GT ANALYSIS OF A MICROGASTURBINE FED BY NATURAL GAS AND SYNTHESIS GAS: MGT TEST BENCH AND COMBUSTOR CFD ANALYSIS

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1 ASME Turbo Expo 2011 June 6 10, 2011 Vancouver, Canada GT ANALYSIS OF A MICROGASTURBINE FED BY NATURAL GAS AND SYNTHESIS GAS: MGT TEST BENCH AND COMBUSTOR CFD ANALYSIS M. Cadorin 1,M. Pinelli 1, A. Vaccari 1, R. Calabria 2, F. Chiariello 2, P. Massoli 2, E. Bianchi 3 1 Engeneering Department of University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, Ferrara, (Italy) 2 Istituto Motori CNR, piazza Barsanti e Matteucci, Napoli (Italy) 3 Turbec S.p.A., via Statale, Corporeno di Cento (Italy)

2 SUMMARY MGT Turbec T100 main features Test bench description CFD numerical simulation set-up combustion chamber geometry computational domain numerical models Comparison between experimental and numerical results (full load and part-load conditions) Natural gas feeding case Synthesis gas feeding case

3 TURBEC T100 MICRO GAS TURBINE Turbec T100 Nominal Characteristics Electrical output 100 kw Electrical efficiency 30 % Pressure in combustion chamber Turbine Inlet Temperature 4.5 bar 1200 K Turbine Outlet Temperature C Nominal speed NO 15 % O 2 15 % O rpm 15 ppm 15 ppm

4 TURBEC T100 MICRO GAS TURBINE Single stage radial compressor and turbine Reverse flow tubular combustor

5 EXPERIMENTAL TEST BENCH Decompression plant based on a pressure reduction system from 200 bar to 10 bar. Distribution plant designed for a rated capacity of fuel gas equal to 100 Nm 3 /h. Environmental monitoring system able to detect leaks of flammable gases. Air inlet Flue gas outlet To allow the use of low calorific value fuel of variable composition (with a chosen percentage of hydrogen) Turbec T100 MGT Turbine Compressor Combustion chamber

6 MGT CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM PC CALCULATION STATION ASYNCHRONOUS CONVERTER RS485/USB MICRO GAS TURBINE TURBEC T100 line for data transfer, from the machine programmable logic controller (PLC) to the control room system for data acquisition PC calculation station, located in the control room asynchronous serial converter, that directly connects the MGT PLC signal with the PC. INTERNAL CONTROL MODE The user is enabled to set only the required electrical power; All the operating parameters are calculated by the machine software. MGT outlet temperature in external control mode EXTERNAL CONTROL MODE It allows the exercise of the machine in userdefined working points; Possibility to define set-point referred to the rotational speed, the opening level of the fuel supply system valves. Time

7 NUMERICAL TOOLS CAD 3D software: SolidWorks 2010 Grid generation software: ANSYS ICEM Numerical simulation code: ANSYS CFX 12.0

8 COMBUSTOR 3D GEOMETRY SOLID DOMAIN o Tubular combustor o Reverse flow o Two fuel supply lines: pilot line (diffusive combustion), main line (premixed combustion) OUTER FLAME TUBE Air inlet Main fuel line Pilot fuel line INNER FLAME TUBE Air inlet

9 COMBUSTOR 3D GEOMETRY GEOMETRY SEMPLIFICATION locating pins have been removed; 2. ridges on inner flame tube have been removed; Solid domain 4 3. extension of air inlet duct; 4. extension of the inner flame tube. Fluid domain

10 HYBRID VOLUME MESH COMBUSTOR 3D GEOMETRY MESH TETRAHEDRAL GRID For meshing the more complex combustor zone fuel supply lines swirler air and fuel mixing zone primary combustion zone HEXAHEDRAL GRID For meshing the wider and more regular-sized zone secondary combustion zone liner air inlet zone Tetrahedral and hexahedral meshes have been separately generated and then merged in a single unstructured grid of cells

