Real-Time Clock. * Real-Time Computing, edited by Duncan A. Mellichamp, Van Nostrand Reinhold

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1 REAL-TIME CLOCK

2 Real-Time Clock The device is not a clock! It does not tell time! It has nothing to do with actual or real-time! The Real-Time Clock is no more than an interval timer connected to the computer I/O interface so that the computer can be informed each time a particular interval of time has gone by. * * Real-Time Computing, edited by Duncan A. Mellichamp, Van Nostrand Reinhold

3 Real-Time Clock (Continued) Computer must be programmed to use the information correctly! Example If clock interval is 1 second, a counter within the computer can be set equal to time, one could easily program a routine to give the time on a 12 or 24-hour basis * Real-Time Computing, edited by Duncan A. Mellichamp, Van Nostrand Reinhold

4 Line Clock Simple form of Real-Time Clock Use 60Hz from line to generate 1/60 second clock Half-Wave rectifier 60hz 60 Hz Pulse * Real-Time Computing, edited by Duncan A. Mellichamp, Van Nostrand Reinhold

5 Programmable Clock (primitive) 1MHz or 10MHz XTAL OSC Divide by 10 Divide by 10 Divide by 10 Divide by 10 Divide by 10 10ms..1s 1s. Multiplexer Interrupt to CPU Or connect to I/P * Real-Time Computing, edited by Duncan A. Mellichamp, Van Nostrand Reinhold

6 Programmable Timer/Counter Clock Presetable UP or Down N-bit Counter CPU DATA Bus RD,WR, CS Overflow output

7 Programmable Timer/Counter Example: 8 bit Up Counter (0-255) clock input =1MHz or 1us. wanted to interrupt the CPU after 200us. If one load the counter with ( ) = 56, after 200 clocks ----> output =1 on overflow! Therefore cpu can be interrupted after 200us.

8 Programmable Timer/Counter Typically Timer:---> known clock input (Internal) Counter: --> unknown clock (External)

9 TIMERs/COUNTERs PIC16F877 Timer0 Timer1 Timer2

10 Timer0 Module 8-bit timer/counter Readable and writable 8-bit software programmable prescaler Internal or external clock select Interrupt on overflow from FFh to 00h Edge select for external clock

11 Timer0/WDT Block diagram

12 Timer0 - Prescaler Assignment

13 Watch Dog Timer Run on internal RC If enable during SLEEP mode, WDT will continue running and will be able to wake up the processor on Time-out! With Prescaler (Post) set to 1:128, typical maximum delay time can be approximately 18*128 ms or over 2 seconds!

14 Timer0 -TMR0 -Register All instructions writing to the TMR0 will clear the prescaler count, but not change the prescaler assignment! i.e. clrf TMR0, movwf TMR0,.etc. The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h TMR0 interrupt cannot awaken the processor from SLEEP (the timer is off during the SLEEP)

15 Timer0 - Registers associated

16 Example: Timer0 and Rotary Encoder Objective Set time (minute/second) for the clock (Lab Assignment) * Fast turning will set the Minutes * Slow turning will set the seconds Use Timer0 to distinguish fast turning from slow turning of the rotary encoder

17 Recall Rotary Encoder: Example Phase Difference One cycle ON/OFF determines CCW/CW

18 Recall INT_EXT Interrupt : Example. Main Program... enable_interrupts(int_ext); enable_interrupts(global);...

19 Recall INT_EXT Interrupt : Example #int_ext EXT_INT_ISR() { // one interrupt per cycle // determine direction by reading the another bit // do what is necessary // exit } Note: CCS will reset INTE flag and re-enable GIE. These do not applied to #int_global!

20 Example: Timer0 and Rotary Encoder (continued) Assume Rotary Encoder generates 32 pulse per revolution One of the outputs of the encoder connects to Rb0/INT Maximum rate of turning is one turn in 0.5 second. i.e. Generates interrupt up to 32*1/2 = 64 times a second or every 1/64 = milliseconds.

21 Example: Timer0 and Rotary Encoder (continued) Assume Timer0 will be used to detect Fast/Slow turning Set prescaler to divide input freq. by 256 (or input period *256) Use internal clock (4MHz/4 or 1us) The TMR0 will increment every 1* 256 = 256us or about 1/4 of ms. TMR0 will count through its 256 counts in 256*256 or about 66 ms.

