1 M Section 21. Converter HIGHLIGHTS 21 Convertor This section of the manual contains the following major topics: 21.1 Introduction Control Registers Operation A/D Acquisition Requirements Selecting the A/D Conversion Clock Configuring Analog Port Pins A/D Conversions A/D Operation During Sleep A/D Accuracy/Error Effects of a RESET Use of the CCP Trigger Connection Considerations Transfer Function Initialization Design Tips Related Application Notes Revision History Note: Please refer to Appendix C.3 or device Data Sheet to determine which devices use this module Microchip Technology Inc. DS31021A page 21-1
2 PICmicro MID-RANGE MCU FAMILY 21.1 Introduction The analog-to-digital (A/D) converter module has up to eight analog inputs. The A/D allows conversion of an analog input signal to a corresponding 8-bit digital number. The output of the sample and hold is the input into the converter, which generates the result via successive approximation. The analog reference voltage is software selectable to either the device s positive supply voltage (VDD) or the voltage level on the VREF pin. The A/D converter has a unique feature of being able to operate while the device is in SLEEP mode. The A/D module has three registers. These registers are: A/D Result Register (ADRES) A/D Control Register0 (ADCON0) A/D Control Register1 (ADCON1) The ADCON0 register, shown in Figure 21-1, controls the operation of the A/D module. The ADCON1 register, shown in Figure 21-2, configures the functions of the port pins. The I/O pins can be configured as analog inputs (one I/O can also be a voltage reference) or as digital I/O. The block diagram of the A/D module is shown in Figure Figure 21-1: Block Diagram CHS2:CHS0 VAIN (Input voltage) AN7 AN6 AN5 AN4 AN3/VREF Converter AN2 AN1 VREF (Reference voltage) PCFG2:PCFG0 VDD (1) 000 or 010 or or 011 or AN0 Note: On some devices this is a separate pin called AVDD. This allows the A/D VDD to be connected to a precise voltage source. DS31021A-page Microchip Technology Inc.
3 Section 21. Converter 21.2 Control Registers 21 bit 7:6 bit 5:3 bit 2 bit 1 bit 0 Register 21-1: ADCON0 Register R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 ADCS1 ADCS0 CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE Resv ADON bit 7 bit 0 ADCS1:ADCS0: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits 00 = FOSC/2 01 = FOSC/8 10 = FOSC/32 11 = FRC (clock derived from the internal A/D RC oscillator) CHS2:CHS0: Analog Channel Select bits 000 = channel 0, (AN0) 001 = channel 1, (AN1) 010 = channel 2, (AN2) 011 = channel 3, (AN3) 100 = channel 4, (AN4) 101 = channel 5, (AN5) 110 = channel 6, (AN6) 111 = channel 7, (AN7) Note: For devices that do not implement the full 8 A/D channels, the unimplemented selections are reserved. Do not select any unimplemented channels. GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit When ADON = 1 1 = A/D conversion in progress (Setting this bit starts the A/D conversion. This bit is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion is complete) 0 = A/D conversion not in progress Reserved: Always maintain this bit cleared. ADON: A/D On bit 1 = A/D converter module is operating 0 = A/D converter module is shutoff and consumes no operating current Converter Legend R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as 0 - n = Value at POR reset 1997 Microchip Technology Inc. DS31021A-page 21-3
4 PICmicro MID-RANGE MCU FAMILY Register 21-2: ADCON1 Register U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 bit 7 bit 0 bit 7:3 bit 2:0 Unimplemented: Read as '0' PCFG2:PCFG0: A/D Port Configuration Control bits PCFG2:PCFG0 AN7 AN6 AN5 AN4 AN3 AN2 AN1 AN0 000 A A A A A A A A 001 A A A A VREF A A A 010 D D D A A A A A 011 D D A A VREF A A A 100 D D D D A D A A 101 D D D D VREF D A A 11x D D D D D D D D A = Analog input D = Digital I/O Note: When AN3 is selected as VREF, the A/D reference is the voltage on the AN3 pin. When AN3 is selected as an analog input (A), then the voltage reference for the A/D is the device VDD. Legend R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as 0 - n = Value at POR reset Note 1: On any device reset, the Port pins multiplexed with analog functions (ANx) are forced to be an analog input. DS31021A-page Microchip Technology Inc.
