GSM BTS Development & GSM/EDGE Receiver based on FDE

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1 GSM BTS Development & GSM/EDGE Receiver based on FDE Dinakar. P Dept. of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology - Madras ComNet

2 Introduction: GSM Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Currently ~ 670 networks in 213 countries and territories Frequency bands (MHz) 450, 850, 900, 1800, 1900 Very rapid growth in subscribers (1275M-2/05, 1600M-12/05, 2000M-12/06) Aggressive evolution to 3G EDGE, Wideband CDMA Air Interface Based on FDD TDMA Raw bit rate: kbps Each physical channel is shared (TDMA) by 8 users Data service: HSCSD (Circuit-Switched) & GPRS (Packet-Switched)

3 GSM Cellular Network

4 GSM BTS Specification Single TRX (Single carrier) Low power Supports multiple bands GSM 900, 1800 and 1900 Standard compliant Remote monitoring capability Low cost

5 Base Station Unit Processor Section Baseband Section RF Section POE BSC Antenna

6 GSM Receiver - Equalizer

7 GSM Receiver Equalizer Cont MLSE based receiver Generates soft-bit (SOVA) Implemented on DSP Processor loading: ~60 % (MIPS) Standards compliant Transparent to GPRS reception

8 GSM: Time Division Multiple Access GSM TDMA frame ms GSM time-slot (normal burst) tail user data S Training S user data tail 3 bits 57 bits 1 26 bits 1 57 bits 3 guard space 577 µs Raw Bit Rate per Slot: 270.8*(114/156)*(12/13)/8 = 22.8 kbps General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) = 14.4 kbps / Slot High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD) = 64 kbps / 4 Slot

9 Evolution of GSM: EDGE Need higher date rate? Use higher order modulation!!! EDGE Enhanced Data rate for Global Evolution Enhancement of GPRS is EGPRS and HSCSD is ECSD Retains GSM characteristics: Symbol duration Frame structure Spectral characteristics Constellation: GMSK (1bit/sym) and 8PSK (3bit/sym) Symbol duration: 3.69 μs. Delay Spread as high as 17 μs Traditional GSM Equalizer: MLSE Memory Length (L):5 No. of State in MLSE: GSM 2 L (32) EDGE 8 L (32768) ** Number of Channel Taps: L + 1

10 Equalization Techniques for EDGE Traditional Equalization Techniques: Delay Decision Feedback Sequence Estimation (DDFSE) Reduced-State Sequence Estimation (RSSE) DFE combined with nearest-neighbor symbol perturbation Turbo Equalization with a core low complexity equalizer Equalizers like MAP-DFE, Zero-forcing filter... Is Frequency Domain Equalization Techniques are feasible for EDGE?

11 EDGE: Simulation Model

12 A quick glance at Frequency Domain Equalization Time-Domain Convolution Frequency-Domain Multiplication copy copy CP B l o c k i CP B l o c k (i+1) v samples N samples

13 A different look on Burst Structure Guard Interval Unique Tail Symbols Word-1 (3) Data Training Data Pre-Amble Data & Training Sequence ( ) Post-Amble (58) (26) (58) Unique Tail Symbols Word - 2 (3) Guard Interval Interfering Block (i-1) Block (Length N= 145) (i) IBI Removal and CP Construction

14 BER Performance: Proposed FDE vs MMSE Equalizer Static Channel ** Ideal Channel Estimation

15 Efficient Frequency-Domain Equalizer Tail Symbols (3) Data Pre-Amble (58) Training Sequence (26) Data Post-Amble (58) Tail Symbols (3) 64-Pt Block 64-Pt Block Training Sequence is used as known pattern and the cyclic prefix is constructed accordingly Separate FDE for Post-Amble and Pre-Amble Same channel values are used for both the FDE

16 BER Performance: Full Block FDE and Modified 64 Pt FDE Static Channel ** Ideal Channel Estimation

17 FDE for longer channels Equalization of Post-Amble Training Sequence (26) Post-Amble (58) Tail Symbols (3) 64-Pt Block Cyclic Prefix Reconstruction

18 FDE for longer channels Equalization of Pre-Amble Guard Interval Tail Symbols (3) Data Pre-Amble (58) Training Sequence (26) Data Post-Amble (58) Tail Symbols (3) Training Sequence (26) Pre-Amble (58) Tail Symbols (3) 64-Pt Block

19 BER Performance with proposed CP reconstruction procedure Hilly Terrain: Slow fading channel CP Reconstruction: 2 Iterations ** Ideal Channel Estimation

20 EDGE: System Model

21 Summary Compared with Time-Domain MMSE Much better Implemented on DSP Standards compliant Possible enhancement: Over-sampling & receive diversity MIPS Memory Cycles/ Burst Mega Cycles/ Second BF MIPS kbytes BF kbytes Best Case (Shorter Channel) Worst Case (Longer Channel) % % % %

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