I HAVE SEEN THAT FILM. I HAVE SEEN THAT FILM THIS WEEK.

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1 PRESENT PERFECT IL PRESENT PERFECT È IL TEMPO VERBALE INGLESE CHE ESPRIME IL CONCETTO GENERALE DI UN AZIONE CHE, PUR ESSENDOSI SVOLTA NEL PASSATO, HA ANCORA QUALCHE TIPO DI RAPPORTO CON IL PRESENTE. TALE RAPPORTO CON IL PRESENTE PUÒ RIGUARDARE: - IL TEMPO IN CUI L AZIONE SI È SVOLTA. - L AZIONE STESSA, CHE NON È FINITA MENTRE SI PARLA. IN PRATICA, SI DEVE USARE IL PRESENT PERFECT QUANDO SI VERIFICA ALMENO UNA DELLE SEGUENTI CONDIZIONI. 1. L AZIONE SI È SVOLTA NEL PASSATO, MA IL TEMPO NON È ESPRESSO (NON DICO QUANDO). ESEMPIO: HO VISTO QUEL FILM. I HAVE SEEN THAT FILM. L AZIONE DI VEDERE IL FILM È PASSATA, MA NON DICO QUANDO L HO VISTO, PERCIÒ USO IL PRESENT PERFECT. 2. L AZIONE È PASSATA, IL TEMPO È ESPRESSO, MA NON È FINITO MENTRE SI PARLA. ESEMPIO: HO VISTO QUEL FILM QUESTA SETTIMANA. I HAVE SEEN THAT FILM THIS WEEK. L AZIONE DI VEDERE IL FILM È PASSATA E FINITA, IL TEMPO È ESPRESSO, QUESTA SETTIMANA, MA LA SETTIMANA NON È ANCORA FINITA. USO IL PRESENT PERFECT. 3. IN UNA FRASE AL PASSATO È PRESENTE UNO DEI SEGUENTI AVVERBI DI TEMPO: IN INGLESE IN ITALIANO ESEMPIO ALREADY GIÀ (USATO IN FRASI AFFERMATIVE E INTERROGATIVE) I HAVE ALREADY MET HIM. (L'HO GIÀ CONOSCIUTO.) HAVE YOU ALREADY MET HIM? (LO HAI GIÀ CONOSCIUTO?) JUST APPENA I HAVE JUST MET HIM. (L'HO APPENA CONOSCIUTO.) EVER MAI (USATO IN FRASI INTERROGATIVE) HAVE YOU EVER MET HIM? (LO HAI MAI CONOSCIUTO?) NEVER RECENTLY LATELY YET MAI (VUOLE SEMPRE IL VERBO NELLA FORMA AFFERMATIVA) RECENTEMENTE A) ANCORA (IN FRASI NEGATIVE) B) GIÀ (IN FRASI INTERROGATIVE) I HAVE NEVER MET HIM. (NON L'HO MAI CONOSCIUTO.) I HAVE MET HIM RECENTLY. (L'HO CONOSCIUTO RECENTEMENTE.) A) I HAVEN'T MET HIM YET. (NON L'HO ANCORA CONOSCIUTO.) B) HAVE YOU MET HIM YET? (LO HAI GIÀ CONOSCIUTO?) present perfect 1

2 ESERCIZI 1. RIORDINA LE PAROLE CON IL PRESENT PERFECT 1. BOB / VISIT / HIS GRANDMA 1. JIMMY / PLAY / ON THE COMPUTER 2. SUE AND WALTER / WASH / THEIR CAR 3. ANDREW / REPAIR / HIS BIKE 4. PHIL / HELP / ANNE WITH MATHS 5. BRAD AND LOUISE / WATCH / A FILM 6. TAMARA / TALK TO / HER BEST FRIEND 7. BRIDGETTE / DRAW / A PICTURE 8. CAROL / READ / A COMPUTER MAGAZINE 9. TOM AND ALICE / BE / TO A RESTAURANT 2. COMPLETA 1. I (NOT / WORK) TODAY. 2. WE (BUY) A NEW LAMP. 3. WE (NOT / PLAN) OUR HOLIDAY YET. 4. WHERE (BE / YOU)? 5. HE (WRITE) FIVE LETTERS. 6. SHE (NOT / SEE) HIM FOR A LONG TIME. 7. (BE / YOU) AT SCHOOL? 8. SCHOOL (NOT / START) YET. 9. (SPEAK / HE) TO HIS BOSS? 10. NO, HE (HAVE / NOT) THE TIME YET. 3.A LEGGI E COMPLETA LOCH NESS IS A LAKE BETWEEN THE SCOTTISH TOWNS OF INVERNESS AND FORT AUGUSTUS. THE WORD LOCH IS SCOTTISH FOR LAKE. LOCH NESS IS ABOUT 37 KM LONG AND EXTREMELY DEEP, THE DEEPEST PART IS 226 M. LOCH NESS IS FAMOUS FOR ITS FRIENDLY MONSTER, NESSIE. MOST PEOPLE THINK THAT THIS IS ONLY A LEGEND, BUT EVERY YEAR TOURISTS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD COME TO LOCH NESS AND HOPE THAT THEY WILL SEE THE MONSTER. present perfect 2

