# Time Series Analysis

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1 Time Series Analysis Autoregressive, MA and ARMA processes Andrés M. Alonso Carolina García-Martos Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Universidad Politécnica de Madrid June July, 212 Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

2 4. Autoregressive, MA and ARMA processes 4.1 Autoregressive processes Outline: Introduction The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) The AR(2) process The general autoregressive process AR(p) The partial autocorrelation function Recommended readings: Chapter 2 of Brockwell and Davis (1996). Chapter 3 of Hamilton (1994). Chapter 3 of Peña, Tiao and Tsay (21). Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

3 Introduction In this section we will begin our study of models for stationary processes which are useful in representing the dependency of the values of a time series on its past. The simplest family of these models are the autoregressive, which generalize the idea of regression to represent the linear dependence between a dependent variable y (z t ) and an explanatory variable x (z t 1 ), using the relation: z t = c + bz t 1 + a t where c and b are constants to be determined and a t are i.i.d N (, σ 2 ). Above relation define the first order autoregressive process. This linear dependence can be generalized so that the present value of the series, z t, depends not only on z t 1, but also on the previous p lags, z t 2,..., z t p. Thus, an autoregressive process of order p is obtained. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

4 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) We say that a series z t follows a first order autoregressive process, or AR(1), if it has been generated by: z t = c + φz t 1 + a t (33) where c and 1 < φ < 1 are constants and a t is a white noise process with variance σ 2. The variables a t, which represent the new information that is added to the process at each instant, are known as innovations. Example 35 We will consider z t as the quantity of water at the end of the month in a reservoir. During the month, c + a t amount of water comes into the reservoir, where c is the average quantity that enters and a t is the innovation, a random variable of zero mean and constant variance that causes this quantity to vary from one period to the next. If a fixed proportion of the initial amount is used up each month, (1 φ)z t 1, and a proportion, φz t 1, is maintained the quantity of water in the reservoir at the end of the month will follow process (33). Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

5 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) The condition 1 < φ < 1 is necessary for the process to be stationary. To prove this, let us assume that the process begins with z = h, with h being any fixed value. The following value will be z 1 = c + φh + a 1, the next, z 2 = c + φz 1 + a 2 = c+ φ(c + φh + a 1 ) + a 2 and, substituting successively, we can write: z 1 = c + φh + a 1 z 2 = c(1 + φ) + φ 2 h + φa 1 + a 2 z 3 = c(1 + φ + φ 2 ) + φ 3 h + φ 2 a 1 + φa 2 + a 3. z t. =. c t 1 i= φi + φ t h + t 1 i= φi a t i If we calculate the expectation of z t, as E[a t ] =, E [z t ] = c t 1 i= φi + φ t h. For the process to be stationary it is a necessary condition that this function does not depend on t. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

6 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) The mean is constant if both summands are, which requires that on increasing t the first term converges to a constant and the second is canceled. Both conditions are verified if φ < 1, because then t 1 i= φi is the sum of an geometric progression with ratio φ and converges to c/(1 φ), and the term φ t converges to zero, thus the sum converges to the constant c/(1 φ). With this condition, after an initial transition period, when t, all the variables z t will have the same expectation, µ = c/(1 φ), independent of the initial conditions. We also observe that in this process the innovation a t is uncorrelated with the previous values of the process, z t k for positive k since z t k depends on the values of the innovations up to that time, a 1,..., a t k, but not on future values. Since the innovation is a white noise process, its future values are uncorrelated with past ones and, therefore, with previous values of the process, z t k. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

7 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) The AR(1) process can be written using the notation of the lag operator, B, defined by Bz t = z t 1. (34) Letting z t = z t µ and since B z t = z t 1 we have: (1 φb) z t = a t. (35) This condition indicates that a series follows an AR(1) process if on applying the operator (1 φb) a white noise process is obtained. The operator (1 φb) can be interpreted as a filter that when applied to the series converts it into a series with no information, a white noise process. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

8 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) If we consider the operator as an equation, in B the coefficient φ is called the factor of the equation. The stationarity condition is that this factor be less than the unit in absolute value. Alternatively, we can talk about the root of the equation of the operator, which is obtained by making the operator equal to zero and solving the equation with B as an unknown; 1 φb = which yields B = 1/φ. The condition of stationarity is then that the root of the operator be greater than one in absolute value. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

