What Does Rail-to-Rail Operation Really Mean?

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1 What Does Rail-to-Rail Operation Really Mean? 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 1

2 Agenda What does Rail-to-Rail output operation mean Amplifier Output Stage Distortion Techniques to Compare Rail-to-Rail Op Amps Microchip Op Amps and References 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 2

3 Rail-to-Rail Operation Rail means supply voltage (V DD and V SS ) Rail-to-Rail output of amplifier In reality: Output can not reach the rails The difference from the rail is called Headroom 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 3

4 Amplifier Output Stage V IN + V DD Push-Pull output V OH Headroom V OL V OUT Transistor junction drop V IN V SS Headroom When V OUT V DD : V DD V OUT = V OH When V OUT V SS : V OUT V SS = V OL 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 4

5 Amplifier Output Stage Headroom increases with increasing output current 1,000 T A = 25 C Output Voltage Headroom (mv typ.) 100 V OH V OL E E E E µ 100µ 1m 10m Output Current Magnitude (A) 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 5

6 Output Distortion Voltage time Signal distortion (clipping) Approaching the rail distorts the output R L = 10kΩ T A = 25 C VOUT (V typ.) 4.5 V OUT V DD = 5V Time 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 6

7 Amplifier Non-Linearity Non-linearity when V OUT the rails Input Offset Voltage (µv typ.) T A = 25 C R L = 10kΩ V DD = 5.5 V Output Voltage (V) V CM = V SS Non-linear Regions 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 7

8 Amplifier Linearity Open Loop Gain (A VOL ) measurement range provides the clue to determine the linear region A VOL = V OS / V OUT two point measurement: V V OS OUT = 300mV Input Offset Voltage (µv typ.) T A = 25 C R L = 10kΩ V DD = 5.5 V V CM = V SS Output Voltage (V) V OS V OUT = V DD - 300mV (300mV for MCP6001) 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 8

9 Amplifier Linearity What causes the distortion? transistors no longer in linear operation Linear Region Specified in measurement conditions Recommended headroom for MCP mV with 10kΩ load to V DD /2 sink/source current dependent 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 9

10 Rail-to-Rail Output Amplifiers Comparison Techniques Compare headroom vs. sink/source current Compare the A VOL measurement range Do bench verification Compare expected vs. measured output voltage 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 10

11 Microchip Op Amps Part number I/O Range V DD (V) Range I Q (µa) max MCP6271 R/R I/O MCP6281 R/R I/O MCP6291 R/R I/O MCP6S21 R/R I/O MCP6241 R/R I/O MCP6001 R/R I/O MCP6140 R/R I/O MCP6041 R/R I/O MCP6021 R/R I/O TC1034 R/R I/O µA MCP606 R/R O µA MCP616 R/R O µA MCP601 R/R O µA R/R I/O Rail-to-Rail Input/Output 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 11

12 Conclusion Amplifier output can not reach the rails Headroom is dependent on sink/source current Approaching the rails introduces distortion Bench test device to determine linear region 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 12

13 Application Notes References ADN009, What Does Rail-to-Rail Operation Really Mean? ADN003, Select the Right Operational Amplifier for your Filtering Circuits AN699, Anti-Aliasing, Analog Filters for Data Acquisition Systems AN722, Operational Amplifier Topologies and DC Specifications AN723, Operational Amplifier AC Specifications and Applications AN695, Interfacing Pressure Sensors to Microchip s Analog Peripherals AN737, Using Digital Potentiometers to Design Low Pass Adjustable Filters AN246, Driving the Analog Inputs of a SAR A/D Converter AN688, Layout Tips for 12-Bit A/D Converter Application AN884, Driving Capacitive Loads With Op Amps 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 13

14 WebSeminar: April 21, 2004 What Does Rail-to-Rail Operation Really Mean? 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 14

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