5 21.3 Operation Section 21. Converter 21 When the A/D conversion is complete, the result is loaded into the ADRES register, the GO/DONE bit (ADCON0<2>) is cleared, and A/D interrupt flag bit, ADIF, is set. After the A/D module has been configured as desired, the selected channel must be acquired before the conversion is started. The analog input channels must have their corresponding TRIS bits selected as an input. To determine acquisition time, see Subsection 21.4 A/D Acquisition Requirements. After this acquisition time has elapsed the A/D conversion can be started. The following steps should be followed for doing an A/D conversion: 1. Configure the A/D module: Configure analog pins / voltage reference / and digital I/O (ADCON1) Select A/D input channel (ADCON0) Select A/D conversion clock (ADCON0) Turn on A/D module (ADCON0) 2. Configure A/D interrupt (if desired): Clear the ADIF bit Set the ADIE bit Set the GIE bit 3. Wait the required acquisition time. 4. Start conversion: Set the GO/DONE bit (ADCON0) 5. Wait for A/D conversion to complete, by either: Polling for the GO/DONE bit to be cleared OR Waiting for the A/D interrupt 6. Read A/D Result register (ADRES), clear the ADIF bit, if required. 7. For next conversion, go to step 1 or step 2 as required. The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. A minimum wait of 2TAD is required before next acquisition starts. Figure 21-2 shows the conversion sequence, and the terms that are used. Acquisition time is the time that the A/D module s holding capacitor is connected to the external voltage level. Then there is the conversion time of 10 TAD, which is started when the GO bit is set. The sum of these two times is the sampling time. There is a minimum acquisition time to ensure that the holding capacitor is charged to a level that will give the desired accuracy for the A/D conversion. Converter Figure 21-2: A/D Conversion Sequence A/D Sample Time Acquisition Time Conversion Time When A/D holding capacitor start to charge. After A/D conversion, or new A/D channel is selected. A/D conversion complete, result is loaded in ADRES register. Holding capacitor begins acquiring voltage level on selected channel. ADIF bit is set. When A/D conversion is started (setting the GO bit). Holding capacitor is disconnected from the analog input before the conversion is started Microchip Technology Inc. DS31021A-page 21-5
6 PICmicro MID-RANGE MCU FAMILY 21.4 A/D Acquisition Requirements For the A/D converter to meet its specified accuracy, the charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed to fully charge to the input channel voltage level. The analog input model is shown in Figure The source impedance (RS) and the internal sampling switch (RSS) impedance directly affect the time required to charge the capacitor CHOLD. The sampling switch (RSS) impedance varies over the device voltage (VDD) (Figure 21-3). The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources is 10 kω. After the analog input channel is selected (changed) the acquisition must be done before the conversion can be started. To calculate the minimum acquisition time, Equation 21-1 may be used. This equation assumes that 1/2 LSb error is used (512 steps for the A/D). The 1/2 LSb error is the maximum error allowed for the A/D to meet its specified resolution. Equation 21-1: Acquisition Time TACQ = Amplifier Settling Time + Holding Capacitor Charging Time + Temperature Coefficient = TAMP + TC + TCOFF Equation 21-2: A/D Minimum Charging Time VHOLD = (VREF - (VREF/512)) (1 - e (-Tc/CHOLD(RIC + RSS + RS)) ) or Tc = -(51.2 pf)(1 kω + RSS + RS) ln(1/511) Example 21-1 shows the calculation of the minimum required acquisition time TACQ. This calculation is based on the following system assumptions. Rs = 10 kω Conversion Error 1/2 LSb VDD = 5V Rss = 7 kω (see graph in Figure 21-3) Temperature = 50 C (system max.) VHOLD = time = 0 Example 21-1: Calculating the Minimum Required Acquisition Time TACQ = TACQ = TC = TACQ = TAMP + TC + TCOFF 5 µs + Tc + [(Temp - 25 C)(0.05 µs/ C)] -CHOLD (RIC + RSS + RS) ln(1/512) pf (1 kω + 7 kω + 10 kω) ln(0.0020) pf (18 kω) ln(0.0020) µs ( ) µs 5 µs µs + [(50 C - 25 C)(0.05 µs/ C)] µs µs µs DS31021A-page Microchip Technology Inc.
