# 2 Fractions, decimals and percentages

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1 2 Fractions, decimals and percentages You can use fractions, decimals and percentages in many different practical problems. Fractions You need to know how to: Read, write and compare common fractions Example Which is smaller: 2 5 or 1 2? Answer 2 5 = 0., 1 2 = 0.5 so 2 is smaller. 5 Write fractions in their simplest form Example in its simplest form is 1, dividing both the numerator and the denominator by Work out common equivalent fractions Example 6 2 and 3 12 both simplify to 1, so they are equivalent fractions. Find common fractions of quantities and measurements Example To find two-fifths of 5, work out Use the fraction key on a calculator to write fractions in their lowest terms or to calculate with fractions Example To simplify 16, key in The calculator displays. Write your answer as 5. Common fractions are halves, thirds, quarters, fifths and tenths Fact The fraction key looks like this: a b c or Decimals You need to know how to: Order and compare decimals Example 3.2 is more than 3.0 This is because the 2 in 3.2 represents 2 tenths; the in 3.0 represents hundredths Add or subtract decimals to 2 decimal places. Problems are often about money or measurements. Example 5.2 metres metres = 6.23 metres. Percentages You need to know how to: Identify equivalent common fractions, decimals and percentages. Learn the decimal and percentage equivalences for tenths, fifths, quarters, thirds and halves. Examples 0.2 = 1 5 = 20%, 0.25 = 1 = 25%. Find common percentages of quantities using mental methods Example 10% of.60 = = 0.6 So 20% of.60 = = 0.92; 5% of.60 = =

2 Let s get started Let s get started In this section you will: find fractions of quantities add or subtract decimals up to 2 decimal places round decimals or amounts of money use common decimal, fraction and percentage equivalences to find solutions to practical problems Take a look: Shopping Here is part of the price list for a market stall. Baking potatoes Milk Minced beef 1.58 per kilo 98p per litre 3.60 per kilo Mary buys 2 kilos of baking potatoes, 2 litres of milk 1 _ a kilo of minced beef. 2 How much does Mary pay? R Note the exact quantities Mary has bought Here s a possible solution: Cost of potatoes: = 3.16 Cost of milk: Cost of minced beef: = 1.80 Total cost: 6.92 A Convert the cost of milk from pence to pounds Have a go 1 A student wants to work out 161 of 82. He keys in = on his calculator. The display reads What answer should the student write down? 25

3 2 Fractions, decimals and percentages 2 Iris paid 1.37 for half a kilo of grapes from a shop. Her neighbour bought a kilo of grapes from the supermarket.she paid 2.0 The grapes were more expensive in the shop than in the supermarket. How much more expensive? Show all your working. 3 Mandy hires a car with a full tank of petrol. The hire car company tells her to bring back the car with the tank 1_ full of petrol. Mandy uses nearly all the petrol in the tank. She estimates that a full tank is about 5 litres of petrol. Approximately how many litres of petrol should Mandy put into the tank? John wants to buy a shirt. The same make of shirt is sold in two different shops. Jack s Clothes Store Shirt Normally costs 8 Now has 25% OFF Brown s Clothes Store Shirt Normally costs 60 Now has OFF 1 3 Which shop should John choose? 5 Three friends want to go to an Italian restaurant. They find the following adverts for two restaurants: Gino s Main courses normally each Special offer Two main courses for the price of one Main courses normally each Special offer Get 50% off the price of every main course Which restaurant should the three friends choose? 26

4 We re on the way We re on the way In this section you will: use equivalent fractions, decimals and percentages to solve practical problems find common fractions or percentages of quantities to solve practical problems use your working to explain and interpret solutions Take a look: Smoking habits A company has had a Give up smoking campaign for the past year. Here is information about the number of male smokers in the company. Fraction of male employees who smoke Total number of male employees Last year 1_ 3 36 This year 1_ 5 35 QUIT WHILE YOU RE AHEAD Approximately 20% of men in the UK smoke. Compare the number of smokers last year and this year with the UK percentage. Here s a possible solution: Last year s figures: 1 is roughly 33% 3 This year s figures: 1 is 20% 5 Last year, there were about 13% more male smokers at the company than the UK percentage of male smokers. This year the percentage of smokers at the company was the same as the UK percentage. Have a go 6 Sara takes three different tests. Here are her results. IT (out of 36 marks) Maths (out of 0 marks) Science % Compare her results in the three tests. 27