11 CFD ANALYSIS NUMERICAL MODELS COMBUSTION MODEL Combined Eddy Dissipation Model (EDM) / Finite Rate Chemistry (FRC) Based on the comparison of the characteristic time time of the two models: FRC in which chemical reaction rate is determined through the Arrhenius law and EDM in which the rate of reaction is depends on the time needed to mix the reagents at molecular level. Reaction scheme Methane Hydrogen NO 2 Step - Westbrook-Dryer (1981) 1 Step - Westbrook-Dryer (1981) Zeldovich mechanism 3 CH4 + O2 CO + 2H2O H2 + O2 H2O CO + O 2 2 CO2 2 TURBULENCE MODEL Reynolds Stress Models (RSM): all Reynolds stress transport equations are solved, without any simplifications high accuracy and robustness low flexibility and high complexity in the resolution of mathematical models BSL Omega Based RSM (Omega Based Reynolds Stress Model) Solution of Reynolds stress transport equations for each of the 6 tensor components Solution of the ω transport equation

12 PRELIMINARY CFD ANALYSIS o Sensitivity grid analysis Tetrahedral grid of about Hexahedral grid of about Hybrid (tetrahedral-hexahedral) grid of about o Sensitivity analysis of turbulence models Standard Two-equation models (k-ε, k-ω, SST k-ω) Reynolds stress models (BSL-RSM, SSG-RSM) o Sensitivity analysis of combustion models Eddy Dissipation (EDM) Finite Rate Chemistry (FRC) Combined EDM-FRC

13 CFD ANALYSIS BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Main fuel line FUEL INLET Mass flow rate Temperature Composition Pilot fuel line WALL OUTER FLAME TUBE Fixed temperature AIR INLET Mass flow rate Temperature Composition OUTLET Averaged static pressure WALL PRIMARY COMBUSTION ZONE Adiabatic WALL INNER FLAME TUBE Fixed temperature

14 CFD RESULTS: NATURAL GAS FEEDING o Natural gas feeding o Full load working condition (100 kw el ) o Reference fuel distribution: 15 % pilot line, 85 % main line Counter-rotating vortexes located in correspondence of the secondary combustion zone (before the dilution holes) Corner vortexes located in the corner regions between the secondary swirler and the liner

15 CFD RESULTS: NATURAL GAS FEEDING o Natural gas feeding o Full load working condition (100 kw el ) o Reference fuel distribution: 15 % pilot line, 85 % main line Temperature Higher temperature in the primary combustion zone (diffusive zone). Flame bifurcation in the central zone of the combustion chamber. Temperature Strong temperature reduction due to the dilution air.

16 CFD RESULTS AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The experimental tests are conducted on the test rig installed in the laboratory of Istituto Motori - CNR of Naples The experimental tests have been carried on in internal control mode, just setting electrical power reference; The maximum electrical power output obtained is lower than the nominal value (100 kw el ) due to the higher air inlet temperature. Electrical power [kw el ] Fuel volume flow rate [Nm 3 /h] Turbine Outlet Temperature [ C] Air Inlet Temperature [ C] Rotational speed [rpm] Turbine Inlet Temperature* [ C] NO x 2 ] 11 9 CO 2 ] 2 2 * TIT is inferred through the TOT by means of a Cycle Deck calculation

17 CFD RESULTS AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS NUMERICAL 3D SIMULATION: BASELINE CASE Natural gas feeding case; the simulation has been performed using the same numerical models and boundary conditions of the full operational load; the fuel mass flow rate has been varied for a fixed air mass flow coming from the compressor, in order to obtain the power output of the operating point chosen; the air mass flow rate is the design one, m = kg/s Temperature 100 kw el Similar temperature distribution; temperature levels are lower because of the reduced thermal power input and the more diluted mixture kw el

18 CFD RESULTS AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS No air mass flow measurement Setting of different fuel distributions and air inlet mass flow rate values To assess the effectiveness of the simulation in reproducing the variations of the actual operating conditions Baseline: air mass flow and fuel distribution as in full load Case a: air mass flow as in full load, the measured fuel distribution values have been used Case b: lower air mass flow rate value and standard fuel distribution between the supply lines In order to have a more reliable air mass flow, a Cycle Deck calculation has been performed Case c: lower air mass flow rate and measured values of fuel distribution Air mass flow rate [kg/s] Fuel distribution Baseline % pilot- 85 % main Case a % pilot- 87 % main Case b % pilot- 85 % main Case c % pilot- 87 % main

19 CFD RESULTS AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Temperature Case a: m= kg/s; P13%-M87% Numerical TIT [K] CO 2 ] NO 2 ] Baseline Case a Case b Case c Experimental 1193* 2 9 * TIT of the experimental case is inferred through the TOT by means of a Cycle Deck calculation Case b: m=0.70 kg/s; P15%-M85% Case c: m=0.70 kg/s; P13%-M87% Reducing the inlet air mass flow produces an increment in TIT values. Reducing the fuel mass flow rate to the pilot line contributes to the reduction of NO x values to the outlet section of the combustion chamber.

