Microcontrollers in Practice

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1 M. Mitescu I. Susnea Microcontrollers in Practice With 117 Figures, 34 Tables and CD-Rom 4y Springer

2 Contents Resources of Microcontrollers, In this Chapter Microcontroller Architectures The Memory Map CPU Registers The CPU Registers of HC The CPU Registers of AVR The CPU Registers of The Peripheral Interfaces The Interrupt System General Description of the Interrupt System Distinctive Features of the Interrupt System of HC Distinctive Features of the Interrupt System of AVR Distinctive Features of the Interrupt System of Expanding the Resaurces of Microcontrollers HC11 Operating with External Bus AT90S8515 Operating with External Bus Operating with External Bus Exercises 15 Using the Digital I/O Lines In this Chapter Overview of the Parallel I/O System Electrical Characteristics of the I/O Lines Controlling the I/O Lines by Software Exercises 24 Using the Asynchronous Serial Interface In this Chapter Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Communication 27

3 XII Contents 3.3 Error Detection in Asynchronous Communication The General Structure of the Asynchronous Serial Communication Interface The Serial Communication Interface of 68HC11F The Asynchronous Serial Communication Interface of AVR Microcontrollers The Asynchronous Serial Interface of Programming the Asynchronous Serial Interface Programming the SCI of HC Programming the UART of AT90S Programming the UART of Hardware Interfaces for Serial Communication The RS232 Interface Differential Communication. The Interfaces RS422 and RS The Current Loop Interface Basic Principles of Networking with Microcontrollers, Using the Asynchronous Serial Interface Exercises 46 4 Using the Synchronous Serial Interface SPI In this Chapter General Description of the SPI The SPI of HC11 Microcontrollers The SPI of the AVR Microcontrollers Examples of Using The SPI Using the SPI To Connect Two Microcontrollers Expanding the I/O Space Using the SPI Exercises 59 5 Using The I2C Bus In this Chapter The Principles of Implementation of the I2C Bus The Start Transfer Condition The Data Transfer on the I2C BuS The ACK Bit The STOP Condition A Software Implementation of the I2C Protocol Accessing 24C256 Memory Devices Exercises 66 6 Using the MCU Timers In this Chapter The General Structure and Functions of the Timer System 67

4 Contents XIII 6.3 Distinctive Features of the General-Purpose Timer of HC The Control and Status Registers of the HC11 Timer Exercises Regarding the Use of the General-Purpose Timer of HC Distinctive Feature of the Timer of the AVR Microcontrollers The 8-Bit Timer/Counter TimerO The 16-Bit Timer/Counter Timerl Synopsis of the Timer I/O Registers of AT90S Summary of the Unique Features of the AVR Timer Exercises Regarding the Use of AVR Timers Distinctive Features of the Timer System of the 8051 Microcontrollers The Control and Status Registers of the Timer Description of the Timer Operating Mode 0.' Description of the Timer Operating Mode Description of the Timer Operating Mode Description of the Timer Operating Mode Using Timerl as a Baud Rate Generator Exercises for Programming the 8051 Timer PWM Timers. Principles of Operation Watchdog Timers The Watchdog of HC The Watchdog of AT90S Interfacing to Analog Signals In This Chapter The Analog Comparator.' The General Structure of the A/D Converter Subsystem The A/D Converter of the HC11 Family of Microcontrollers Exercises on Programming the A/D Converter of HC The A/D Converter of the AVR Microcontrollers Exercises on Programming the A/D Converter AT90S Digital-to-Analog Converters The Principles of the D/A Conversion Exercise on Using MX Using the Internal EEPROM Memory In this Chapter Overwiew of the EEPROM Subsystem The EEPROM Memory and the CONFIG Register of HC The Registers Controlling the EEPROM of HC Software Routines to Erase and Write the EEPROM The CONFIG Register The EEPROM Memory of the AVR Microcontrollers Ill The Registers of the Interface with the EEPROM Memory Software Routines to Read and Write EEPROM 112

5 XIV Contents 9 HC11 Development Board In this Chapter Description of the Hardware Module Assembling and Testing the Module Description of the Software Components Exercises AVR Development Board In this Chapter The Hardware Testing the Circuit The Software, Exercises Development Board In this Chapter Hardware The Software Installing the Cross-Assembler Writing and Testing Simple 8051 Programs Loading and Executing Programs in the External Ram Memory Exercises Digital Voltmeter with RS232 Interface In this Chapter The Hardware The Software Exercises Simple RS485 Network with Microcontrollers In this Chapter The Hardware The RS232-to-RS485 Converter The Digital Input Module The Analog Input Module Using the AVR Development Board to Emulate Thel SLD and SLA Modules The Software, Description of the Communication Protocol The Software for the SLD Module The Software for the MASTER Device Exercises 172

6 Contents XV 14 PI Temperature Controller In this Chapter Basic Concepts Hardware Implementation of a Microcontroller-Based Temperature Controller Software Implementation of a PI Temperature Controller Fuzzy Logic Temperature Controller In this Chapter The Principles of Fuzzy Control A Microcontroller Implementation of a Fuzzy Controller Remote Relay Controller over Telephone Lines In this Chapter Description of the Hardware Solution Description of the Software '197 A.I Glossary of Terms 203 Appendix 202 A.2 Description of the Registers of 68HC11F1 213 A.3 HC11 Instruction Set 215 A.4 An Example of Expanded Structure with HC A.5 Using HC11 in Bootstrap Mode 221 A.6 The Registers of AT90S A.7 AVR Instruction Set 225 A.8 AT90S8515 Operating with External RAM 228 A.9 In-system Programming the AVR AT90S A.10 The Special Function Registers of A.I Instruction Set 233 A. 12 An Example of 8051 Operating with External Bus 237 A.13 Programming the Internal Memory of A.14 SPI Seven-Segment Display Units 240 A. 15 Description of the Software Utility ASMEDIT 243 B.I Contents of the Accompanying CD 245 B.2 Recommended Readings and Web References 247 Index 249

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