9 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) Expectation Taking expectations in (33) assuming φ < 1, such that E [z t ] = E[z t 1 ] = µ, we obtain µ = c + φµ Then, the expectation (or mean) is µ = c 1 φ (36) Replacing c in (33) with µ(1 φ), the process can be written in deviations to the mean: z t µ = φ (z t 1 µ) + a t and letting z t = z t µ, which is the most often used equation of the AR(1). z t = φ z t 1 + a t (37) Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

10 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) Variance The variance of the process is obtained by squaring the expression (37) and taking expectations, which gives us: E( z 2 t ) = φ 2 E( z 2 t 1) + 2φE( z t 1 a t ) + E(a 2 t ). We let σ 2 z be the variance of the stationary process. The second term of this expression is zero, since as z t 1 and a t are independent and both variables have null expectation. The third is the variance of the innovation, σ 2, and we conclude that: σ 2 z = φ 2 σ 2 z + σ 2, from which we find that the variance of the process is: σ 2 z = σ2 1 φ 2. (38) Note that in this equation the condition φ < 1 appears, so that σ 2 z is finite and positive. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

11 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) It is important to differentiate the marginal distribution of a variable from the conditional distribution of this variable in the previous value. The marginal distribution of each observation is the same, since the process is stationary: it has mean µ and variance σ 2 z. Nevertheless, the conditional distribution of z t if we know the previous value, z t 1, has a conditional mean: E(z t z t 1 ) = c + φz t 1 and variance σ 2, which according to (38), is always less than σ 2 z. If we know z t 1 it reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of z t, and this reduction is greater when φ 2 is greater. If the AR parameter is close to one, the reduction of the variance obtained from knowledge of z t 1 can be very important. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

12 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) Autocovariance function Using (37), multiplying by z t k and taking expectations gives us γ k, the covariance between observations separated by k periods, or the autocovariance of order k: γ k = E [(z t k µ) (z t µ)] = E [ z t k (φ z t 1 + a t )] and as E [ z t k a t ] =, since the innovations are uncorrelated with the past values of the series, we have the following recursion: where γ = σ 2 z. γ k = φγ k 1 k = 1, 2,... (39) This equation shows that since φ < 1 the dependence between observations decreases when the lag increases. In particular, using (38): γ 1 = φσ2 1 φ 2 (4) Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

13 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) Autocorrelation function, ACF Autocorrelations contain the same information as the autocovariances, with the advantage of not depending on the units of measurement. From here on we will use the term simple autocorrelation function (ACF) to denote the autocorrelation function of the process in order to differentiate it from other functions linked to the autocorrelation that are defined at the end of this section. Let ρ k be the autocorrelation of order k, defined by: ρ k = γ k /γ, using (39), we have: ρ k = φγ k 1 /γ = φρ k 1. Since, according to (38) and (4), ρ 1 = φ, we conclude that: ρ k = φ k (41) and when k is large, ρ k goes to zero at a rate that depends on φ. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

14 The first-order autoregressive process, AR(1) Autocorrelation function, ACF The expression (41) shows that the autocorrelation function of an AR(1) process is equal to the powers of the AR parameter of the process and decreases geometrically to zero. If the parameter is positive the linear dependence of the present on past values is always positive, whereas if the parameter is negative this dependence is positive for even lags and negative for odd ones. When the parameter is positive the value at t is similar to the value at t 1, due to the positive dependence, thus the graph of the series evolves smoothly. Whereas, when the parameter is negative the value at t is, in general, the opposite sign of that at t 1, thus the graph shows many changes of signs. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

15 3 Parameter, φ = Parameter, φ = Sample Autocorrelation Lag 4 Parameter, φ = Parameter, φ = Sample Autocorrelation Lag Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

16 Representation of an AR(1) process as a sum of innovations The AR(1) process can be expressed as a function of the past values of the innovations. This representation is useful because it reveals certain properties of the process. Using z t 1 in the expression (37) as a function of z t 2, we have z t = φ(φ z t 2 + a t 1 ) + a t = a t + φa t 1 + φ 2 z t 2. If we now replace z t 2 with its expression as a function of z t 3, we obtain z t = a t + φa t 1 + φ 2 a t 2 + φ 3 z t 2 and repeatedly applying this substitution gives us: z t = a t + φa t 1 + φ 2 a t φ t 1 a 1 + φ t z 1 If we assume t to be large, since φ t will be close to zero we can represent the series as a function of all the past innovations, with weights that decrease geometrically. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