7 Section 21. Converter Note 1: The reference voltage (VREF) has no effect on the equation, since it cancels itself out. Note 2: The charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) is not discharged after each conversion. Note 3: The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources is 10 kω. This is required to meet the pin leakage specification. Note 4: After a conversion has completed, a 2.0 TAD delay must complete before acquisition can begin again. During this time the holding capacitor is not connected to the selected A/D input channel. 21 Converter Figure 21-3: Analog Input Model Rs ANx VDD VT = 0.6V RIC 1k Sampling Switch SS RSS VAIN CPIN 5 pf VT = 0.6V I leakage ± 500 na CHOLD = 51.2 pf VSS Legend CPIN VT I LEAKAGE RIC SS CHOLD VAIN = input capacitance = threshold voltage = leakage current at the pin due to various junctions = interconnect resistance = sampling switch = sample/hold capacitance (from DAC) = Analog input voltage 6V 5V VDD 4V 3V 2V Sampling Switch ( kω ) 1997 Microchip Technology Inc. DS31021A-page 21-7
8 PICmicro MID-RANGE MCU FAMILY 21.5 Selecting the A/D Conversion Clock The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. The A/D conversion requires 9.5 TAD per 8-bit conversion. The source of the A/D conversion clock is software selected. The four possible options for TAD are: 2TOSC 8TOSC 32TOSC Internal RC oscillator For correct A/D conversions, the A/D conversion clock (TAD) must be selected to ensure a minimum TAD time of 1.6 µs for all devices, as shown in parameter 130 of the devices electrical specifications. Table 21-1 and Table 21-2 show the resultant TAD times derived from the device operating frequencies and the A/D clock source selected. Table 21-1: TAD vs. Device Operating Frequencies (for Standard, C, Devices) AD Clock Source (TAD) Device Frequency Operation ADCS1:ADCS0 20 MHz 5 MHz 1.25 MHz khz 2TOSC ns (2) 400 ns (2) 1.6 µs 6 µs 8TOSC ns (2) 1.6 µs 6.4 µs 24 µs (3) 32TOSC µs 6.4 µs 25.6 µs (3) 96 µs (3) RC µs (1,4) 2-6 µs (1,4) 2-6 µs (1,4) 2-6 µs (1) Legend: Shaded cells are outside of recommended range. Note 1: The RC source has a typical TAD time of 4 µs. 2: These values violate the minimum required TAD time. 3: For faster conversion times, the selection of another clock source is recommended. 4: For device frequencies above 1 MHz, the device must be in SLEEP for the entire conversion, or the A/D accuracy may be out of specification. Table 21-2: TAD vs. Device Operating Frequencies (for Extended, LC, Devices) AD Clock Source (TAD) Device Frequency Operation ADCS1:ADCS0 4 MHz 2 MHz 1.25 MHz khz 2TOSC ns (2) 1.0 µs (2) 1.6 µs (2) 6 µs 8TOSC µs (2) 4.0 µs 6.4 µs 24 µs (3) 32TOSC µs 16.0 µs 25.6 µs (3) 96 µs (3) RC µs (1,4) 3-9 µs (1,4) 3-9 µs (1,4) 3-9 µs (1) Legend: Shaded cells are outside of recommended range. Note 1: The RC source has a typical TAD time of 6 µs. 2: These values violate the minimum required TAD time. 3: For faster conversion times, the selection of another clock source is recommended. 4: For device frequencies above 1 MHz, the device must be in SLEEP for the entire conversion, or the A/D accuracy may be out of specification. DS31021A-page Microchip Technology Inc.
9 Section 21. Converter 21.6 Configuring Analog Port Pins ADCON1 and the corresponding TRIS registers control the operation of the A/D port pins. The port pins that are desired as analog inputs must have their corresponding TRIS bits set (input). If the TRIS bit is cleared (output), the digital output level (VOH or VOL) will be converted. The A/D operation is independent of the state of the CHS2:CHS0 bits and the TRIS bits. Note 1: When reading the port register, all pins configured as analog input channels will read as cleared (a low level). Pins configured as digital inputs, will convert an analog input. Analog levels on a digitally configured input will not affect the conversion accuracy. Note 2: Analog levels on any pin that is defined as a digital input (including the AN7:AN0 pins), may cause the input buffer to consume current that is out of the devices specification. 21 Converter 1997 Microchip Technology Inc. DS31021A-page 21-9
10 PICmicro MID-RANGE MCU FAMILY 21.7 A/D Conversions Example 21-2 show how to perform an A/D conversion. The I/O pins are configured as analog inputs. The analog reference (VREF) is the device VDD. The A/D interrupt is enabled, and the A/D conversion clock is FRC. The conversion is performed on the AN0 channel. Note: The GO/DONE bit should NOT be set in the same instruction that turns on the A/D, due to the required acquition time requirement. Clearing the GO/DONE bit during a conversion will abort the current conversion. The ADRES register will NOT be updated with the partially completed A/D conversion sample. That is, the ADRES register will continue to contain the value of the last completed conversion (or the last value written to the ADRES register). After the A/D conversion is aborted, a 2TAD wait is required before the next acquisition is started. After this 2TAD wait, an acquisition is automatically started on the selected channel. Example 21-2: Doing an A/D Conversion BSF STATUS, RP0 ; Select Bank1 CLRF ADCON1 ; Configure A/D inputs BSF PIE1, ADIE ; Enable A/D interrupts BCF STATUS, RP0 ; Select Bank0 MOVLW 0xC1 ; RC Clock, A/D is on, Channel 0 is selected MOVWF ADCON0 ; BCF PIR1, ADIF ; Clear A/D interrupt flag bit BSF INTCON, PEIE ; Enable peripheral interrupts BSF INTCON, GIE ; Enable all interrupts ; ; Ensure that the required sampling time for the selected input ; channel has elapsed. Then the conversion may be started. ; BSF ADCON0, GO ; Start A/D Conversion : ; The ADIF bit will be set and the GO/DONE : ; bit is cleared upon completion of the : ; A/D Conversion. Figure 21-4: A/D Conversion TAD Cycles TAD1 TAD2 TAD3 TAD4 TAD5 TAD6 TAD7 TAD8 TAD9 TAD10 b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0 b0 TAD11 Set GO bit Holding capacitor is disconnected from analog input Next Q4: ADRES is loaded GO bit is cleared ADIF bit is set Holding capacitor is connected to analog input DS31021A-page Microchip Technology Inc.
