SD Card Projects Using the PIC Microcontroller

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1 SD Card Projects Using the PIC Microcontroller Dogan Ibrahim AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier Newnes

2 vii Contents Preface About the Web Site xix xxiii Chapter 1: Microcontroller Systems Introduction Microcontroller Systems Random Access Memory Read Only Memory Programmable Read Only Memory Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory Flash EEPROM Microcontroller Features Buses Supply Voltage The Clock Timers Watchdog Reset Input Interrupts Brown-Out Detector A/D Converter Serial I/O EEPROM Data Memory LCD Drivers Analog Comparator Real-Time Clock Sleep Mode Power-on Reset Low-Power Operation Current Sink/Source Capability USB Interface Motor Control Interface 11

3 viii Contents Controller Area Network Interface Ethernet Interface ZigBее Interface Microcontroller Architectures Reduced Instruction Set Computer and Complex Instruction Set Computer Choosing a PIC Microcontroller Number Systems Decimal Number System Binary Number System Octal Number System Hexadecimal Number System Converting Binary Numbers into Decimal Converting Decimal Numbers into Binary Converting Binary Numbers into Hexadecimal Converting Hexadecimal Numbers into Binary Converting Hexadecimal Numbers into Decimal Converting Decimal Numbers into Hexadecimal Converting Octal Numbers into Decimal Converting Decimal Numbers into Octal Converting Octal Numbers into Binary Converting Binary Numbers into Octal Negative Numbers Adding Binary Numbers Subtracting Binary Numbers Multiplication of Binary Numbers Division of Binary Numbers Floating Point Numbers Converting a Floating Point Number into Decimal Normalizing the Floating Point Numbers Converting a Decimal Number into Floating Point Multiplication and Division of Floating Point Numbers Addition and Subtraction of Floating Point Numbers Binary-Coded Decimal Numbers Summary Exercises 38 Chapter 2: PIC18F Microcontroller Series PIC 18FXX2 Architecture Program Memory Organization Data Memory Organization The Configuration Registers The Power Supply The Reset 53

4 Contents ix The Clock Sources Watchdog Timer Parallel I/O Ports Timers Capture/Compare/PWM Modules Pulse Width Modulation Module Analog-to-Digital Converter Module Interrupts Summary Exercises 103 Chapter 3: Memory Cards Memory Card Types Smart Media Card Multimedia Card Compact Flash Card Memory Stick Card Microdrive xdcard Secure Digital Card Standard SD Cards High-Capacity SD Cards Memory Card Readers Memory Card Physical Properties Memory Card Technical Properties Detailed SD Card Structure SD Card Pin Configuration SD Card Interface SD Card Internal Registers OCR Register CID Register CSD Register RCA Register DSR Register SCR Register SD Status Register Calculating the SD Card Capacity SD Card SPI Bus Protocol Data Read Data Write Response Tokens Data Tokens Card Reset State Summary Exercises 136

5 x Contents Chapter 4: Programming with the MPLAB C18 Compiler С Programming Languages for PIC18 Microcontrollers MPLAB C18 Compiler Installing the MPLAB C18 Compiler An Example Program Building the Project Simulating the Project Flashing LED Example Building and Simulating the Project Structure of the MPLAB C18 Compiler Comments Terminating Program Statements White Spaces Case Sensitivity Variable Names Variable Types Constants Escape Sequences Static Variables External Variables Volatile Variables Enumerated Variables Arrays Pointers Structures Unions Operators in С Modifying the Flow of Control Iteration Statements Mixing C18 with Assembly Language Statements PIC Microcontroller I/O Port Programming Programming Examples Functions Function Prototypes Passing Arrays to Functions Passing Variables by Reference to Functions Static Function Variables MPLAB C18 Library Functions Delay Functions Character Classification Functions Data Conversion Functions Memory and String Manipulation Functions Reset Functions Character Output Functions 218