3 3.B WRITE THE VERBS IN PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE. 1. TOURISTS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD (BE) TO LOCH NESS. 2. MOST OF THEM (SEE / NOT) NESSIE, HOWEVER. 3. ONLY VERY FEW PEOPLE SAY THAT THE LOCH NESS MONSTER (APPEAR) IN FRONT OF THEM. 4. EVEN SCIENTISTS (COME) TO LOCH NESS TO FIND THE MONSTER. 5. AND THE BOSS OF THE GUINNESS BREWERY (PROMISE) TO PAY 500,000 POUNDS TO THE PERSON WHO CATCHES NESSIE. 4. WRITE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS. 1. MARY (HAVE) THE BABY! OH, WHEN SHE (HAVE) IT? THIS MORNING. THERE (BE) NO COMPLICATIONS. 2. SO, WHO (WIN)THE ELECTIONS? DO WE KNOW YET? NO, THE RESULTS (NOT COME) IN YET 3. YOU WON T BELIEVE THIS! SARAH (LEAVE) HER HUSBAND. REALLY? WHEN THIS (HAPPEN)? 4. THERE (BE) AN ACCIDENT ON THE MOTORWAY SO WE D BETTER TAKE THE OTHER ROAD. 5. A BOMB (EXPLODE) IN THE CITY CENTRE AND THERE IS CONFUSION EVERYWHERE! NO! ANYONE (CLAIM) RESPONSIBILITY YET? NO, THERE (NOT BE) ANY CALLS TO THE MEDIA YET. 6. OH, NO! SOMEONE (STEAL) MY CELL PHONE! 7. OH, MY GOODNESS! THE POLICE (ARREST) TREVOR! WHY? WHAT HE (DO)? APPARENTLY HE S BEEN CHARGED WITH DRINKING AND DRIVING. WHEN THIS (HAPPEN)? A FEW MINUTES AGO. THE POLICE (STOP) HIM NEAR THE PUB BECAUSE HE (DRIVE) ALL OVER THE ROAD. SO WHAT TREVOR (SAY)? HE (SAY) HE (NOT BE) DRUNK! present perfect 3

4 PRESENT PERFECT VS SIMPLE PAST IN BRITISH ENGLISH, THE USE OF SIMPLE PAST AND PRESENT PERFECT IS QUITE STRICT. AS SOON AS A TIME EXPRESSION IN THE PAST IS GIVEN, YOU HAVE TO USE SIMPLE PAST. IF THERE ARE NO SIGNAL WORDS, YOU MUST DECIDE IF WE JUST TALK ABOUT AN ACTION IN THE PAST OR IF ITS CONSEQUENCE IN THE PRESENT IS IMPORTANT. SIMPLE PAST CERTAIN TIME IN THE PAST I PHONED MARY 2 MINUTES AGO. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE JUST / ALREADY / NOT YET I HAVE JUST PHONED MARY. SIMPLE PAST CERTAIN EVENT IN THE PAST PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE WHETHER / HOW OFTEN TILL NOW HE WENT TO CANADA LAST SUMMER. HAVE YOU EVER BEEN TO CANADA? / I HAVE BEEN TO CANADA TWICE. SIMPLE PAST EMPHASIS ON ACTION I BOUGHT A NEW BIKE. (JUST TELLING WHAT I DID IN THE PAST.) PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE EMPHASIS ON RESULT I HAVE BOUGHT A NEW BIKE. (WITH THIS SENTENCE I ACTUALLY WANT TO EXPRESS THAT I HAVE A NEW BIKE NOW.) SIMPLE PAST YESTERDAY... AGO IN 1990 THE OTHER DAY LAST... PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE JUST ALREADY UP TO NOW UNTIL NOW / TILL NOW EVER (NOT) YET SO FAR LATELY / RECENTLY ESERCIZI 1. MATCH THE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 HAS HE ARRIVED YET? A HE ARRIVED LAST NIGHT. 2 WHEN DID HE ARRIVE? B YES, I DID. BUT I DON T ANYMORE. 3 HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN LOVE? C NO, I HAVEN T. I HATE THE SMELL. 4 DID YOU LOVE HIM? D NO, I DIDN T 5 HAVE YOU EVER SMOKED A CIGARETTE? E YES, HE HAS. HE S IN THE KITCHEN. 6 DID YOU SMOKE AT THE PARTY? F NO, HE HASN T DONE IT YET. 7 HAS HE HANDED IN HIS HOMEWORK YET? G NO, HE DIDN T. 8 DID HE DO HIS HOMEWORK YESTERDAY? H NO, NOT YET. present perfect 4