11 Section 21. Converter Figure 21-5: Flowchart of A/D Operation 21 ADON = 0 Yes ADON = 0? No Acquire Selected Channel Converter GO = 0? Yes No A/D Clock = RC? Yes Start of A/D Conversion Delayed 1 Instruction Cycle SLEEP Yes Instruction? Finish Conversion GO = 0 ADIF = 1 No No Device in SLEEP? Yes Abort Conversion GO = 0 ADIF = 0 Finish Conversion GO = 0 ADIF = 1 Wake-up Yes From Sleep? Wait 2TAD No No Finish Conversion GO = 0 ADIF = 1 SLEEP Power-down A/D Wait 2TAD Stay in Sleep Power-down A/D Wait 2TAD 1997 Microchip Technology Inc. DS31021A-page 21-11
12 PICmicro MID-RANGE MCU FAMILY Faster Conversion - Lower Resolution Trade-off Not all applications require a result with 8-bits of resolution, but may instead require a faster conversion time. The A/D module allows users to make the trade-off of conversion speed to resolution. Regardless of the resolution required, the acquisition time is the same. To speed up the conversion, the clock source of the A/D module may be switched so that the TAD time violates the minimum specified time (see the applicable electrical specification). Once the TAD time violates the minimum specified time, all the following A/D result bits are not valid (see A/D Conversion Timing in the Electrical Specifications section). The clock sources may only be switched between the three oscillator versions (cannot be switched from/to RC). The equation to determine the time before the oscillator can be switched is as follows: Conversion time = TAD + N TAD + (10 - N)(2TOSC) Where: N = number of bits of resolution required. Since the TAD is based from the device oscillator, the user must use some method (a timer, software loop, etc.) to determine when the A/D oscillator may be changed. Example 21-3 shows a comparison of time required for a conversion with 4-bits of resolution, versus the 8-bit resolution conversion. The example is for devices operating at 20 MHz (The A/D clock is programmed for 32TOSC), and assumes that immediately after 5TAD, the A/D clock is programmed for 2TOSC. The 2TOSC violates the minimum TAD time since the last 4-bits will not be converted to correct values. Example 21-3: 4-bit vs. 8-bit Conversion Times Freq. (MHz) (1) 4-bit Resolution 8-bit TAD µs 1.6 µs TOSC ns 50 ns TAD + N TAD + (10 - N)(2TOSC) µs 17.6 µs Note 1: A minimum TAD time of 1.6 µs is required. 2: If the full 8-bit conversion is required, the A/D clock source should not be changed A/D Operation During Sleep The A/D module can operate during SLEEP mode. This requires that the A/D clock source be set to RC (ADCS1:ADCS0 = 11). When the RC clock source is selected, the A/D module waits one instruction cycle before starting the conversion. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed, which eliminates all internal digital switching noise from the conversion. When the conversion is completed the GO/DONE bit will be cleared, and the result loaded into the ADRES register. If the A/D interrupt is enabled, the device will wake-up from SLEEP. If the A/D interrupt is not enabled, the A/D module will then be turned off (to conserve power), although the ADON bit will remain set. When the A/D clock source is another clock option (not RC), a SLEEP instruction will cause the present conversion to be aborted and the A/D module to be turned off, though the ADON bit will remain set. Turning off the A/D places the A/D module in its lowest current consumption state. Note: For the A/D module to operate in SLEEP, the A/D clock source must be set to RC (ADCS1:ADCS0 = 11). To perform an A/D conversion in SLEEP, the GO/DONE bit must be set, followed by the SLEEP instruction. DS31021A-page Microchip Technology Inc.