22 Example: Timer0 and Rotary Encoder (continued) #int_ext EXT_INT_ISR() { // one interrupt per cycle // determine direction by reading the another bit // clears INTF // checks the T0IF flag to see if TMR0 has gone through 256 // counts since the last RB0/INT. // if so ----> increment/decrement second // else ----> increment/decrement minute // clear TMR0 and T0IF // exit }

23 Timer1 Module 16-bit timer/counter (TMR1H,TMR1L) Readable and writable (both) Internal or external clock select Interrupt on overflow from FFFFh to 0000h Reset from CCP module trigger Programmable Prescaler (1,2,4, and 8) Sync and Asyn Counter mode

24 Timer1Block diagram

25 Timer1 - T1CON - Control Register

26 Timer1 Oscillator Low power Oscillator rated upto 200kHz Primary intended for a 32kHz Will run during SLEEP

27 Timer1 - TMR1H:TMR1L The register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFH and rolls over to 0000H Interrupt if enabled (TMR1IE) on overflow (set TMR1IF)

28 Timer1 - Registers associated

29 Timer1and Sleep Mode When PIC is in SLEEP mode, internal clock stop (reducing power consumption) Timer1 includes the pins and oscillator circuit to allow a 32,768-Hz crystal to serve as its external clock source (by pass the synchronizer) TMR1 will overflow at 2, 4, 8, or 16-seconds depending on prescaler value used) and the CPU wake up, initiates the startup of the internal clock which may take as long as 1000 internal clock cycles before the next instruction is executed!

30 Timer1and Sleep Mode

31 Example: Timer1and Sleep Mode PIC16F877 is waiting for an external event to occur, it goes into the sleep mode for 16 seconds at a time. Wake up only to check the event and to increment a variable to keep track of time then go back to sleep again 4MHz clock maximum supply current is 4mA Maximum supply current on sleep mode is 42uA If CpU is asleep roughly S out of S Then the average current is 42(15.99/16)+4000(.01/16) = 44.5 ua!

32 Timer2 Module 8-bit timer (TMR2) 8-bit period register (PR2) Readable and writable (both) Interrupt on TMR2 match of PR2 Programmable Prescaler (1,4, and 16) Programmable postscaler (1 to 16) Can be use as the PWM time-base for PWM mode of the CCP module SSP module optional use of TMR2 output to generate clock shift

33 Timer2 Block diagram

34 Timer2 - T2CON - Control Register

35 Timer2 - TMR2 The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared when any of the following occurs: A write to the TMR2 A write to the T2CON Any device reset TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is written

36 Timer2 - Registers associated

37 CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM MODULES PIC16f877 has two Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules (CCP! & CCP2) Each CCP module contains a 16-bit register which can operate as a: 16-bit Capture register 16-bit Compare register PWM master/slave Duty Cycle register

38 CCP MODULES Both the CCP1 and CCP2 modules are identical in operation, with the exception being the operation of the special event trigger

39 CCP1 MODULE Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (CCPR1) is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR1L (low byte) and CCPR1H (high byte) The CCP1CON register controls the operation of CCP1 The special event trigger is generated by a compare match and will reset Timer1.

40 CCPxCON Registers CCP1CON REGISTER/CCP2CON REGISTER (ADDRESS: 17h/1dh)

41 CAPTURE MODE In Capture mode, CCPR1H:CCPR1L captures the 16-bit value of the TMR1 register when an event occurs on pin RC2/CCP1. An event is defined as: Every falling edge Every 4th rising edge Every rising edge Every 16th rising edge An event is selected by control bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0 (CCP1CON<3:0>) When a capture is made, the interrupt flag bit CCP1IF (PIR1<2>) is set The interrupt flag must be cleared in software. If another capture occurs before the value in register CCPR1 is read, the old captured value will be lost.

42 CAPTURE MODE : RC2/CCP1 In Capture mode, the RC2/CCP1 pin should be configured as an input by setting the TRISC<2> bit Note: If the RC2/CCP1 pin is configured as an output, a write to the port can cause a capture condition.

43 CAPTURE MODE : Timer1 selection Timer1 must be running in timer mode or synchronized counter mode for the CCP module to use the capture feature. In asynchronous counter mode, the capture operation may not work.