6 Contents xi Math Library Functions LCD Functions Software CAN2510 Functions Software PC Bus Functions Software SPI Bus Functions Software UART Functions Hardware Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter Functions Hardware Input Capture Functions Hardware FC Functions Hardware I/O Port Functions Hardware Microwire Functions Hardware Pulse Width Modulation Functions Hardware SPI Functions Hardware Timer Functions Hardware USART Functions Summary Exercises 253 Chapter 5: PIC18 Microcontroller Development Tools Software Development Tools Text Editors Assemblers and Compilers Simulators High-Level Language Simulators Integrated Development Environments Hardware Development Tools Development Boards Device Programmers In-Circuit Debuggers In-Circuit Emulators Breadboards Using the MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger The Debugging Process The MPLAB ICD 3 Test Interface Board Programming with the MPLAB ICD 3 Debugger MPLAB ICD 3 Debugging Example MPLAB ICD 3 Debugging Example II MPLAB ICD 3 Debugging Example III Summary Exercises 296 Chapter 6: PIC18 Microcontroller MPLAB C18-Based Simple Projects Program Description Language START-END Sequencing 300

7 xii Contents IF-THEN-ELSE-ENDIF DO-ENDDO REPEAT-UNTIL Project 1 - Chasing LEDs Project Description Project Hardware Project PDL Project Program Further Development Project 2 - LED Dice Project Description Project Hardware Project PDL Project Program Using a Pseudorandom Number Generator Project 3 - Two-Dice Project Project Description Project Hardware Project PDL Project Program Project 4 - Two Dice Project - Fewer I/O Pins Project Description Project Hardware Project PDL Project Program Modifying the Program Project 5 - Seven-Segment LED Counter Project Description Project Hardware Project PDL Project Program Modified Program Project 6 - Two-Digit Multiplexed Seven-Segment LED Project Description Project Hardware Project PDL Project Program Project 7 - Two-Digit Multiplexed Seven-Segment LED Counter With Timer Interrupt Project Description Project Hardware Project PDL Project Program Modifying the Program 345

8 Contents xiii 6.9 Project 8 - Four-Digit Multiplexed Seven-Segment LED Counter With Timer Interrupt Project Description Project Hardware Project PDL Project Program Modifying the Program Using MPLAB C18 Compiler Timer Library Routines Summary Exercises 359 Chapter 7: Serial Peripheral Interface Bus Operation The Master Synchronous Serial Port Module MSSP in SPI Mode SPI Mode Registers SSPSTAT SSPCON Operation in SPI Mode Configuration of MSSP for SPI Master Mode SPI Bus MPLAB C18 Library Functions CloseSPI DataRdySPI getcspi getsspi OpenSPI putcspi putsspi ReadSPI WriteSPI Example of an SPI Bus Project TC72 Temperature Sensor The Circuit Diagram The Program Displaying Negative Temperatures Displaying the Fractional Part Summary Exercises 393 Chapter 8: MPLAB C18 SD Card Functions and Procedures Installation of the MDD Library MDD Library Functions File and Disk Manipulation Functions Library Options Memory Usage Library Setup 399

9 xiv Contents 8.3 Sequence of Function Calls Reading from an Existing File Writing Onto an Existing File Deleting an Existing File Detailed Function Calls FSInit FSfopen FSfopenpgm FSfclose FSfeof FSfread FSfwrite FSremove FSremovepgm FSrewind FSmkdir FSrmdir FSchdir FSformat FSrename FindFirst FindFirstpgm FindNext SetClockVars FSfprintf Summary Exercises 411 Chapter 9: Secure Digital Card Projects Creating an MPLABC18 Template Setting the Configuration Files The Memory Model PROJECT 1 - Writing a Short Text Message to an SD Card Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 2 - Time Stamping a File Description Aim Block Diagram 434

10 Contents xv 93.4 Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 3 - Formatting a Card Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 4 - Deleting a File Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 5 - Renaming a File Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 6 - Creating a Directory Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 7 - Create a Directory and a File Description Aim Block Diagram 446

11 xvi Contents Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 8 - File Copying Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 9 - Displaying File on a PC Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project The Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 10 - Reading a Filename from the PC and Displaying the File Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 11 - Looking for a File Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 12 - Looking for a Number of Files with a Given File Extension Description Aim Block Diagram 468

12 Contents xvii Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 13-Displaying the Attributes of a File Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 14 - SD Card File Handling Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 15 - MENU-Based SD Card File Handling Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 16-Digital Data Logging to SD card Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 17 - Temperature Data Logging Description Aim Block Diagram 507

13 xviii Contents Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work PROJECT 18 - Temperature and Pressure Data Logging with Real-Time Clock Description Aim Block Diagram Circuit Diagram Operation of the Project Program Code Description of the Program Code Suggestions for Future Work 529 Appendix A-MC33269 Data Sheet 531 Appendix B-MAX232 Data Sheet 533 Appendix C-LM35 Data Sheet 535 Appendix D-MPX4115A Data Sheet 537 Index 539

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