Do Vibrations Make Sound?


 Cuthbert Gordon
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1 Do Vibations Make Sound? Gade 1: Sound Pobe Aligned with National Standads
2 oveview Students will lean about sound and vibations. This activity will allow students to see and hea how vibations do in fact make a sound and that sound can make mateials vibate. This activity uses the WARD s Single Sound Pobe to collect data, allowing students to focus on the science discovey and leaving moe time fo leaning and developing highe level thinking skills. time equiement: This activity can be completed in one session of 20 minutes. mateials equied fo the activity: Wad s Single Sound Pobe Tuning fok, any fequency Empty metal can (soup can, tuna fish can, etc.) Plastic wap Rubbe band Salt Sheet of pape (olled up like a megaphone) Small piece of cotton Tape Instuctions (this guide) safety pecautions geneal safety: Read all instuctions befoe stating the lab activities. Review the lab pocedues and safety pecautions with you students and emind them to ask questions. Conside establishing a safety contact that students and thei paents must ead and sign. This is a good way to identify students with allegies (e.x. latex) so that you (and they) will be eminded of specific lab mateials that may pose isks to individuals. Wad s inhouse scientists ae always on call to assist you with you questions. Ou expets can povide pesonal solutions and poduct advice fo you cuiculum. o call to get stated. Page 2 Call WARD S at fo Technical Assistance
3 standads alignment famewok fo K12 science education 2012 Dimension 1 Science and Engineeing Pactices Dimension 2 Coss Cutting Concepts Asking questions (fo science) and defining poblems (fo engineeing) Developing and using models Use mathematics and computational thinking Constucting explanations (fo science) and designing solutions (fo engineeing) Planning and caying out investigations Engaging in agument fom evidence Analyzing and intepeting data Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating infomation Pattens Enegy and matte: Flows, cycles, and consevation Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation Stuctue and function Scale, popotion, and quantity Stability and change Systems and system models Dimension 3 Coe Concepts Discipline Physical Sciences Coe Idea Focus PS4.A: Wave Popeties next geneation science standads 2013 NGSS Standads Elementay School Standads Coveed 1PS41 Plan and conduct investigations to povide evidence that vibating mateials can make sound and that sound can make mateials vibate. national science education standads 1996 Content Standads (K12) Systems, ode, and oganization Evolution and equilibium Evidence, models, and explanation Fom and function Constancy, change, and measuement Physical Science Standads Elementay School Popeties of objects and mateials Indicates standads coveed in activity 2014 WARD S Science All Rights Reseved Page 3
4 pio to class Review basic infomation about how to use and ead the WARD s Single Sound Pobe. Tell students it will be impotant fo them to be quiet duing the activity so the pobe is able to hea the sounds of the activity. If you want the students to expeience the activities in small goups, collect enough metal cans and make enough pape megaphones fo the numbe of goups in the class. Cove the open end of the metal can with plastic wap. You may want to secue the wap with a ubbe band. Place some salt on top of the plastic wap. Roll a piece of pape to make it like a megaphone, tape it to hold its shape. Place a small piece of cotton in the small end. This is to pevent ai (fom the student talking) fom passing though but will allow sound waves to tavel though. Othewise the movement of the salt could be fom thei beath. objective Students will obseve vibating mateials making sound and sound making mateials vibate. backgound Vibations ae geneally small epetitive movements. Almost all objects, when hit o plucked o stummed o somehow distubed, will vibate. If you dop a pencil o mete stick on the floo, it will vibate. If you pluck a guita sting, it will vibate. The vocal cods of a peson actually vibate. Also, if you blow ove the top of an empty soda bottle, the ai inside will vibate. When each of these mateials vibate, they tend to vibate at a paticula fequency (o speed). The fequency at which an object tends to vibate when hit, plucked, stummed o somehow distubed is known as the natual fequency of the object. If the amplitude (o stength) of the vibations ae lage enough and if the natual fequency is within the fequency ange humans can hea, then the vibating object will poduce sound waves that ae audible. A sound wave is ceated as a esult of a vibating object. Some of these sound waves ae too small to hea. Musical instuments ae made to magnify these vibations and sound waves. Page 4 Call WARD S at fo Technical Assistance
5 lesson build upon pio knowledge: Ask the students to look at the pictues below and ask the students how they would make each instument make a sound. Lead the discussion to help students undestand that these movements/ vibations make sound. (Student esponses could include: 1. Guita  stumming the stings, 2. Recode/ flute  blowing ai thu it, 3. Tiangle  hit the metal, 4. Violin  plucking/stumming the stings, 5. Tumpet  blowing ai thu it, 6. Dum  hit the top.) (continued on next page) 2014 WARD S Science All Rights Reseved Page 5
6 lesson pocedue Pat 1: Vibation makes Sound guiding questions + What do you think will happen? (Hypothesis) + What do you expect to lean? + What tools ae needed? + How can we ecod ou findings? 1. Have a student stike the tuning fok with thei hand. Have the students listen to the sound and feel the vibating tines of the tuning fok. 2. Have students make pedictions whethe the sound of the vibating tuning fok will egiste on the sound pobe. # of students who think the tuning fok will make sound loud enough fo the pobe # of students who think the tuning fok will not make sound loud enough fo the pobe 3. Have the student estike the tuning fok and ask anothe student to aim the Wad s Single Sound Pobe at the tuning fok and shae what it eads. 4. Wite down the decibel eading of the tuning fok. 5. Have anothe student stike the tuning fok with thei hand. This time, the student should place the tuning fok against the can with the salt on top. Salt Figue 1 6. Ask the student holding the sound pobe to obseve the sound eading and shae what the sound level is. 7. Discuss what happened to the salt. What made the salt move? Was the sound fom the salted can loude than the tuning fok alone? (continued on next page) Page 6 Call WARD S at fo Technical Assistance
7 lesson Pat 2: Sound makes Vibation 1. Ask the students to make a quiet humming noise and ask them to feel thei own thoat. What do they feel? 2. Using the sound pobe, detemine the decibel eading of the tuning fok. 3. Ask the students to ty and eceate the same decibel eading with thei voice though the megaphone. 4. Point the megaphone at the can with the salt on top and ask the students to ty and ceate motion with thei voice. Use the sound pobe to insue the same decimal level is being used. note teache notes + The Wad s Single Sound Pobe has two settings; the default is decibel (db) and should be used fo all elementay activities. The othe setting is abitay (ab) and is used to see the wave fom. + Since the intensity of the sound is dependant upon the closeness of the sound pobe, always make sue the sound pobe is the same distance away fom the object in question fo each expeiment. Figue 2 5. Ask the students if the sound of thei voice made the salt move. + If the students ask why the cotton ball is equied fo the megaphone, tell then it is to block thei beath but allow sound to tavel though. (continued on next page) 2014 WARD S Science All Rights Reseved Page 7
8 lesson Students with special needs: The sound pobe offes an excellent oppotunity fo students with heaing issues. Instead of them having to focus on the sounds, they can see a numbe that epesents the sound. summaize Ask students what they leaned about sound and vibations. (Student esponses may include: a vibating object can poduce sound and sound can poduce vibations.) extension Help students futhe undestand how vibations make sound. Ask the students to stike the tuning fok. When the tuning fok stops making a noise that is able to be head, place it gently on a student s head. The vibations on the skull will stimulate the cochlea so that the student will hea sound. This will wok on any pat of the human skull. Also, ask the students to tap lightly on thei desk, then place thei ea on the desk and epeat the same light tapping. Did the tapping sound loude when thei ea was on the desk? Page 8 Call WARD S at fo Technical Assistance
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