17 Representation of an AR(1) process as a sum of innovations Other possibility is to assume that the series starts in the infinite past: z t = j= φj a t j and this representation is denoted as the infinite order moving average, MA( ), of the process. Observe that the coefficients of the innovations are precisely the coefficients of the simple autocorrelation function. The expression MA( ) can also be obtained directly by multiplying the equation (35) by the operator (1 φb) 1 = 1 + φb + φ 2 B , thus obtaining: z t = (1 φb) 1 a t = a t + φa t 1 + φ 2 a t Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

18 Example 36 The figures show the monthly series of relative changes in the annual interest rate, defined by z t = log(y t /y t 1 ) and the ACF. The AC coefficients decrease with the lag: the first is of order.4, the second close to.4 2 =.16, the third is a similar value and the rest are small and not significant Sample Autocorrelation Relative changes in the annual interest rates, Spain Lag Datafile interestrates.xls Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

19 The AR(2) process The dependency between present and past values which an AR(1) establishes can be generalized allowing z t to be linearly dependent not only on z t 1 but also on z t 2. Thus the second order autoregressive, or AR(2) is obtained: z t = c + φ 1 z t 1 + φ 2 z t 2 + a t (42) where c, φ 1 and φ 2 are now constants and a t is a white noise process with variance σ 2. We are going to find the conditions that must verify the parameters for the process to be stationary. Taking expectations in (42) and imposing that the mean be constant, results in: µ = c + φ 1 µ + φ 2 µ which implies µ = c 1 φ 1 φ 2, (43) and the condition for the process to have a finite mean is that 1 φ 1 φ 2. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

20 The AR(2) process Replacing c with µ(1 φ 1 φ 2 ) and letting z t = z t µ be the process of deviations to the mean, the AR(2) process is: z t = φ 1 z t 1 + φ 2 z t 2 + a t. (44) In order to study the properties of the process it is advisable to use the operator notations. Introducing the lag operator, B, the equation of this process is: (1 φ 1 B φ 2 B 2 ) z t = a t. (45) The operator (1 φ 1 B φ 2 B 2 ) can always be expressed as (1 G 1 B)(1 G 2 B), where G 1 1 and G 1 2 are the roots of the equation of the operator considering B as a variable and solving 1 φ 1 B φ 2 B 2 =. (46) Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

21 The AR(2) process The equation (46) is called the characteristic equation of the operator. G 1 and G 2 are also said to be factors of the characteristic polynomial of the process. These roots can be real or complex conjugates. It can be proved that the condition of stationarity is that G i < 1, i = 1, 2. This condition is analogous to that studied for the AR(1). Note that this result is consistent with the condition found for the mean to be finite. If the equation 1 φ 1 B φ 2 B 2 = has a unit root it is verified that 1 φ 1 φ 2 = and the process is not stationary, since it does not have a finite mean. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

22 The AR(2) process Autocovariance function Squaring expression (44) and taking expectations, we find that the variance must satisfy: γ = φ 2 1γ + φ 2 2γ + 2φ 1 φ 2 γ 1 + σ 2. (47) In order to calculate the autocovariance, multiplying the equation (44) by z t k and taking expectations, we obtain: γ k = φ 1 γ k 1 + φ 2 γ k 2. k 1 (48) Specifying this equation for k = 1, since γ 1 = γ 1, we have γ 1 = φ 1 γ + φ 2 γ 1, which provides γ 1 = φ 1 γ /(1 φ 2 ). Using this expression in (47) results in the formula for the variance: σ 2 z = γ = (1 φ 2 ) σ 2 (1 + φ 2 ) (1 φ 1 φ 2 ) (1 + φ 1 φ 2 ). (49) Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

23 Autocovariance function For the process to be stationary this variance must be positive, which will occur if the numerator and the denominator have the same sign. It can be proved that the values of the parameters that make AR(2) a stationary process are those 1 < φ 2 < 1 included in the region: φ 1 + φ 2 < 1 φ 2 φ 1 < φ 2 = 1 + φ 1 φ 2 = 1 - φ 1 φ φ 1 It represents the admissible values of the parameters for the process to be stationary. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

