometer (SR-2) is compared to the Canadian Weather for Energy Calculations (CWEC) solar irradiation values (as adjusted to a 45 south-facing tilt using the sky modelling algorithms incorporated in the TRNSYS software package). Table 3-3: CWEC Annual Solar Irradiation Comparison: SR-2 Available Solar Energy (MJ/m²) CWEC at 45 SR-2 (45 ) Month July August September October November December January February March April May June Total 6,437 5,816 6,65 5,49 5,449 5,665 % Difference CWEC.% -9.6% -5.8% -14.7% -15.3% -12.% CM2171 4

42 Table 3-4: CWEC Annual Solar Irradiation Comparison: SR-1 CWEC Available Solar Energy (MJ/m²) SR-1 (Horizontal) Month July August September October November December January February March April May June Total 4,974 4,629 4,963 4,649 4,584 4,723 % Difference CWEC.% -6.9% -.2% -6.5% -7.8% -5.% CM

43 3.6 University of Calgary Irradiation Table 3-5 is a monthly summary of the available solar energy on a horizontal surface (GHI). The solar irradiation measured at DLSC from the horizontal pyranometer (SR-1) is compared to the Canadian Weather for Energy Calculations (CWEC) solar irradiation values and measurements taken at the University of Calgary. Table 3-5: TMY Annual Solar Irradiation Comparison Available Solar Energy (MJ/m²) CWEC (GHI) UofC SR-1 UofC SR-1 UofC SR-1 Month July August September October November December January February March April May June Total 4,974 4,431 4,723 4,225 4,584 4,436 4,649 % Difference CWEC -1.9% -5.% -15.% -7.8% -1.8% -6.5% % Difference UofC 6.6% 8.5% 4.8% CM

44 APPENDIX A Effectiveness Mathematic Description Heat Exchanger Effectiveness is calculated as (actual heat transferred) / (theoretical maximum heat transfer). See the schematic below for the nomenclature of the following equations. Heat Exchanger T h,in T cold,out Hot side Cold side T h,out T cold,in The actual heat transfer rate (Q real ) is calculated as follows: Q real = mc & T p Where: m& is the mass flow rate [kg/s], c is the specific heat [kj/kg C], and p T the change in temperature of the fluid. This can be calculated for either the hot side or cold side fluid (hot side is depicted by subscript h and cold side is depicted by subscript c, as seen in the schematic above). The theoretical maximum heat transfer (Q max ) is calculated as follows: Q max = ( mc & p) min( Th, in Tc, in ) Where: m& c is the lowest product of flow rate and specific heat product of the two fluids, and the temperature drop ( p) min in this case is the difference between the two inlet temperatures (which corresponds to the largest temperature difference). Given this the effectiveness (ε) is calculated as follows: Q ε = Q real max ( mc & p) = ( mc & ) p hot min ( T h, in ( T h, in T T h, out c, in ) ( mc & p) or ) ( mc & ) p cold min ( T ( T c, in h, in T T c, out c, in ) ) CM

45 APPENDIX B System Schematic CM

46 Lateral Array 2 Lateral Array 1 TS-24-7 TS-24-6 TS-24-5 TS-24-4 TS-24-3 TS-24-2 TS-24-1 TS-23-1 TS-23-2 TS-23-3 TS-23-4 TS-23-5 TS-23-6 TS-23-7 TS-22-1 Depth.1 m TS m TS m TS m TS m TS-22-6 TS m 35.1 m BTES Temperature Sensor Locations CM

47 APPENDIX C List of Issues The following table is a list of monitoring issues as reported in the monthly reports. ID No. Start Date End Date Description Comments CM

48 APPENDIX D System Control Modifications CM

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