20 CFD RESULTS AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS o According to the above considerations, air mass flow rate for 80.3 kw has been determined by means of the Cycle Deck calculation o Fuel distribution was set as the measured values of fuel distribution Load 80.3 kw el Parameter Numerical results Experimental results TIT [K] CO 2 ] 1 2 NO 2 ] Good agreement between the numerical and the experimental data, in particular in terms of TIT and NO x concentration. Temperature 90.1 kw el 80.3 kw el

21 CFD RESULTS: FUEL DISTRIBUTION o Natural gas feeding o Full load operation condition (100 kw el ) o Variation of the fuel distribution Simulation of different fuel distribution between the two supply lines have been provided, in order to determine the behavior of the combustor Fuel MAIN Fuel PILOT Fuel distribution Pilot line Main line P15-M85 (Reference) 15 % 85 % P20-M80 20 % 80 % P30-M70 30 % 70 %

22 CFD RESULTS: FUEL DISTRIBUTION o Natural gas feeding o Full load operation condition (100 kw el ) o Variation of the fuel distribution REFERENCE CASE 15 % PILOT - 85 % MAIN the fluid dynamic behavior is not strongly affected by the increasing of fuel percentage to the pilot line; the morphology and position of the vortexes do not vary; in all the cases there are two symmetric vortexes in the central zone of the combustor. Velocity [m/s]

23 CFD RESULTS: FUEL DISTRIBUTION o Natural gas feeding o Full load operation condition (100 kw el ) o Variation of the fuel distribution REFERENCE CASE 15 % PILOT - 85 % MAIN With the increasing of fuel percentage to pilot line: temperature reduction in the primary combustion zone (diffusive zone); flame displacement towards the combustor axial position; flame bifurcation due to the vortex located in the central area. Temperature

24 CFD RESULTS: FUEL DISTRIBUTION Pilot 15 % Main 85 % TIT [K] NO 2 ] The overall energy balance does not present significant differences between the studied cases. Numerical Nominal Pilot 20 % Main 80% Pilot 30 % Main 70 % Pilot 15 % Main 85 % The thermal power output developed within the combustion chamber and the temperature of gases at the outlet of the combustor are not influenced by the fuel distribution. Temperature NO molar fraction

25 CFD RESULTS: SYNTHESIS GAS FEEDING o Synthesis gas feeding o Full load operation condition (100 kw el ) o Reference fuel distribution: 15 % pilot line, 85 % main line Synthesis gas derived from the pyrolysis of forestry biomass. Lower heating value equal to 9400 kj/kg. % CH 4 % CO 2 % CO % H 2 % H 2 O % vol Neither the combustor geometry nor the fuel system geometry have been modified; the simulation has been performed using the same numerical models and boundary conditions of the natural gas supply case; the fuel mass flow has been varied for a fixed air mass flow coming from the compressor, in order to obtain the same power output of natural gas supply case.

26 CFD RESULTS: SYNTHESIS GAS FEEDING Uniform temperature decrease in the primary combustion zone; similar configuration of the temperature field. Decrease of NO formation in relation to the temperature decrease; CO increase located in the fuel injection ducts due to the fuel composition. These results are in accordance with the phenomena related to the combustion process of LHV fuel.

27 FINAL CONSIDERATIONS From the CFD analyses: the fluid dynamic behavior is not strongly affected by fuel distribution, while the temperature field is strongly influenced by the fuel distribution and consequently the NO x concentration. The synthesis gas feeding allows to reduce the NO x concentration. The comparison between CFD and the preliminary experimental results at different operating points suggests that the numerical simulation is able to reproduce the combustion chamber overall behavior.

28 Thanks for your attention. Anna Vaccari

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