# Design and Analysis of Engine Cooling Fan

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2 Table 1 Blade angles 2.2 Fan Model Fig.1 Fan Model created in CATIA V5R19 3. Pre-Processor ANSYS ICEM CFD 3.1 Overall Process The generic working process involves the following: 1. Open/Create a project. 2. Create/Manipulate the geometry. 3. Create the mesh. 4. Check/Edit the mesh. 5. Generate the input for the solver. 6. Postprocess the results Meshing The meshing modules available include the following: Tetra The ANSYS ICEM CFD Tetra mesher takes full advantage of object-oriented unstructured meshing technology. With no tedious up-front triangular surface meshing required to provide well-balanced initial meshes, ANSYS ICEM CFD Tetra works directly from the CAD surfaces and fills the volume with tetrahedral elements using the Octree approach. A powerful smoothing algorithm provides the element quality. Options are available to automatically refine and coarsen the mesh both on geometry and within the volume. A Delaunay algorithm is also included to create tetras from an existing surface mesh and also to give a smoother transition in the volume element size. 4. Post-Processor and Solver At hub At mid At tip α = Φ 1.5⁰ 2.2⁰ 3⁰ β = θ 53⁰ 54.6⁰ 56⁰ 4.1 Boundary Conditions Used In Ansys Fluent Coupled solver and explicit formulation In the segregated algorithm the governing equations are solved sequentially, segregated from one another, while in the coupled algorithm the momentum equations and the pressure-based continuity equation are solved in a coupled manner. In general, the coupled algorithm significantly improves the convergence speed over the segregated algorithm; however, the memory requirement for the coupled algorithm is more than the segregated algorithm. The coupled solver solves the governing equations of continuity, momentum, and (where appropriate) energy and species transport simultaneously (i.e., coupled together). Governing equations for additional scalars will be solved sequentially (i.e., segregated from one another and from the coupled set) using the procedure described for the segregated solver. Because the governing equations are non-linear (and coupled), several iterations of the solution loop must be performed before a converged solution is obtained. In both the segregated and coupled solution methods the discrete, non linear governing equations are linearized to produce a system of equations for the dependent variables in every computational cell. The resultant linear system is then solved to yield an updated modelled solution. The manner in which the governing equations are linearized may take an implicit or explicit form with respect to the dependent variable (or set of variables) of interest. By implicit or explicit we mean the following: Implicit: For a given variable, the unknown value in each cell is computed using a relation that includes both existing and unknown values from neighbouring cells. Therefore each unknown will appear in more than one equation in the system, and these equations must be solved simultaneously to give the unknown quantities. Explicit: For a given variable, the unknown value in each cell is computed using a relation that includes only the existing values. Therefore each unknown will appear in only one equation in the system and the equations for the unknown value in each cell can be solved one at a time to give the unknown quantities Realizable k-epsilon viscous turbulence model The realizable k-ε model is a relatively recent development. An immediate benefit of the realizable k-ε model is that it more accurately predicts the spreading rate of both planar and round jets. It is also likely to provide superior performance for flows involving rotation, boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients, separation, and recirculation. The realizable model provides the best performance of all the - model versions for several validations of separated flows and flows with complex secondary flow features. This model has been extensively validated for a wide range of flows including rotating homogeneous shear flows, free flows including jets and mixing layers, channel and boundary layer flows, and separated flows. For the solution of the turbulence, RNG k- ε model is selected. This model is applicable to complex shear flows involving rapid strains, moderate swirl, vortices and locally translational flows (e.g., 115

3 boundary layer separation, massive separation, room ventilation etc.). After the boundary conditions are set, the solution and the turbulence model are specified. The solution is obtained by segregated solver with absolute velocity formulation, three dimensions in space and steady in time. The turbulence model is selected as RNG k- ε model and the swirl dominated flow feature is activated to enhance the accuracy for this application. Standard wall functions are used for near wall treatment. For the numerical solution of momentum, turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate equations, first order upwind discretization scheme is selected. Because the flow across the fan has high rates of swirl and turbulence, and unstructured mesh is constructed in the solution domain, the flow is not aligned with the grid, thus second order discretization is preferred for higher accuracy. Linear option is selected for the pressure interpolation scheme that simply averages the pressures in adjacent cells to obtain face pressure values. To obtain the pressure field, SIMPLE algorithm is used under pressurevelocity coupling drop-down list. This algorithm uses a relationship between pressure and velocity corrections to enforce mass conservation and obtain pressure field. The details of the algorithm can be found in literature. Another thing to be controlled for the solution is the underrelaxation factors. Because of the non-linearity of the equation set being solved by the segregated solver, it is necessary to control the change of solution variables at each iteration, which is typically done by under-relaxation. For most flows, the default under-relaxation factors do not usually require modification. If unstable or divergent behavior is observed, however, the under- relaxation factors for pressure, momentum, k and ε from their default values may need to be reduced. During the computations for the axial fan performance, default values were kept unless a divergent and unstable trend had been observed. 5. 3D Analysis CEM Models and wall around the fan. The inlet is coloured in Yellow, outlet in Blue and wall is in Red. The fan is in Green. The meshed model of a fan is given below. Numerical Simulations using FLUENT In the CFD simulation, the following assumptions [15] have been made: Steady state air flow Coupled solver and explicit formulation Realizable k-epsilon RNG swirl dominated flow viscous model Standard wall functions Moving reference frame at a constant velocity of 225 rad/s Momentum-First Order Upwind Scheme Turbulent Kinetic Energy-First Order Upwind Scheme Turbulent Dissipation Rate-First Order Upwind Scheme Solver Traditionally, these equations have been solved in a segregated fashion using some variation of the SIMPLE algorithm to couple the shared pressure with the momentum equations. This is attained by effectively transforming the total continuity into a shared pressure. The ANSYS FLUENTPhase Coupled SIMPLE algorithm has been successfully implemented and solves a wide range of multiphase flows. However, coupling the linearized system of equations in an implicit manner would offer a more robust alternative to the segregated approach. The realizable k-ε mode is a relatively recent development. An immediate benefit of the realizable k- ε model is that it more accurately predicts the spreading rate of both planar and round jets. It is also likely to provide superior performance for flows involving rotation, boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients, separation, and recirculation. 6. Results STATIONARY WALL PRESSURE INLET Analytically Static Pressure = 1260 Pa Computed Static Pressure = 1162 Pa PRESSURE OUTLET MOVING WALL Fig.2 Boundary Conditions given to the fan geometry The 3D mesh was built with ICEM CFD, using boundary conditions of pressure at the inlet, pressure at the outlet Fig.3 Contours of Static Pressure at Inlet (Pa) 116

