The Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks. David W. Paranchych IEEE CVT Luncheon January 21, 2003

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1 The Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks David W. Paranchych IEEE CVT Luncheon January 21, 2003

2 Outline Past: cdma2000 1xRTT Present: 1xEV-DO What is it? How does it work? How well does it work? What is it useful for? Future: 1xEV-DV? Overview Summary Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 1

3 What is a CDMA Network? BTS MSC PSTN BSC BTS Carrier IP Intranet PDSN Internet Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 2

4 cdma2000 1xRTT: It s here! Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 3

5 Benefits of 1xRTT vs. IS-95 IS-95: Original North American digitial cellular standard Grew to dominate the NA cellular market 1xRTT: Increased voice capacity (greater spectral efficiency) Approximately double the erlang capacity vs. IS-95 Packet data capability up to peak rate of kb/s Backward compatible to IS-95 Simple operator upgrades Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 4

6 CDMA 1xRTT Crash Course One User s Forward Channel Traffic Bits from Vocoder 9600, 4800, 2400, or 1200 bps Convolutional Encoder Symbols at sps (repeated to maintain 38,400 rate when vocoder is slower) Block Interleaver User Long Code Power Control Bit L 800/second Data Scrambling Other Users W Walsh Code Short PN Sequence (with proper offset for this cell) I Q 38,400 sps Mcps TX Baseband Filtering Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 5

7 1xEV-DO: What is it? What is HDR (High Data Rate)? An air-interface proposal from Qualcomm Intended as a companion to a 1xRTT voice network Same 1.25 MHz bandwidth as 1xRTT and same spectrum Packet data ONLY technology (no voice) What is 1xEV-DO? Name by which HDR-like standards specification is known Published in October 2000 as TIA/EIA standard IS-856 Contains some changes from the original HDR specification What s the difference? Error correcting code Early termination of packets (Hybrid ARQ) Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 6

8 1xEV-DO: Time Division Multiplexing 1xEV-DO uses time-division multiplexing of users on the forward link BTS transmits at maximum available power Each user receives data from only one base station at a time - no forward link soft handoff Power Transmission User 1 User 2 User 3 2 slots 1 slot 2 slots 1.67 ms Idle Time One or more consecutive slots assigned to a user to transmit each packet Channel allocation is not fixed - Access Terminal (AT) listens for a preamble to determine if it is being sent a packet user signature pilot bursts Power Control pilot Power Control Forward link transmission diagram Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 7

9 1xEV-DO: Fwd. Link Slot Structure 64chips 64chips 64chips 64chips 1024 chips 1024 chips Active: Data (400 chips) Pilot Data (400 chips) Data (400 chips) Pilot Data(400chips) 96 chips 96 chips Idle: 64chips 64chips Pilot 64chips Pilot 64chips 96 chips 96 chips Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 8

10 1xEV-DO: Fast Forward Rate Control Mobile measures received signal-to-noise ratio during each pilot burst Mobile uses measurement to determine highest data rate it can decode Mobile uses Data Rate Control (DRC) channel to inform Access Point of desired data rate If AP transmits, it must do so at the rate dictated by DRC channel 1.67 ms (a) (estimate data rate) (request data rate) (TX at requested rate) (b) Pilot-DRC Pilot-DRC Pilot-DRC Channel Estimation and Data Rate Control Channel timing diagram: (a) Access Terminal receive, (b) Access Terminal Transmit Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 9

11 1xEV-DO: Forward Link Rate Options Terminal can select one of 12 data rate options Each option is a combination of: Packet size (1024, 2048, 3072 or 4096 bits) Code rate (1/3 or 1/5) Number of slots (1, 2, 4, 8 or 16) Modulation type (QPSK, 8-PSK or 16-QAM) Data Rate Packet Length Number of [kbps] [bytes] slots FEC rate Modulation /5 QPSK /5 QPSK /5 QPSK /5 QPSK /3 QPSK /3 QPSK /3 QPSK /3 QPSK /3 8-PSK /3 8-PSK /3 16-QAM /3 16-QAM Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 10

12 1xEV-DO: Hybrid ARQ Original HDR uses a fixed number of slots per packet In 1xEV-DO adjacent slots in multi-slot packets are sent every four slot intervals An acknowledgement bit on the reverse link tells the AP if the packet has been successfully decoded Example: data rate 38.4 kbps Transmit Slot 1 Transmit Slot 2 Transmit Slot 3 Transmit Slot 16 New Packet Transmit Slot 1 Transmit Slot 2 Different user NAK IR NAK Repetition, soft NAK combining Repetition, soft combining NAK, packet error NAK IR ACK Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 11