13 Section 21. Converter 21.9 A/D Accuracy/Error In systems where the device frequency is low, use of the A/D RC clock is preferred. At moderate to high frequencies, TAD should be derived from the device oscillator. The absolute accuracy specified for the A/D converter includes the sum of all contributions for quantization error, integral error, differential error, full scale error, offset error, and monotonicity. It is defined as the maximum deviation from an actual transition versus an ideal transition for any code. The absolute error of the A/D converter is specified at < ±1 LSb for VDD = VREF (over the device s specified operating range). However, the accuracy of the A/D converter will degrade as VDD diverges from VREF. For a given range of analog inputs, the output digital code will be the same. This is due to the quantization of the analog input to a digital code. Quantization error is typically ± 1/2 LSb and is inherent in the analog to digital conversion process. The only way to reduce quantization error is to increase the resolution of the A/D converter. Offset error measures the first actual transition of a code versus the first ideal transition of a code. Offset error shifts the entire transfer function. Offset error can be calibrated out of a system or introduced into a system through the interaction of the total leakage current and source impedance at the analog input. Gain error measures the maximum deviation of the last actual transition and the last ideal transition adjusted for offset error. This error appears as a change in slope of the transfer function. The difference in gain error to full scale error is that full scale does not take offset error into account. Gain error can be calibrated out in software. Linearity error refers to the uniformity of the code changes. Linearity errors cannot be calibrated out of the system. Integral non-linearity error measures the actual code transition versus the ideal code transition adjusted by the gain error for each code. Differential non-linearity measures the maximum actual code width versus the ideal code width. This measure is unadjusted. The maximum pin leakage current is specified in the Device Data Sheet electrical specification parameter D060. In systems where the device frequency is low, use of the A/D RC clock is preferred. At moderate to high frequencies, TAD should be derived from the device oscillator. TAD must not violate the minimum and should be minimized to reduce inaccuracies due to noise and sampling capacitor bleed off. In systems where the device will enter SLEEP mode after the start of the A/D conversion, the RC clock source selection is required. In this mode, the digital noise from the modules in SLEEP are stopped. This method gives high accuracy Effects of a RESET A device reset forces all registers to their reset state. This forces the A/D module to be turned off, and any conversion is aborted. The value that is in the ADRES register is not modified for a Power-on Reset. The ADRES register will contain unknown data after a Power-on Reset. 21 Converter 1997 Microchip Technology Inc. DS31021A-page 21-13
14 PICmicro MID-RANGE MCU FAMILY Use of the CCP Trigger An A/D conversion may be started by the special event trigger of a CCP module. This requires that the CCPxM3:CCPxM0 bits (CCPxCON<3:0>) be programmed as 1011 and that the A/D module is enabled (ADON bit is set). When the trigger occurs, the GO/DONE bit will be set, starting the A/D conversion, and the Timer1 counter will be reset to zero. Timer1 is reset to automatically repeat the A/D acquisition period with minimal software overhead (moving the ADRES to the desired location). The appropriate analog input channel must be selected and the minimum acquisition done before the special event trigger sets the GO/DONE bit (starts a conversion). If the A/D module is not enabled (ADON is cleared), then the special event trigger will be ignored by the A/D module, but will still reset the Timer1 counter Connection Considerations If the input voltage exceeds the rail values (VSS or VDD) by greater than 0.3V, then the accuracy of the conversion is out of specification. An external RC filter can sometimes be added for anti-aliasing of the input signal. The R component should be selected to ensure that the total source impedance is kept under the 10 kω recommended specification. Any external components connected (via hi-impedance) to an analog input pin (capacitor, zener diode, etc.) should have very little leakage current at the pin Transfer Function The ideal transfer function of the A/D converter is as follows: the first transition occurs when the analog input voltage (VAIN) is 1 LSb (or Analog VREF / 256) (Figure 21-6). Figure 21-6: A/D Transfer Function Digital code output FFh FEh 04h 03h 02h 01h 00h 0.5 LSb 1 LSb 2 LSb 3 LSb 4 LSb 255 LSb 256 LSb (full scale) Analog input voltage DS31021A-page Microchip Technology Inc.
15 Section 21. Converter Initialization Example 21-4 shows the initialization of the A/D module for the PIC16C74A 21 Example 21-4: A/D Initialization (for PIC16C74A) BSF STATUS, RP0 ; Select Bank1 CLRF ADCON1 ; Configure A/D inputs BSF PIE1, ADIE ; Enable A/D interrupts BCF STATUS, RP0 ; Select Bank0 MOVLW 0xC1 ; RC Clock, A/D is on, Channel 0 is selected MOVWF ADCON0 ; BCF PIR1, ADIF ; Clear A/D interrupt flag bit BSF INTCON, PEIE ; Enable peripheral interrupts BSF INTCON, GIE ; Enable all interrupts ; ; Ensure that the required sampling time for the selected input ; channel has elapsed. Then the conversion may be started. ; BSF ADCON0, GO ; Start A/D Conversion : ; The ADIF bit will be set and the GO/DONE : ; bit is cleared upon completion of the : ; A/D Conversion. Converter 1997 Microchip Technology Inc. DS31021A-page 21-15
16 PICmicro MID-RANGE MCU FAMILY Design Tips Question 1: I am using one of your PIC16C7X devices, and I find that the Analog to Digital Converter result is not always accurate. What can I do to improve accuracy? Answer 1: 1. Make sure you are meeting all of the timing specifications. If you are turning the A/D module off and on, there is a minimum delay you must wait before taking a sample, if you are changing input channels, there is a minimum delay you must wait for this as well, and finally there is Tad, which is the time selected for each bit conversion. This is selected in ADCON0 and should be between 2 and 6µs. If TAD is too short, the result may not be fully converted before the conversion is terminated, and if TAD is made too long the voltage on the sampling capacitor can droop before the conversion is complete. These timing specifications are provided in the data book in a table or by way of a formula, and should be looked up for your specific part and circumstances. 2. Often the source impedance of the analog signal is high (greater than 1k ohms) so the current drawn from the source to charge the sample capacitor can affect accuracy. If the input signal does not change too quickly, try putting a 0.1 µf capacitor on the analog input. This capacitor will charge to the analog voltage being sampled, and supply the instantaneous current needed to charge the 51.2 pf internal holding capacitor. 3. Finally, straight from the data book: In systems where the device frequency is low, use of the A/D clock derived from the device oscillator is preferred...this reduces, to a large extent, the effects of digital switching noise. and In systems where the device will enter SLEEP mode after start of A/D conversion, the RC clock source selection is required. This method gives the highest accuracy. Question 2: After starting an A/D conversion may I change the input channel (for my next conversion)? Answer 2: After the holding capacitor is disconnected from the input channel, one TAD after the GO bit is set, the input channel may be changed. Question 3: Do you know of a good reference on A/D s? Answer 3: A very good reference for understanding A/D conversions is the Analog-Digital Conversion Handbook third edition, published by Prentice Hall (ISBN ). DS31021A-page Microchip Technology Inc.