5 2. CHOOSE THE CORRECT VERB FORM TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES Q1 - HE THERE WHEN HE WAS A CHILD HAS LIVED LIVED Q3 - THEY A FEW MINUTES AGO LEFT HAVE LEFT Q5 - THEY THE CONTRACT LAST WEEK FINALISED HAVE FINALISED Q7 - SHE ILL SINCE THURSDAY WAS HAS BEEN Q9 - LOOK- SOMEONE THEIR HANDBAG IN THE ROOM LEFT HAS LEFT Q11 - I CAN'T GET INTO MY HOUSE BECAUSE I MY KEYS LOST HAVE LOST Q13 - I UP SMOKING LAST YEAR GAVE HAVE GIVEN Q15 - TO THE UNITED STATES? DID YOU EVER GO HAVE YOU EVER BEEN Q17 - IT'S THE FIRST TIME I... CAVIAR ATE HAVE EATEN Q19 - IT STINKS IN HERE; SOMEONE SMOKING WAS HAS BEEN Q2 - I HER SINCE LAST YEAR HAVEN'T SEEN DIDN'T SEE Q4 - SHE UNEMPLOYED SINCE SHE LEFT SCHOOL HAS NOT BEEN WAS NOT Q6 - THE FILM YET HASN'T STARTED DIDN'T START Q8 - I THE PROJECT LAST NIGHT HAVE FINISHED FINISHED Q10 - TO ROME? DID YOU EVER GO HAVE YOU EVER BEEN Q12 - NOBODY THE PHONE WHEN IT RANG ANSWERED HAS ANSWERED Q14 - YOU CAN'T SEE HER BECAUSE SHE HOME HAS GONE WENT Q16 - I NEVER MY GRANDMOTHER AS SHE DIED BEFORE I WAS BORN KNEW HAVE KNOWN Q18 - THE FIRST TIME WE WAS JUST THE OTHER DAY SPOKE HAVE SPOKEN Q20 - HE'S IN HOSPITAL BECAUSE HE LEG HAS BROKEN BROKE 3. I HAVE DONE OR I DID? PUT IN THE CORRECT VERB FORM. I VE DONE (I / DO) ALL THE HOUSEWORK. THE FLAT IS REALLY CLEAN NOW. A YOUNG COUPLE BOUGHT (BUY) THE HOUSE NEXT DOOR. BUT THEY DIDN'T LIVE THERE LONG. 1. OUR VISITORS (ARRIVE). THEY'RE SITTING IN THE GARDEN. present perfect 5