13 1xRTT vs. 1xEV-DO: Data Delivery How are large (forward link) data bursts transmitted in 1xRTT? Internet PDSN 1. Burst arrives at BSC from Internet 2. BSC queries BTS(s) to check SCH availability 3. BTS(s) lock Walsh codes and respond to BSC 4. BSC sends message to terminal giving SCH burst information 5. Terminal acknowledges message from BSC SCH BTS Carrier IP Intranet 6. Data is transmitted Limitations: Large delay in setting up resource If link is in a fade during SCH burst, BTS must increase power AT SCH (in Soft Handoff) BTS BSC Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 12

14 1xRTT vs. 1xEV-DO: Data Delivery, cont d What about 1xEV-DO? 1. Burst arrives at BSC from Internet 2. Packets forwarded to serving BTS (only one) 3. BTS listens to reverse link DRC commands from terminal 4. BTS schedules packet transmissions to terminal according to available slots 5. AT listens each slot for its unique preamble. When it is detected, terminal knows to expect a packet Benefits: Almost no delay in allocation of shared channel Fast feedback from AT on channel condition allows BTS to queue data until the channel is good before transmitting packets Packets Internet DRC stream BTS BTS PDSN Carrier IP Intranet BSC Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 13

15 1xEV-DO: Effect of Multiple Users Sector Aggregate Throughput (kb/s) Number of Active Users Per-User Throughput (kb/s) Number of Active Users Packet scheduler generates multi-user diversity gain Total sector throughput increases as number of users increases Caused by ability of scheduler to delay packets for users in poor channel conditions Drawback of multiple users is reduction in per-user throughput Total sector capacity must be shared among active users Result: perceived throughput decreases as sector usage grows Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 14

16 1xEV-DO Data Rate Coverage FWD Data Rates (kbps) REV Data Rates (kbps) A A 307.2kbps 2.4Mbps Forward Link 1xEV-DO A C B D C B D 153.6kbps 19.2kbps 9.6kbps Reverse Link B D Note: Cell Radius Not Drawn to Scale Mb/s forward & 153 kb/s reverse peak rates in cell center kb/s forward & 19.2 kb/s reverse at cell edge High data rates in bulk of cell peak rate decreases towards cell edge Lower forward/reverse rates within larger coverage area 1xEV-DO can overlay 1-1 with existing IS-95 systems Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 15

17 1xRTT & 1xEV-DO Throughput/Capacity Per-User Throughput 1xRTT peak throughput: 153 kb/s today, 307 kb/s with Release A 1xEV-DO peak throughput: ~ 2.2 Mb/s (2.4 Mb/s minus overhead) 7 14 times peak throughput increase Per-Sector Throughput 1xRTT: kb/s 1xEV-DO: kb/s Approximately 3 times sector capacity increase Typical User Throughput? 1xRTT: kb/s Comparable to wired dial-up 1xEV-DO: kb/s Comparable to wired DSL Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 16

18 1xRTT/1xEV-DO Hybrid Terminals 1xEV-DO is data-only Uses a separate frequency than 1xRTT One terminal cannot have simultaneous 1xRTT voice call and 1xEV-DO data session Assuming only one RF chain Hybrid terminals jump back and forth between 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO During active 1xEV-DO data session, terminal briefly re-tunes to 1xRTT frequency to listen to paging channel If user wants voice calls to interrupt data sessions, terminal picks up voice call and resumes data session later Hybrid Terminal 1xRTT/1xEV-DO 1xRTT BTS During 1xEV-DO data session, jump back (re-tune) to 1xRTT periodically to listen for voice page 1xEV-DO BTS Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 17

19 1xEV-DO Terminals LGE Samsung GTRAN Qualcomm Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 18

20 What is 1xEV-DV? 1xRTT 1xEV-DV Data and Voice 1xEV-DO Data Only Release D 1xEV-DV Spectral Efficiency Improve Reverse Link for Data Release C 1xEV-DV Add H-ARQ 1xEV-DO HDR Release Release 0 Release A B 1xRTT 1xRTT 1xRTT Power Control Same voice capacity 3 times FL data capacity Power + Rate Control 3 times FL data capacity Rate Control Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 19

21 1xEV-DV Concepts RF Power Shared 1xRTT Code Space 1xEV-DO Code Space 1xEV-DV Forward Link FCH SCH PDCH PDCCH Forward Link Partition the Walsh Code space to operate both the 1xRTT FCH/SCH and the 1xEV-DO-like PDCH/PDCCH channels in the same carrier. Power is shared by these two sets of channels. Partition of power and Walsh Code space is dynamic instead of static. Reverse Link Same as 1xRTT, with minimum addition to support new feedback channels. Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 20

22 Summary 1xRTT Voice capacity increase for operators Approx. dial-up internet access capability Widely available today 1xEV-DO Data only service, companion technology to 1xRTT Approx. three times capacity of 1xRTT with much higher peak speeds Starting commercial deployment in North America 1xEV-DV Allows voice and high-speed data on same carrier Standards recently completed Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks - 21

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