17 Section 21. Converter Related Application Notes This section lists application notes that are related to this section of the manual. These application notes may not be written specifically for the Mid-Range MCU family (that is they may be written for the Base-Line, or High-End families), but the concepts are pertinent, and could be used (with modification and possible limitations). The current application notes related to the are: Title Application Note # Using the Analog to Digital Converter AN546 Four Channel Digital Voltmeter with Display and Keyboard AN Converter 1997 Microchip Technology Inc. DS31021A-page 21-17
18 PICmicro MID-RANGE MCU FAMILY Revision History Revision A This is the initial released revision of the module description. DS31021A-page Microchip Technology Inc.
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Hello and welcome to this training module for the STM32L4 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) controller. This controller can be used in a wide range of applications such as home appliances, medical, automotive,
Section 29. Real-Time Clock and Calendar (RTCC) HIGHLIGHTS This section of the manual contains the following topics: 29.1 Introduction... 29-2 29.2 Status and Control Registers... 29-3 29.3 Modes of Operation...
REAL-TIME CLOCK Real-Time Clock The device is not a clock! It does not tell time! It has nothing to do with actual or real-time! The Real-Time Clock is no more than an interval timer connected to the computer
css Custom Silicon Solutions, Inc. GENERAL PART DESCRIPTION The is a micropower version of the popular timer IC. It features an operating current under µa and a minimum supply voltage of., making it ideal
PowerAmp Design COMPACT HIGH VOLTAGE OP AMP Rev G KEY FEATURES LOW COST SMALL SIZE 40mm SQUARE HIGH VOLTAGE 200 VOLTS HIGH OUTPUT CURRENT 10A PEAK 40 WATT DISSIPATION CAPABILITY 200V/µS SLEW RATE APPLICATIONS
Designing VM2 Application Boards This document lists some things to consider when designing a custom application board for the VM2 embedded controller. It is intended to complement the VM2 Datasheet. A
Design Note: HFDN-34.0 Rev.1; 04/08 Accurate Loss-of-Signal Detection in 10Gbps Optical Receivers using the MAX3991 Functional Diagrams Pin Configurations appear at end of data sheet. Functional Diagrams
a FEATURES kb Transmission Rate ADM: Small (. F) Charge Pump Capacitors ADM3: No External Capacitors Required Single V Power Supply Meets EIA-3-E and V. Specifications Two Drivers and Two Receivers On-Board
Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. LF411 Low Offset, Low Drift JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description
Features Compatible with MCS-51 products On-chip Flash Program Memory Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles On-chip EEPROM Data Memory Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles 512 x 8-bit RAM ISO 7816 I/O Port
Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong Preliminary Data SAE 800 Bipolar IC Features Supply voltage range 2.8 V to 18 V Few external components (no electrolytic capacitor) 1 tone, 2 tones, 3 tones
DATASHEET IDT5P50901/2/3/4 Description The IDT5P50901/2/3/4 is a family of 1.8V low power, spread spectrum clock generators capable of reducing EMI radiation from an input clock. Spread spectrum technique
ICL August V Powered, Dual RS Transmitter/Receiver Features Meets All RSC and V. Specifications Requires Only Single V Power Supply Onboard Voltage Doubler/Inverter Low Power Consumption Drivers ±V Output
Evaluating AC Current Sensor Options for Power Delivery Systems State-of-the-art isolated ac current sensors based on CMOS technology can increase efficiency, performance and reliability compared to legacy
Quad PLL with VCXO Quick Turn Clock Description The ICS379 QTClock TM generates up to 9 high quality, high frequency clock outputs including a reference from a low frequency pullable crystal. It is designed
Rev 1; 3/0 Spread-Spectrum Crystal Multiplier General Description The is a low-jitter, crystal-based clock generator with an integrated phase-locked loop (PLL) to generate spread-spectrum clock outputs
AVR415: RC5 IR Remote Control Transmitter Features Utilizes ATtiny28 Special HW Modulator and High Current Drive Pin Size Efficient Code, Leaves Room for Large User Code Low Power Consumption through Intensive
FEATURES APPLICATIO S U -/6-Channel Single-Ended or 4-/-Channel Differential Inputs (LTC44/LTC4) Low Supply Current (µa, 4µA in Autosleep) Differential Input and Differential Reference with GND to Common
Application Report SLAA323 JULY 2006 Oversampling the ADC12 for Higher Resolution Harman Grewal... ABSTRACT This application report describes the theory of oversampling to achieve resolutions greater than
184 WLED Matrix Driver with Boost Converter FEATURES High efficiency boost converter with the input voltage range from 2.7 to 5.5 V No external Schottky Required (Internal synchronous rectifier) 250 mv
M PIC6F84A 8-pin Enhanced Flash/EEPROM 8-Bit Microcontroller Devices Included in this Data Sheet: PIC6F84A Extended voltage range device available (PIC6LF84A) High Performance RISC CPU Features: Only 35