44 CAPTURE MODE

45 Example: use of CAPTURE MODE Period Measurement CCP1 operates in capture mode, interrupt on rising edge T=? Start, read counts from CCPRx (Init_Count) Stop, read counts from CCPRx (Final_count) Period = (Final_count - Init_Count) * refrence clock to the TIMER1 Assume that the period is shorter than * reference clock

46 Example: use of CAPTURE MODE Main Program. //setup Timer 1 //setup CCPRx for Capture //mode on rising edge //clear Period_Measu_done flag //enable appropriate interrupt. If (Period_Measu_done) repot_period; loop.. CCPx ISR.. // If first interrupt { // save_ccpxr into Init_Count; // exit ;} // else { // calculate the period; // set Period_Measu_done flag; // disable CCPxIE; // exit; }..

47 Compare Mode In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPR1 register value is constantly compared against the TMR1 register pair value When a match occurs, the RC2/CCP1 pin is: Driven high Driven low Remains unchanged The action on the pin is based on the value of control bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0 (CCP1CON<3:0>) At the same time, interrupt flag bit CCP1IF is set.

48 COMPARE MODE : RC2/CCP1 In Compare mode, the RC2/CCP1 pin should be configured as an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit Note: Clearing the CCP1CON register will force the RC2/CCP1 compare output latch to the default low level. This is not the data latch.

49 COMPARE MODE : Timer1 selection Timer1 must be running in timer mode or synchronized counter mode for the CCP module to use the compare feature. In asynchronous counter mode, the compare operation may not work.

50 COMPARE MODE : Software Interrupt mode When Generate Software Interrupt mode is chosen, the CCP1 pin is not affected. The CCPIF bit is set causing a CCP interrupt (if enabled)

51 COMPARE MODE : SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER In this mode, an internal hardware trigger is generated, which may be used to initiate an action. The special event trigger output of CCP1 resets the TMR1 register pair This allows the CCPR1 register to effectively be a 16-bit programmable period register for Timer1 The special event trigger output of CCP2 resets the TMR1 register pair and starts an A/D conversion (if the A/D module is enabled) Note: The special event trigger from the CCP1and CCP2 modules will not set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>)

52 Compare Mode

53 CCPxCON Registers CCP1CON REGISTER/CCP2CON REGISTER (ADDRESS: 17h/1dh)

54 Example: use of Capture and Compare mode Period Measurement (If Period > 65535* reference clock) CCP1 operates in capture mode, interrupt on rising edge T=? Start, read counts from CCPR1 (Init_Count), then save it it CCPR2 CCP2 operates in Compare mode (software interrupt), interrupts every clocks. Update CYCLES Stop, read counts from CCPRx (Final_count) Period = (Final_count - Init_Count+(CYCLES*65536))* Timer1_clock

55 Example: SquareWave Generator with Compare mode 1kHz 500 clocks* 500 clocks On interrupt, toggle bit 0 of CCPxCON add 500 to CCPRx reset CCPxIF * Assume - PIC run at 4 MHz or 1uS instruction cycle - Timer1 is on and the input is from the internal clock

56 Example: Trigger Special Event /Compare mode No need to reload CCPRx since the CCPx resets TMR1

57 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Mode In pulse width modulation mode, the CCPx pin produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output Since the CCP1 pin is multiplexed with the PORTC data latch, the TRISC<2> bit must be cleared to make the CCP1 pin an output.

58 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Mode

59 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Mode A PWM output has a time-base (period) and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle) The frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period (1/period)

60 PWM Period The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register The PWM period can be calculated using the following formula: PWM period = [(PR2) + 1] 4 TOSC (TMR2 prescale value) PWM frequency is defined as 1 / [PWM period] When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events occur on the next increment cycle: TMR2 is cleared The CCP1 pin is set (exception: if PWM duty cycle = 0%, the CCP1 pin will not be set) The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPR1L into CCPR1H

61 PWM Resolution Maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM frequency:

62 SET UP for PWM Operation Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the CCPR1L register and CCP1CON<5:4> bits Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2 by writing to T2CON. Configure the CCP1 module for PWM operation.

63 REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE, COMPARE, AND TIMER1

64 REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM AND TIMER2

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