5 2 Fractions, decimals and percentages 7 Danny owns a clothes shop. He buys 60 pairs of jeans to sell in his shop. Danny pays 8 for each pair of jeans. He sells 1_ of the jeans for 16 each pair. Danny then has a sale. He sells all the jeans that are left for 10 each pair. What is the total amount of money Danny made? Show all your working and explain your reasons. 8 Bill is the manager of a leisure centre. He keeps a record of the number of people coming to each class for one month. Bill shows this information in a bar chart. Number of people The maximum number of people for each class is 200 people per month. If less than 25% of the maximum attendance of people come to a class, Bill will close the class People coming to each class for one month aerobics step bums & tums Class yoga Which class will Bill close? Show all your working. 9 Alan buys an old canal boat. He wants to change how space is used inside the boat. He draws this plan. Bathroom and bedroom area Kitchen and living area 20 m Alan wants the length of the bathroom and bedroom area to be about 2_ of the 5 length of the boat. What will the length of the kitchen and living area be? Show all your working. 10 Joyce is going to sell cups of orange drink at a village fair. She wants to sell 200 cups of the orange drink. Each cup will hold 250 ml of the orange drink. Joyce will mix 10% of orange squash with water for each cup of drink. a) Work out how many litres of orange squash Joyce needs to buy. Here are the prices of orange squash. 1 litre bottle 1.5 litre bottle Fact b) What is the cheapest way to buy this amount of orange squash? 1 litre 1000 ml 28

6 Exam ready! 11 Danielle is thinking of applying for one of the following two jobs: Telesales assistant Salary: per year Office clerk in a city centre office Mon Fri: 35 hours per week Saturday: 5 hours Rate of pay: 8 per hour (Saturdays: time and a quarter) Permanent position Think First! Work out a quarter of the hourly rate. Add this on to the hourly rate to find time and a quarter. Which job will pay Danielle most money? Exam ready! In this section you will: find out how fractions, decimals and percentages can be used to find solutions to practical problems apply a range of calculation techniques using fractions, decimals and percentages use checking techniques to confirm that solutions are right interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems, using calculations to justify any statements made round to an appropriate number of decimal places to solve practical problems Take a look: Cake stall Every year Karen makes cakes to sell at a charity fair. Here is some information about Karen s cakes last year. Number of cakes sold Price charged per cake 50 Karen thinks that more people will come to the fair this year. She assumes she will sell 10% more cakes. Karen wants to get at least 20% more money than she got for charity last year. Karen needs to decide how much to charge for each cake at this year s fair. a) Work out the minimum amount of money Karen wants to get from selling cakes this year. b) Decide how much money Karen should charge for each cake. 29

7 2 Fractions, decimals and percentages Here s a possible solution: a) 50 x = % of 200 = 0.2 x 200 = = 20 A Work out how much money Karen got at last year s fair A Work out how much more money Karen wants to get this year I This is the minimum amount Karen wants to get this year b) 10% of 50 = = = Karen should charge.50 per cake. R Work out how many cakes Karen thinks she will sell this year I This is the number of cakes Karen thinks she will sell this year A Divide the amount of money Karen wants to get by the number of cakes she thinks she will sell I Round up to a sensible price for a cake Have a go 12 A newspaper article states that about 0% of school leavers in the UK go to university. The head teacher of Middleton High School wants to know how her school leavers compare with the UK average of school leavers going to university. Here are the school s records for school leavers last year. Middleton High School destination of school leavers University Employment a) What fraction of the school leavers from Middleton High School went to University? b) How does this information compare with the UK average for school leavers? Show all your working. 30

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