24 The AR(2) process In this process it is important again to differentiate the marginal and conditional properties. Assuming that the conditions of stationarity are verified, the marginal mean is given by and the marginal variance is σ 2 z = c µ = 1 φ 1 φ 2 (1 φ 2 ) σ 2 (1 + φ 2 ) (1 φ 1 φ 2 ) (1 + φ 1 φ 2 ). Nevertheless, the conditional mean of z t given the previous values is: E(z t z t 1, z t 2 ) = c + φ 1 z t 1 + φ 2 z t 2 and its variance will be σ 2, the variance of the innovations which will always be less than the marginal variance of the process σ 2 z. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

25 The AR(2) process Autocorrelation function Dividing by the variance in equation (48), we obtain the relationship between the autocorrelation coefficients: ρ k = φ 1 ρ k 1 + φ 2 ρ k 2 k 1 (5) specifying (5) for k = 1, as in a stationary process ρ 1 = ρ 1, we obtain: and specifying (5) for k = 2 and using (51): ρ 1 = φ 1 1 φ 2 (51) ρ 2 = φ2 1 1 φ 2 + φ 2. (52) Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

26 The AR(2) process Autocorrelation function For k 3 the autocorrelation coefficients can be obtained recursively starting from the difference equation (5). It can be proved that the general solution to this equation is: ρ k = A 1 G k 1 + A 2 G k 2 (53) where G 1 and G 2 are the factors of the characteristic polynomial of the process and A 1 and A 2 are constants to be determined from the initial conditions ρ = 1, (which implies A 1 + A 2 = 1) and ρ 1 = φ 1 / (1 φ 2 ). According to (53) the coefficients ρ k will be less than or equal to the unit if G 1 < 1 and G 2 < 1, which are the conditions of stationarity of the process. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

27 The AR(2) process Autocorrelation function If the factors G 1 and G 2 are complex of type a ± bi, where i = 1, then this condition is a 2 + b 2 < 1. We may find ourselves in the following cases: 1 The two factors G 1 and G 2 are real. The decrease of (53) is the sum of the two exponentials and the shape of the autocorrelation function will depend on whether G 1 and G 2 have equal or opposite signs. 2 The two factors G 1 and G 2 are complex conjugates. In this case, the function ρ k will decrease sinusoidally. The four types of possible autocorrelation functions for an AR(2) are shown in the next figure. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

28 1 Real roots =.75 and.5.5 Complex roots =.25 ±.5i Sample Autocorrelation.5 Sample Autocorrelation Real roots = -.75 and.5 Complex roots = -.25 ±.5i.5.5 Sample Autocorrelation Sample Autocorrelation Lag Lag Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

29 Representation of an AR(2) process as a sum of innovations The AR(2) process can be represented, as with an AR(1), as a linear combination of the innovations. Writing (45) as and inverting these operators, we have (1 G 1 B)(1 G 2 B) z t = a t z t = (1 + G 1 B + G 2 1 B )(1 + G 2 B + G 2 2 B )a t (54) which leads to the MA( ) expression of the process: z t = a t + ψ 1 a t 1 + ψ 2 a t (55) We can obtain the coefficients ψ i as a function of the roots equating powers of B in (54) and (55). Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

30 Representation of an AR(2) process as a sum of innovations We can also obtain the coefficients ψ i as a function of the coefficients φ 1 and φ 2. Letting ψ(b) = 1 + ψ 1 B + ψ 2 B since ψ(b) = (1 φ 1 B φ 2 B 2 ) 1, we have (1 φ 1 B φ 2 B 2 )(1 + ψ 1 B + ψ 2 B ) = 1. (56) Imposing the restriction that all the coefficients of the powers of B in (56) are null, the coefficient of B in this equation is ψ 1 φ 1, which implies ψ 1 = φ 1. The coefficient of B 2 is ψ 2 φ 1 ψ 1 φ 2, which implies the equation: ψ k = φ 1 ψ k 1 + φ 2 ψ k 2 (57) for k = 2, since ψ = 1. The coefficients of B k for k 2 verify the equation (57) which is similar to the one that must verify the autocorrelation coefficients. We conclude that the shape of the coefficients ψ i will be similar to that of the autocorrelation coefficients. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

31 Example 37 The figures show the number of mink sighted yearly in an area of Canada and the ACF. The series shows a cyclical evolution that could be explained by an AR(2) with negative roots corresponding to the sinusoidal structure of the autocorrelation Sample Autocorrelation Number of minks, Canada Lag Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