4 Table 2 Mass flow rate Mass Flow Rate (kg/s) outlet Net Fig.4 Contours of Static Pressure at Outlet (Pa) Definition of Structural Analysis Structural analysis is probably the most common application of the finite element method. The term structural (or structure) implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and buildings, but also naval, aeronautical, and mechanical structures such as ship hulls, aircraft bodies, and machine housings, as well as mechanical components such as pistons, machine parts, and tools. Performing a Static analysis Fig.5 Vectors of Axial Velocity (m/s) The procedure for a static analysis in Workbench consists of following tasks: Section Build the Model Define material properties Mesh the model Apply the Loads and boundary condition s Solve the Analysis Review and interpretation of Results Fig.6 Vectors of Radial Velocity (m/s) Fig.8 Fan model after importing into Workbench Fig.7 Vectors of Tangential Velocity (m/s) The given mass flow rate is 2.83 kg/s. But considering 10% losses in practical conditions, the following result was achieved. The boundary conditions for the model are: 1. Load Analytical calculation of Force: The maximum velocity of air is at the tip of the blade (by looking at contour plot in CFD results Max force on blade =mass flow rate * maximum axial velocity= 3.06 * 23.3 F max = N This is the maximum force acting on the blade. 117

5 The actual load on blade is UVL. If the maximum value of the UVL be considered and if that force be assumed as UDL, then the design would be safe in other areas as maximum value of force was considered. The values of axial velocity are dominantly in the range of 3.13 m/s to 5.66 m/s. Hence, the net force is considered as N. 2. Rotation: The model is rotating with rotational velocity of 225 rad/sec 3. Constraint: As the fan is pulley driven and is fixed on the shaft using nut and bolts, the model is constrained in axial direction by fixed support option. 4. Results: Maximum principal stress = MPa Maximum shear stress = MPa Maximum Von-Mises stress = MPa Total directional deformation = mm As all stresses are below the allowable stress limit so this design is safe in structural analysis. Below are contour plots of results. 5. Optimization The maximum force which can be applied on fan is 465 N, so max torque comes out to be, = 425 * 0.1= 42.5 Nm Also, = 2*3.14*2145*42.5/60 = W = KW Conclusions Flow Rate: The 3D analysis of fan shows that the blade angles designed analytically are capable of producing required flow rate. Static Pressure: The static pressure developed across the fan surface is in accordance with analytical solutions. Velocity Vectors: The velocity vectors are in conformance with the direction and the magnitude of velocity of rotation of the fan. They also represent flow of air around the blades of the fan. Safety in Structural: The structural analysis of the fan represents its strength structurally. The shear stress, Von- Mises stresses confirm the safety of the design in structural. Torque Optimization: The maximum torque is optimized for the fan. Its value is 42.5 Nm. References Fig.9 Picture showing the boundary conditions of model Fig.10 Figure showing maximum principal stress Robert Jorgensen, Fan Engineering, Buffalo Forge Company, Eighth Edition. S.M.Yayha, Turbines, Compressors & Fans, McGraw Hill, Fourth Edition Fatih Çevik, Design Of An Axial Flow Fan For A Vertical Wind Tunnel For Paratroopers, Middle East Technical University, 201 Max A. Sardou, Patricia Djomseu, Low Energy Consumption and Low Noise Fans for Cooling Systems of Trucks, Buses, Cars and Trains, Warrendale, PA / SAE / 2000 Robert C. Mellin, Noise & Performance Of Automotive Cooling Fans, SAE No Kenneth Campbell, Engine Cooling Fan Theory And Practice, Vol. No.:52, SAE / 194 Catharina R. Biber, Fan-plus-Heat Sink Optimization Mechanical and Thermal Design with Reality, ISPS / 199 Computational Fluid Dynamics, the Basics with Applications, J.D. Anderson, Tata McGraw Hil Fluid Mechanics, Cengel and Cimbala, Tata McGraw Hill. ICEM CFD Documentation, ANSYS. BASF Corporation, Basic Guidelines For Plastic Conversion Of Metal Axial Flow Fans Fig.11 Figure showing maximum shear stress 118

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