AVR1321: Using the Atmel AVR XMEGA 32-bit Real Time Counter and Battery Backup System Features 32-bit Real Time Counter (RTC) - 32-bit counter - Selectable clock source 1.024kHz 1Hz - Long overflow time
NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The Software is the Instrument Application Note 065 Measuring Temperature withthermistors a Tutorial David Potter Introduction Thermistors are thermally sensitive resistors used in
APPLICATION NOTE HANDLING SUSPEND MODE ON A USB MOUSE by Microcontroller Division Application Team INTRODUCTION All USB devices must support Suspend mode. Suspend mode enables the devices to enter low-power
Introduction Noise in power supplies is not only caused by the power supply itself, but also the load s interaction with the power supply (i.e. dynamic loads, switching, etc.). To lower load induced noise,
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET Supersedes data of 2001 Dec 13 2003 Jan 27 CONTENTS 1 FEATURES 2 APPLICATIONS 3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 4 ORDERING INFORMATION 5 BLOCK DIAGRAM 6 PINNING 7 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
Low-Power Design Guide Authors: INTRODUCTION Brant Ivey Microchip Technology Inc. Low-power applications represent a significant portion of the future market for embedded systems. Every year, more designers
Data Acquisition Module with I2C interface «I2C-FLEXEL» User s Guide Sensors LCD Real Time Clock/ Calendar DC Motors Buzzer LED dimming Relay control I2C-FLEXEL PS2 Keyboards Servo Motors IR Remote Control
Features M25P40 3V 4Mb Serial Flash Embedded Memory Features SPI bus-compatible serial interface 4Mb Flash memory 75 MHz clock frequency (maximum) 2.3V to 3.6V single supply voltage Page program (up to
Freescale Semiconductor Technical Data Tire Pressure Monitoring Sensor Temperature Compensated and Calibrated, Fully Integrated, Digital Output The Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. sensor is an 8-pin tire
www.dalsemi.com Application Note 58 Crystal Considerations with Dallas Real Time Clocks Dallas Semiconductor offers a variety of real time clocks (RTCs). The majority of these are available either as integrated
A Maxim Integrated Products Brand Using Current Transformers with the 78M661x APPLICATION NOTE AN_661x_021 April 2010 Introduction This application note describes using current transformers (CT) with the
ma www.maxim-ic.com FEATURES Requires no external components Unique 1-Wire interface requires only one port pin for communication Operates over a -55 C to +125 C (67 F to +257 F) temperature range Functions
IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) e-issn: 2278-1676,p-ISSN: 2320-3331, Volume 9, Issue 1 Ver. I (Jan. 2014), PP 92-97 Design and Construction of Microcontroller Based Charge
DESCRIPTION The µa71 is a high performance operational amplifier with high open-loop gain, internal compensation, high common mode range and exceptional temperature stability. The µa71 is short-circuit-protected
Precision, Wide-Bandwidth Quad SPDT Analog Switch Features Single Supply Operation (+2V to +6V) Rail-to-Rail Analog Signal Dynamic Range Low On-Resistance (6Ω typ with 5V supply) Minimizes Distortion and
Impedance Matching and Matching Networks Valentin Todorow, December, 2009 RF for Plasma Processing - Definition of RF What is RF? The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines
Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of
35'th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting San Diego, December 2-4, 2003 A PC-BASED TIME INTERVAL COUNTER WITH 200 PS RESOLUTION Józef Kalisz and Ryszard Szplet
Feature Output port compression 12V. uilt in stabilivolt, Only add a resistance to IC VDD feet when under 24V power supply. ray level 256 can be adjusted and scan freque ncy not less than 400Hz/s. uilt
Issued: April 1999 Status: Updated Version: C/26.04.2006 Data subject to change without notice Features Versatile digital disturbance recorder module for recording various phenomena in the electric power
Basics Of UltraVolt HVPS Output Voltage Control Application Note on Remote Control of UltraVolt HVPS By varying the voltage at the Remote Adjust Input terminal (pin 6) between 0 and +5V, the UV highvoltage
Radio sensor powered by a mini solar cell the EnOcean STM 110 now functions with even less light In this issue, we would like to present the EnOcean radio sensor module STM 110 in more detail. The module
12-Bit Rail-to-Rail Micropower DACs in SO-8 FEATRES 12-Bit Resolution Buffered True Rail-to-Rail Voltage Output 3V Operation (LTC1453), I CC : 250µA Typ 5V Operation (), I CC : 400µA Typ 3V to 5V Operation
. Integrated pressure sensor. Pressure Range 300-1100hpa. 16 Bit Σ Δ ADC. 11 coefficients for software compensation stored on chip. I 2 C Serial Interface. One system clock line (32768Hz). One hardware
HP 8970B Option 020 Service Manual Supplement Service Manual Supplement HP 8970B Option 020 HP Part no. 08970-90115 Edition 1 May 1998 UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T in the USA and other countries.
