# SIXTY STUDY QUESTIONS TO THE COURSE NUMERISK BEHANDLING AV DIFFERENTIALEKVATIONER I

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1 Lennart Edsberg, Nada, KTH Autumn 2008 SIXTY STUDY QUESTIONS TO THE COURSE NUMERISK BEHANDLING AV DIFFERENTIALEKVATIONER I Parameter values and functions occurring in the questions belowwill be exchanged at the exam. (4) 1. Given a system of ODE s ẏ = Ay, wherea is an n n-matrix. Give a sufficient condition that the analytical solution is bounded for all t>0. Will there be bounded solutions when the matrix A =...? (4) 2. For a nonlinear system of ODE s ẏ = f(y), what is meant by the critical points of the system? Give a sufficient condition that a critical point is stable. Are the critical point of the following system stable?... (4) 3. Given a nonlinear system of ODE s ẏ = f(y). Assume that the right hand side consists of differentiable functions. Describe a Newton s method for computing the critical points of the system. For the following system, choose an initial vector and make one iteration with Newton s method.... (3) 4. What does it mean that an n n matrix A is diagonalizable? Is the following matrix A diagonalizable?... (4) 5. For a system of ODE s ẏ = Ay, y(0) = y 0, the solution can be written as y(t) =e At y 0. What is meant by the matrix e At?Whatise At when A =...? (1) 6. For a system of ODE s ẏ = f(y) what is meant by an initial value problem? (4) 7. What is meant by the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of an n n matrix A? The eigenvectors are roots of the characteristic equation. What is the characteristic equation of A? Which are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the matrix A =...? (4) 8. Given a difference equation y n+1 = a 1 y n +a 2 y n a k+1 y n k where a 1,a 2,...a k+1 are real. Formulate a sufficient condition that the sequence y n is bounded for all n. Is the solution bounded when n>0 for the following difference equation?... (4) 9. Given a difference equation on the form y n y n =0. Isthesolutiony n bounded for all n>0? (2) 10. Formulate the following 3rd order ODE as a system of three first order ODE s... (3) 11. Give the recursion formula when the Euler backward method with time step h is used on e.g. the ODE-problem y = y 3 + t, y(0) = 1. In each time step t n+1 a nonlinear 1

2 equation must be solved. Formulate that equation on the form F (y n+1 )=0andthe iteration formula when Newton s method is applied to this equation. (2) 12. What is meant by an explicit method for solving an initial value problem ẏ = f(y),y(0) = y 0 Give at least two examples (with their formulas) of explicit methods often used to solve such a problem. (2) 13. What is meant by an implicit method for solving an initial value problem ẏ = f(y),y(0) = y 0 Give at least two examples of implicit methods (with their formulas) often used to solve such a problem. (2) 14. What is meant by the order of accuracy for a method used to solve an initial value problem ẏ = f(y),y(0) = y 0? What is the order of the Euler forward method and the classical Runge-Kutta method? (2) 15. What is meant by automatic stepsize control for a method used to solve an initial value problem ẏ = f(y),y(0) = y 0? (4) 16. Why is the midpoint method not suited for ODE-systems where the eigenvalues of the jacobian are real and negative? Are there any ODE-systems for which the method could be suitable? (2) 17. Explain the difference between local error and global error for the explicit Euler method. (2) 18. An ODE-problem, initial value and boundary value problem, can be solved by a discretization method or an ansatz method. Give a brief description of what is meant by these two method classes. (4) 19. When an initial value problem ẏ = f(y),y(0) = y 0 is solved with a discretization method, what is meant by the stability area in the complex hq-plane for the method? Give a sketch of the stability area for the method... (2) 20. What is meant by a stiff system of ODE s ẏ = f(y)? (2)21. ForalinearsystemofODE sẏ = Ay, where the eigenvalues of A are λ 1,λ 2,...,λ n, when is the system stable? Assume that all eigenvalues are real and negative, when is the system stiff? 2

3 (2) 22. Describe some discretization methods that are suitable for stiff initial value ODE problems. (2) 23. Which is the computational problem when a stiff initial value ODE-system is solved with an explicit method? (3) 24. Given e.g. the following ODE-system ẏ = 100y + z, y(0) = 1, ż = 0.1z, z(0) = 1. For which values of the stepsize h is the Euler forward method stable? Same question for the Euler backward method. (4) 25. Given the vibration equation mẍ + cẋ + kx =0, x(0) = 0, ẋ(0) = v 0 Use scaling of x and t to formulate this ODE on dimensionless form. Determine scaling factors so that the scaled equation contains as fewparameters as possible. (2) 26. Describe the finite difference method used to solve a boundary value problem y + a(x)y + b(x)y = c(x),y (0) = a, y (1) + y(1) = b. (4) 27. Verify with Taylor expansion that the following two approximations are of second order, i.e. O(h 2 ). 1) y (x) (y(x + h) y(x h))/2h, 2)y (x) (y(x + h) 2y(x)+ y(x h))/h 2 (4) 28. Derive a second order difference approximation to y (4) (x) using the values y(x + 2h),y(x + h),y(x),y(x h) andy(x 2h). (4) 29. Derive a second order difference approximation to y (x) using the values y(x),y(x h) and y(x 2h). (2) 30. Given a second order ODE y = f(x, y, y ). Assume a Dirichlet boundary value is given in the left interval point y(0) = 1. Present two other ways in which a boundary contition can be given in the right boundary point. (4) 31. When a boundary value problem y = p(x)y +q(x)y+r(x),y(0) = 1,y(1) = 0 is solved with discretization based on the approximations y (x n ) (y n+1 2y n +y n 1 )/h 2 and y (x n ) (y n+1 y n 1 )/2h we obtain a linear system Ay = b of equations to be solved. Set up this system. Which special structure does the matrix A have? (2) 32. What is meant by a tridiagonal n n matrix A? The number of flops needed to solve a corresponding linear system of equations Ax = b can be expressed as O(n p ). What is the value of p? The number of bytes needed in the memory of a computer to store such a system can be expressed as O(n q ). What is the value of q? (2) 33. What is meant by a banded n n matrix A? Describe some way of storing such a matrix in a sparse way. Same question for a profile matrix. 3