6 2. THERE'S STILL A PROBLEM WITH THE TELEVISION. SOMEONE (REPAIR) IT, BUT THEN IT BROKE DOWN AGAIN. 3. (I / LOSE) MY BANKCARD. I CAN'T FIND IT ANYWHERE. 4. THE MATCH (START). UNITED ARE PLAYING WELL. 5. MY SISTER (RUN) AWAY FROM HOME. BUT SHE CAME BACK TWO DAYS LATER. 6. DANIEL (EARN) SOME MONEY LAST WEEK. BUT I M AFRAID HE'S ALREADY SPENT IT ALL. 7. (WE / PLANT) AN APPLE TREE IN THE GARDEN. UNFORTUNATELY IT DIED. 8. PRICES (GO) UP. EVERYTHING IS MORE EXPENSIVE THIS YEAR. 9. SOMEONE (TURN) ON THE HI-FI. WHAT'S THAT SONG CALLED? 10. (I /PHONE) THE OFFICE AT ELEVEN TO SPEAK TO THE MANAGER, BUT HE ISN'T THERE TODAY. 11. (I / MAKE) A CAKE. WOULD YOU LIKE A PIECE? 12. THE RUNNER AMOS TEMILA (BREAK) THE WORLD RECORD FOR THE 1500 METRES IN FRANKFURT. THEN TWO DAYS LATER IN HELSINKI, LEE WILLIAMS RAN IT IN AN EVEN FASTER TIME. 4. COMPLETE THE DIALOGUE. SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT A: (YOU / BE / EVER) TO LONDON? B: YES, I (BE) THERE THREE TIMES. A: WHEN (BE) THE LAST TIME YOU (BE) THERE? B: LAST SUMMER. I (SPEND) TWO WEEKS IN BRIGHTON WITH MY PARENTS AND WE (GO) TO LONDON ONE WEEKEND A: (YOU / LIKE) IT? B: OH YES. WE REALLY (HAVE) A GREAT TIME IN LONDON. A: LUCKY YOU! I (BE / NEVER) TO LONDON. 5. COMPLETE THE DIALOGUE. SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT A: (YOU / BUY) THE TICKETS FOR OUR JOURNEY YET? B: YES, I (GO) TO THE STATION YESTERDAY AND (BUY) THE TICKETS. A: WHAT TIME (YOU / GO) THERE? B: I (TAKE) A FRIEND TO THE STATION IN THE MORNING. HIS TRAIN (LEAVE) AT 9:45. A: (YOU / PACK) YOUR BAGS YET? B: OF COURSE. AND I (ASK / ALREADY) MY NEIGHBOUR TO EMPTY MY LETTER BOX. WHAT ABOUT YOU? A: I (PACK) MY BAGS TWO DAYS AGO. 6. COMPLETE WITH SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT 1. YESTERDAY, MY BROTHER (COME) HOME FROM SCHOOL, (SWITCH) ON THE TV AND (WATCH) TV UNTIL DINNER (BE) READY. 2. OH NO, IT'S RAINING AND I (LEAVE) MY UMBRELLA AT HOME. 3. LOOK! THERE IS SO MUCH FOOD LEFT. NOBODY (EAT) ANYTHING. 4. A: WHERE (YOU / BE) YESTERDAY? B: I (GO) TO THE SHOPPING CENTRE AND (BUY) A NEW COMPUTER GAME. 5. A: WHY DON'T YOU WANT TO PLAY FOOTBALL WITH US THIS WEEKEND? present perfect 6

7 B: I (BREAK) MY LEG. 6. THE ROAD IS CLOSED. THERE (BE) AN ACCIDENT. 7. I (HAVE) AN ACCIDENT WHEN I (BE) IN MANCHESTER LAST YEAR. 8. COME ON, LET'S CELEBRATE! OUR TEAM (WIN) THE MATCH. 8. READ THE PASSAGE AND THEN COMPLETE THE ANSWERS WITH SIMPLE PAST O PRESENT PERFECT EDINBURGH IS THE CAPITAL OF SCOTLAND. IT HAS A BEAUTIFUL OLD CITY CENTRE AND A CASTLE THAT LIES ON A HILL ABOVE THE CITY. IN THE CASTLE YOU CAN SEE THE STATUES OF TWO SCOTTISH HEROES: ROBERT BRUCE AND WILLIAM WALLACE (KNOWN FROM THE FILM BRAVEHEART). SEVERAL FAMOUS PEOPLE WERE BORN IN EDINBURGH, FOR EXAMPLE ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (WHO INVENTED THE TELEPHONE), TONY BLAIR (PRIME MINISTER) AND ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE (WHO WROTE THE SHERLOCK HOLMES STORIES). BY THE WAY, J. K. ROWLING WROTE HER FIRST HARRY POTTER BOOK IN AN EDINBURGH COFFEE-SHOP. 1. MY FRIEND (BE) TO EDINBURGH THREE TIMES. 2. SOME YEARS AGO HE (STUDY) ENGLISH THERE. 3. LAST MONTH HE (VISIT) SOME FRIENDS IN EDINBURGH. 4. UNFORTUNATELY, I (CAN / NOT) GO TO EDINBURGH WITH HIM. 5. THIS IS A PITY. THEY ARE MY FRIENDS, TOO, AND I (SEE / NOT) THEM FOR AGES. 9. PUT IN THIS, LAST, TODAY OR YESTERDAY. LAST MONTH PRICES WENT UP, BUT THIS MONTH THEY HAVE FALLEN A LITTLE. 1. IT'S BEEN DRY SO FAR WEEK, BUT WEEK WAS VERY WET. 2. I WENT SHOPPING EARLIER AND SPENT ALL THE MONEY I EARNED. 3. WE DIDN'T HAVE MANY VISITORS YEAR. WE VE HAD A LOT MORE YEAR. 4. I DON'T FEEL SO TIRED NOW. WE GOT UP QUITE LATE MORNING. I FELT REALLY TIRED WHEN WE GOT UP SO EARLY. 10. COMPLETE THE TEXT. USE THE PAST SIMPLE OR THE PRESENT PERFECT. FILM MAKER DAVID MORRIS (BE) INTERESTED IN CINEMA SINCE HE (BE) A SMALL CHILD. HE (MAKE) HIS FIRST FILM WHEN HE (BE) JUST TWELVE YEARS OLD. HE IS NOW ALMOST 40 AND HE (MAKE) 30 FILMS. DAVID LOVES TRAVELLING. HIS WORK (TAKE) HIM ALL OVER THE WORLD. HE (BE) TO AFRICA, INDIA, AUSTRALIA, CHINA, THE USA AND SOUTH AMERICA. LAST YEAR HE (VISIT) RUSSIA FOR THE FIRST TIME. DAVID IS MARRIED TO THE SINGER, LEENA LENNOX. THEY (BE) MARRIED FOR TEN YEARS. THEY LIVE WITH THEIR TWO CHILDREN ON THE GREEK ISLAND OF CRETE. THEY (BUY) A HOUSE ON THE ISLAND IN 1987 AND THEY (LIVE) THERE SINCE THEN. present perfect 7