AVR400: Low Cost A/D Converter Features Interrupt Driven : 23 Words Low Use of External Components Resolution: 6 Bits Measurement Range: 0-2 V Runs on Any AVR Device with 8-bit Timer/Counter and Analog
Low Voltage, 0.4 Ω, Dual SPDT Analog Switch DG273/2732/2733 DESCRIPTION The DG273/2732/2733 are low voltage, low on-resistance, dual single-pole/double-throw (SPDT) monolithic CMOS analog switches designed
Wide Bandwidth, Fast Settling Difet OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER FEATURES HIGH GAIN-BANDWIDTH: 35MHz LOW INPUT NOISE: 1nV/ Hz HIGH SLEW RATE: V/µs FAST SETTLING: 24ns to.1% FET INPUT: I B = 5pA max HIGH OUTPUT
Supply voltage Supervisor TL77xx Series Author: Eilhard Haseloff Literature Number: SLVAE04 March 1997 i IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments (TI) reserves the right to make changes to its products or to
DATASHEET ICS650-44 Description The ICS650-44 is a spread spectrum clock synthesizer intended for video projector and digital TV applications. It generates three copies of an EMI optimized 50 MHz clock
Application note Using the hardware real-time clock (RTC) in STM32 F0, F2, F3, F4 and L1 series of MCUs Introduction Note: A real-time clock (RTC) is a computer clock that keeps track of the current time.
69 CHAPTER-4 TRANSMISSION LINE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION USING WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY 4.1 INTRODUCTION The probability of fault occurrence on the overhead lines is much more due to their greater lengths and
Wireless Precision Temperature Sensor Powers Itself, Forms Own Network, Enabling Easy Deployment in Industrial Environments Kris Lokere While the Internet connects people via a worldwide computer network,
AVR1003: Using the XMEGA Clock System Features Internal 32 khz, 2 MHz, and 32 MHz oscillators External crystal oscillator or clock input Internal PLL with multiplication factor 1x to 31x Safe clock source
Digital Temperature Sensor and Thermal Watchdog with Two-Wire Interface General Description The LM75 is a temperature sensor, Delta-Sigma analog-todigital converter, and digital over-temperature detector
HD622U (Dot Matrix Liquid Crystal GraphicDisplay Column Driver) Description HD622U is a column (segment) driver for dot matrix liquid crystal graphic display systems. It stores the display data transferred
STM32L Ultra-low-power Cortex -M3 devices STM32L press release STM32L 32- to 128-Kbyte products are entering full production 2 nd half March 2011 Part of industry s largest ARM Cortex -M 32-bit microcontroller
www.maxim-ic.com Application Note 58 Crystal Considerations for Dallas Real-Time Clocks OVERVIEW This application note describes crystal selection and layout techniques for connecting a 32,768Hz crystal
High-Speed, Low r ON, SPST Analog Switch (1-Bit Bus Switch with Level-Shifter) DG2302 DESCRIPTION The DG2302 is a high-speed, 1-bit, low power, TTLcompatible bus switch. Using sub-micron CMOS technology,
Isolated AC Sine Wave Input 3B42 / 3B43 / 3B44 FEATURES AC averaging technique used to rectify, amplify, and filter 50 Hz to 400 Hz sine-wave signals. Accepts inputs of between 20 mv to 550 V rms to give
General Description Features PowerManager The AAT3520 series of PowerManager products is part of AnalogicTech's Total Power Management IC (TPMIC ) product family. These microprocessor reset circuits are
Application note Peripheral interconnections on STM32F401 and STM32F411 lines Introduction On top of the highest performance and the lowest power consumption of the STM32F4 family, STM32F401/411 peripherals
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