32 Example 38 Write the autocorrelation function of the AR(2) process z t = 1.2z t 1.32z t 2 + a t The characteristic equation of that process is: whose solution is:.32x 2 1.2X + 1 = X = 1.2 ± = 1.2 ±.4.64 The solutions are G 1 1 = 2.5 and G 1 2 = 1.25 and the factors are G 1 =.4 and G 2 =.8. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

33 The characteristic equation can be written:.32x 2 1.2X + 1 = (1.4X )(1.8X ). Therefore, the process is stationary with real roots and the autocorrelation coefficients verify: ρ k = A 1.4 k + A 2.8 k. To determine A 1 and A 2 we impose the initial conditions ρ = 1, ρ 1 = 1.2/ (1.322) =.91. Then, for k = : and for k = 1, 1 = A 1 + A 2.91 =.4A 1 +.8A 2 solving these equations we obtain A 2 =.51/.4 and A 1 =.11/.4. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

34 Therefore, the autocorrelation function is: which gives us the following table: ρ k = k k k ρ k To obtain the representation as a function of the innovations, writing (1.4B)(1.8B)z t = a t and inverting both operators: z t = (1 +.4B +.16B 2 +.6B )(1 +.8B +.64B )a t yields: z t = ( B B )a t. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

35 The general autoregressive process, AR(p) We say that a stationary time series z t follows an autoregressive process of order p if: z t = φ 1 z t φ p z t p + a t (58) where z t = z t µ, with µ being the mean of the stationary process z t and a t a white noise process. Utilizing the operator notation, the equation of an AR(p) is: (1 φ 1 B... φ p B p ) z t = a t (59) and letting φ p (B) = 1 φ 1 B... φ p B p be the polynomial of degree p in the lag operator, whose first term is the unit, we have: φ p (B) z t = a t (6) which is the general expression of an autoregressive process. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

36 The general autoregressive process, AR(p) The characteristic equation of this process is define by: considered as a function of B. φ p (B) = (61) This equation has p roots G 1 1,...,Gp 1, which are generally different, and we can write: p φ p (B) = (1 G i B) such that the coefficients G i are the factors of the characteristic equation. i=1 It can be proved that the process is stationary if G i < 1, for all i. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

37 The general autoregressive process, AR(p) Autocorrelation function Operating with (58), we find that the autocorrelation coefficients of an AR(p) verify the following difference equation: ρ k = φ 1 ρ k φ p ρ k p, k >. In the above sections we saw particular cases in this equation for p = 1 and p = 2. We can conclude that the autocorrelation coefficients satisfy the same equation as the process: The general solution to this equation is: φ p (B) ρ k = k >. (62) ρ k = p A igi k, (63) i=1 where the A i are constants to be determined from the initial conditions and the G i are the factors of the characteristic equation. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

38 The general autoregressive process, AR(p) Autocorrelation function For the process to be stationary the modulus of G i must be less than one or, the roots of the characteristic equation (61) must be greater than one in modulus, which is the same. To prove this, we observe that the condition ρ k < 1 requires that there not be any G i greater than the unit in (63), since in that case, when k increases the term will increase without limit. G k i Furthermore, we observe that for the process to be stationary there cannot be a root G i equal to the unit, since then its component Gi k would not decrease and the coefficients ρ k would not tend to zero for any lag. Equation (63) shows that the autocorrelation function of an AR(p) process is a mixture of exponents, due to the terms with real roots, and sinusoids, due to the complex conjugates. As a result, their structure can be very complex. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

39 Yule-Walker equations Specifying the equation (62) for k = 1,..., p, a system of p equations is obtained that relate the first p autocorrelations with the parameters of the process. This is called the Yule-Walker system: Defining: ρ 1 = φ 1 + φ 2 ρ φ p ρ p 1 ρ 2 = φ 1 ρ 1 + φ φ p ρ p 2.. ρ p = φ 1 ρ p 1 + φ 2 ρ p φ p. φ = [φ 1,..., φ p ], ρ = [ρ 1,..., ρ p ], R = the above system is written as a matrix: and the parameters can be determined using: φ = R 1 ρ. 1 ρ 1... ρ p 1... ρ p 1 ρ p ρ = Rφ (64) Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

40 Yule-Walker equations - Example Example 39 Obtain the parameters of an AR(3) process whose first autocorrelations are ρ 1 =.9; ρ 2 =.8; ρ 3 =.5. Is the process stationary? The Yule-Walker equation system is: = φ 1 φ φ 3 whose solution is: φ 1 φ 2 φ 3 = = Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