8 11. I'VE DONE IT. I DID IT YESTERDAY. THINGS THAT HAVE HAPPENED TODAY ARE ON THE RADIO AND TV NEWS. GIVE THE NEWS USING THE PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE. THE PRIME MINISTER / VISIT LONDON UNIVERSITY / SPEAK TO STUDENTS THERE / EARLIER TODAY THE PRIME MINISTER HAS VISITED LONDON UNIVERSITY. HE SPOKE TO STUDENTS THERE EARLIER TODAY. 1. THE TRAIN DRIVERS / GO ON STRIKE / STOP WORK / AT TWELVE O'CLOCK 2. THE QUEEN / ARRIVE IN TORONTO / FLY THERE / IN AN RAF AIRCRAFT 3. TWO MEN / ESCAPE FROM PARKHURST PRISON / GET AWAY / DURING THE NIGHT 4. THE ACTOR HOWARD BATES / DIE IN A CAR ACCIDENT / HIS CAR / CRASH INTO A WALL 5. LINDA JONES / WIN THE WOMEN'S MARATHON / RUN IT / IN 2 HOURS 27 MINUTES 12. FILL IN THE SPACES WITH THE CORRECT FORM OF THE SIMPLE PAST OR THE PRESENT PERFECT DEAR BOBBY, I (BE) IN NEW YORK FOR TWO MONTHS NOW, BUT I (NOT SEE) THE STATUE OF LIBERTY YET. YESTERDAY, I (GO) TO MACY'S AND I (BUY) YOU SOME BEAUTIFUL SHIRTS. I ( STILL NOT GO) TO BLOOMINGDALE'S OR A&S YET. I (HAVE) A LOT OF TROUBLE SINCE I (GET) HERE. IN TIMES SQUARE, ONE AWFUL DAY, TWO TEENAGERS (STEAL) MY PURSE. SINCE THAT DAY, I (BE) A LOT MORE CAREFUL THAN I (BE) WHEN I LIVED IN OHIO. LAST NIGHT, I (TAKE) A CAB TO THE THEATRE, AND THE DRIVER (GIVE) ME A REAL SCARE! HE (DRIVE) DANGEROUSLY, AND HE (HE, NOT SLOW DOWN) WHEN I (TELL) HIM TO. I (NOT GIVE) HIM A TIP, SO HE (SWEAR) AT ME. I USED TO BE QUIET BEFORE I (LEAVE) OHIO AND (COME) HERE, BUT I (SCREAM) LAST NIGHT, AND IT (FEEL) GOOD! SCREAMING IN NEW YORK HELPS SOMETIMES. I (CHANGE) A LOT SINCE I (ARRIVE) HERE LAST DECEMBER. (YOU, HEAR) FROM DAD RECENTLY? I (NOT GET) A LETTER FROM HIM FOR SEVERAL WEEKS. I HOPE HE'S OKAY. HOW (YOU, BE) LATELY? (YOU, DO) TODAY'S HOMEWORK YET? DON'T PUT IT OFF! ANYWAY, TAKE CARE OF YOURSELF. AS FOR ME, I (BE) SICK FOR A WEEK LAST MONTH, BUT I'M BETTER NOW. I (CATCH) THE FLU ONE DAY AFTER I WENT OUT FOR A WALK WITHOUT A HAT. I HOPE YOU (NOT CATCH)) THE FLU OR ANYTHING SO FAR THIS WINTER! IT'S AWFUL TO BE SICK AND MISS CLASSES AT SCHOOL! LOVE, KATIE present perfect 8

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