4 (2) 34. What input and output data are suitable for a Matlab function solving a tridiagonal system of linear equations Ax = b if the goal is to save number of flops and computer memory? (4) 35. The boundary value problem y = f(x),y(0) = y(1) = 0 can be solved with an ansatz method based on Galerkin s method. Formulate the Galerkin method for this problem. (4) 36. Classify the following PDEs with respect to linearity (linear or nonlinear), order (first, second), type (elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic): a) u t = u xx +u, b)u xx +2u yy =0,c)u t =(a(u)u x ) x,d)u t +uu x =0,e)u y = u x x+x (4) 37. Formulate the ODE-system u = Au + b when the Method of Lines is applied to the PDE-problem u t = u xx + u, t > 0, 0 x 1,u(0,t)=0,u(1,t)=1,u(x, 0) = x u xx is approximated by the central difference formula. (4) 38. Formulate the ODE-system u = Au + b when the Method of Lines is applied to the PDE-problem u t + u x =0,t>0, 0 x 1,u(0,t)=0,u(x, 0) = x u x is to be approximated by the backward Euler difference formula. (2) 39. What is meant by an upwind scheme for solving u t + au x =0,a>0? (2) 40. Derive a difference approximation and the corresponding stencil to e.g. the Laplace operator 2 u x u y 2 + u x + u y (2) 41. What is the order of accuracy in t and x when the Method of Lines with central differences in the x-variable and the implicit Euler method is applied to e.g. the heat equation u t = u xx? (2) 42. Give a second order accurate approximation difference formula of (d(x)u x ) x. (2) 43. Describe the Crank-Nicolson method for solving the heat equation. 4

5 (2) 44. Formulate the Galerkin method for the elliptic problem u xx + u yy = f(x, y), (x, y) Ω u(x, y) =0, (x, y) Ω (2) 45. Formulate the Galerkin method for the parabolic problem u t = u xx,u(x, 0) = f(x),u(0,t)=u(1,t)=0 (2) 46. In an ansatz method for a 1D problem the solution u(x) is approximated by the linear expression u h (x) = α i ϕ i (x), where the basis functions ϕ i (x) can be chosen differently. Give a description of the roof-functions, i.e. the piecewise linear basis functions in x. (2) 47. In an ansatz method for a 2D problem the solution u(x, y) is approximated by the linear expression u h (x, y) = α i ϕ i (x, y), where the basis functions ϕ i (x, y) canbe chosen differently. Give a description of the pyramid-functions, i.e. the piecewise linear basis functions in x, y. (2) 48. When solving PDE-problems in 2D and 3D with difference or ansatz methods we are lead to solving large linear systems of equations Ax = b. What is meant by a direct method and an iterative method for solving Ax = b? Give examples by name of some direct methods and some iterative methods. (1) 49. What is meant by dissipation and dispersion when a conservation law is solved numerically? (2) 50. What is meant by fill-in when solving a sparse linear system of equations Ax = b with a direct method? (3) 51. What is meant by the Cholesky-factorization of a symmetric positive definite matrix A? Can the following matrix A be Cholesky factorized? (2) 52. If Ax = b is rewritten on the form x = Hx + c and the iteration x k+1 = Hx k + c is defined, what is the condition on H for convergence of the iterations to the solution of Ax = b? Also formulate a condition on H for fast convergence. (2) 53. What is meant by the steepest descent method for solving Ax = b, wherea is symmetric and positive definite? (4) 54. Describe preconditioning when used with the steepest descent method. Assume that the matrix A is symmetric and positive definite. 5

6 (3) 55. For a hyperbolic PDE in x and t the solution u(x, t) is constant along certain curves in the x, t-plane. What are these curves called? Give the analytic expression for these curves belonging to u t +2u x =0. (4) 56. Given the system of PDEs ( ) 0 1 u t + u 2 0 x =0 Is the system hyperbolic? Which are the characteristics? (3) 57. Given the systems of PDEs ( ) 0 1 u t + u 2 0 x =0 A solution is wanted on the interval 0 x 1, t 0. Suggest initial and boundary conditions that give a mathematically well posed problem. (2) 58. What is meant by a numerical boundary condition? (2) 59. Use Neumann analysis to verify that the upwind scheme is unstable when applied to u t = au x,a>0. (2) 60. What is meant by artificial diffusion? Why is that sometimes used when solving hyperbolic PDEs? 6

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