41 As a result, the AR(3) process with these correlations is: ( 1.89B B B 3) z t = a t. To prove that the process is stationary we have to calculate the factors of the characteristic equation. The quickest way to do this is to obtain the solutions to the equation X 3.89X 2 X = and check that they all have modulus less than the unit. The roots of this equation are 1.55, i and i. The modulus of the real factor is greater than the unit, thus we conclude that there is no an AR(3) stationary process that has these three autocorrelation coefficients. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

42 Representation of an AR(p) process as a sum of innovations To obtain the coefficients of the representation MA( ) form we use: (1 φ 1 B... φ p B p )(1 + ψ 1 B + ψ 2 B ) = 1 and the coefficients ψ i are obtained by setting the powers of B equal to zero. It is proved that they must verify the equation ψ k = φ 1 ψ k φ p ψ k 1 which is analogous to that which verifies that autocorrelation coefficients of the process. As mentioned earlier, the autocorrelation coefficients, ρ k, and the coefficients of the structure MA( ) are not identical: although both sequences satisfy the same difference equation and take the form A i Gi k, the constants A i depend on the initial conditions and will be different in both sequences. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

43 The partial autocorrelation function Determining the order of an autoregressive process from its autocorrelation function is difficult. To resolve this problem the partial autocorrelation function is introduced. If we compare an AR(l) with an AR(2) we see that although in both processes each observation is related to the previous ones, the type of relationship between observations separated by more that one lag is different in both processes: In the AR(1) the effect of z t 2 on z t is always through z t 1, and given z t 1, the value of z t 2 is irrelevant for predicting z t. Nevertheless, in an AR(2) in addition to the effect of z t 2 which is transmitted to z t through z t 1, there exists a direct effect on z t 2 on z t. In general, an AR(p) has direct effects on observations separated by 1, 2,..., p lags and the direct effects of the observations separated by more than p lags are null. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

44 The partial autocorrelation function The partial autocorrelation coefficient of order k, denoted by ρ p k, is defined as the correlation coefficient between observations separated by k periods, when we eliminate the linear dependence due to intermediate values. 1 We eliminate from z t, the effect of z t 1,..., z t k+1 using the regression: z t = β 1 z t β k 1 z t k+1 + u t, where the variable u t contains the part of z t not common to z t 1,..., z t k+1. 2 We eliminate the effect of z t 1,..., z t k+1 from z t k using the regression: z t k = γ 1 z t γ k 1 z t k+1 + v t, where, again, v t contains the part of z t 1 not common to the intermediate observations. 3 We calculate the simple correlation coefficient between u t and v t which, by definition, is the partial autocorrelation coefficient of order k. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

45 The partial autocorrelation function This definition is analogous to that of the partial correlation coefficient in regression. It can be proved that the three above steps are equivalent to fitting the multiple regression: and thus ρ p k = α kk. z t = α k1 z t α kk z t k + η t The partial autocorrelation coefficient of order k is the coefficient α kk of the variable z t k after fitting an AR(k) to the data of the series. Therefore, if we fit the family of regressions: z t = α 11 z t 1 + η 1t z t = α 21 z t 1 + α 22 z t 2 + η 2t... z t = α k1 z t α kk z t k + η kt the sequence of coefficients α ii provides the partial autocorrelation function. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

46 The partial autocorrelation function From this definition it is clear that an AR(p) process will have the first p nonzero partial autocorrelation coefficients and, therefore, in the partial autocorrelation function (PACF) the number of nonzero coefficients indicates the order of the AR process. This property will be a key element in identifying the order of an autoregressive process. Furthermore, the partial correlation coefficient of order p always coincides with the parameter φ p. The Durbin-Levinson algorithm is an efficient method for estimating the partial correlation coefficients. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

47 1 1.5 Parameter, φ > Parameter, φ < Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

48 1 φ 1 >, φ 2 > φ 1 <, φ 2 > φ 1 >, φ 2 < φ 1 <, φ 2 < Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

49 Example 4 The figure shows the partial autocorrelation function for the interest rates series from example 36. We conclude that the variations in interest rates follow an AR(1) process, since there is only one significant coefficient..8 Sample Partial Autocorrelations Lag Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

50 Example 41 The figure shows the partial autocorrelation function for the data on mink from example 37. This series presents significant partial autocorrelation coefficients up to the fourth lag, suggesting that the model is an AR(4). 1.8 Sample Partial Autocorrelations Lag Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 5

51 Time Series Analysis Moving average and ARMA processes Andrés M. Alonso Carolina García-Martos Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Universidad Politécnica de Madrid June July, 212 Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

52 4. Autoregressive, MA and ARMA processes 4.2 Moving average and ARMA processes Outline: Introduction The first-order moving average process, MA(1) The MA(q) process The MA( ) process and Wold decomposition The ARMA(1,1) process The ARMA(p,q) processes The ARMA processes and the sum of stationary processes Recommended readings: Chapters 2 and 3 of Brockwell and Davis (1996). Chapter 3 of Hamilton (1994). Chapter 3 of Peña, Tiao and Tsay (21). Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

53 Introduction The autoregressive processes have, in general, infinite non-zero autocorrelation coefficients that decay with the lag. The AR processes have a relatively long memory, since the current value of a series is correlated with all previous ones, although with decreasing coefficients. This property means that we can write an AR process as a linear function of all its innovations, with weights that tend to zero with the lag. The AR processes cannot represent short memory series, where the current value of the series is only correlated with a small number of previous values. A family of processes that have this very short memory property are the moving average, or MA processes. The MA processes are a function of a finite, and generally small, number of its past innovations. Later, we will combine the properties of the AR and MA processes to define the ARMA processes, which give us a very broad and flexible family of stationary stochastic processes useful in representing many time series. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

54 The first order moving average, MA(l) A first order moving average, MA(1), is defined by a linear combination of the last two innovations, according to the equation: z t = a t θa t 1 (65) where z t = z t µ, with µ being the mean of the process and a t a white noise process with variance σ 2. The MA(1) process can be written with the operator notation: z t = (1 θb) a t. (66) This process is the sum of the two stationary processes, a t and θa t 1 and, therefore, will always be stationary for any value of the parameter, unlike the AR processes. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

55 The first order moving average, MA(l) In these processes we will assume that θ < 1, so that the past innovation has less weight than the present. Then, we say that the process is invertible and has the property whereby the effect of past values of the series decreases with time. To justify this property, we substitute a t 1 in (65) as a function of z t 1 : z t = a t θ ( z t 1 + θa t 2 ) = θ z t 1 θ 2 a t 2 + a t and repeating this operation for a t 2 : z t = θ z t 1 θ 2 ( z t 2 + θa t 3 ) + a t = θ z t 1 θ 2 z t 2 θ 3 a t 3 + a t using successive substitutions of a t 3, a t 4..., etc., we obtain: t 1 z t = θ i z t 1 θ t a + a t (67) i=1 Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

56 The first order moving average, MA(1) Notice that when θ < 1, the effect of z t k tends to zero with k and the process is called invertible. If θ 1 it produces the paradoxical situation in which the effect of past observations increases with the distance. From here on, we assume that the process is invertible. Thus, since θ < 1, there exists an inverse operator (1 θb) 1 and we can write equation (66) as: ( 1 + θb + θ 2 B ) z t = a t (68) that implies: z t = i=1 θi z t 1 + a t which is equivalent to (67) assuming that the process begins in the infinite past. This equation represents the MA(1) process with θ < 1 as an AR( ) with coefficients that decay in a geometric progression. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

57 The first order moving average, MA(1) Expectation and variance The expectation can be derived from relation (65) which implies that E[ z t ] =, so E[z t ] = µ. The variance of the process is calculated from (65). Squaring and taking expectations, we obtain: E( z 2 t ) = E(a 2 t ) + θ 2 E(a 2 t 1) 2θE(a t a t 1 ) since E(a t a t 1 ) =, a t is a white noise process and E(a 2 t ) = E(a 2 t 1 ) = σ2, then we have that: σ 2 z = σ 2 ( 1 + θ 2). (69) This equation tells us that the marginal variance of the process, σ 2 z, is always greater than the variance of the innovations, σ 2, and this difference increases with θ 2. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

58 The first order moving average, MA(1) Simple and partial autocorrelation function The first order autocovariance is calculated by multiplying equation (65) by z t 1 and taking expectations: γ 1 = E( z t z t 1 ) = E(a t z t 1 ) θe(a t 1 z t 1 ). In this expression the first term E(a t z t 1 ) is zero, since z t 1 depends on a t 1, and a t 2, but not on future innovations, such as a t. To calculate the second term, replacing z t 1 with its expression according to (65), gives us E(a t 1 z t 1 ) = E(a t 1 (a t 1 θa t 2 )) = σ 2 from which we obtain: γ 1 = θσ 2. (7) Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

59 The first order moving average, MA(1) Simple and partial autocorrelation function The second order autocovariance is calculated in the same way: γ 2 = E( z t z t 2 ) = E(a t z t 2 ) θe(a t 1 z t 2 ) = since the series is uncorrelated with its future innovations the two terms are null. The same result is obtained for covariances of orders higher than two. In conclusion: γ j =, j > 1. (71) Dividing the autocovariances (7) and (71) by expression (69) of the variance of the process, we find that the autocorrelation coefficients of an MA(1) process verify: ρ 1 = θ 1 + θ 2, ρ k = k > 1, (72) and the (ACF) will only have one value different from zero in the first lag. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

60 The first order moving average, MA(1) Simple and partial autocorrelation function This result proves that the autocorrelation function (ACF) of an MA(l) process has the same properties as the partial autocorrelation function (PACF)of an AR(1) process: there is a first coefficient different from zero and the rest are null. This duality between the AR(1) and the MA(1) is also seen in the partial autocorrelation function, PACF. According to (68), when we write an MA(1) process in autoregressive form z t k has a direct effect on z t of magnitude θ k, no matter what k is. Therefore, the PACF have all non-null coefficients and they decay geometrically with k. This is the structure of the ACF in an AR(l) and, hence, we conclude that the PACF of an MA(1) has the same structure as the ACF of an AR(1). Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

61 Example 42 The left figure show monthly data from the years and represent the deviation between the average temperature of a month and the mean of that month calculated by averaging the temperatures in the 25 years between 1951 and The right figure show z t = y t y t 1, which represents the variations in the Earth s mean temperature from one month to the next Earth temperature (deviation to monthly mean) Earth temperature (monthly variations) Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

62 Sample Autocorrelation.4.2 Sample Partial Autocorrelations Lag Lag In the autocorrelation function a single coefficient different from zero is observed, and in the PACF a geometric decay is observed. Both graphs suggest an MA(1) model for the series of differences between consecutive months, z t. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

63 The MA(q) process Generalizing on the idea of an MA(1), we can write processes whose current value depends not only on the last innovation but on the last q innovations. Thus the MA(q) process is obtained, with general representation: z t = a t θ 1 a t 1 θ 2 a t 2... θ q a t q. Introducing the operator notation: z t = ( 1 θ 1 B θ 2 B 2... θ q B q) a t (73) it can be written more compactly as: z t = θ q (B) a t. (74) An MA(q) is always stationary, as it is a sum of stationary processes. We say that the process is invertible if the roots of the operator θ q (B) = are, in modulus, greater than the unit. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

64 The MA(q) process The properties of this process are obtained with the same method used for the MA(1). Multiplying (73) by z t k for k and taking expectations, the autocovariances are obtained: γ = ( 1 + θ θq 2 ) σ 2 (75) γ k = ( θ k + θ 1 θ k θ q k θ q ) σ 2 k = 1,..., q, (76) γ k = k > q, (77) showing that an MA(q) process has exactly the first q coefficients of the autocovariance function different from zero. Dividing the covariances by γ and utilizing a more compact notation, the autocorrelation function is: i=q where θ = 1, and θ k = for k q + 1. i= ρ k = θ iθ k+i i=q, k = 1,..., q (78) i= θ2 i ρ k =, k > q, Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

65 The MA(q) process To compute the partial autocorrelation function of an MA(q) we express the process as an AR( ): θq 1 (B) z t = a t, and letting θq 1 (B) = π (B), where: π (B) = 1 π 1 B... π k B k... and the coefficients of π (B) are obtained imposing π (B) θ q (B) = 1. We say that the process is invertible if all the roots of θ q (B) = lie outside the unit circle. Then the series π (B) is convergent. For invertible MA processes, setting the powers of B to zero, we find that the coefficients π i verify the following equation: where π = 1 and π j = for j <. π k = θ 1 π k θ q π k q Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

66 The MA(q) process The solution to this difference equation is of the form A i Gi k, where now the G 1 i are the roots of the moving average operator. Having obtained the coefficients π i of the representation AR( ), we can write the MA process as: z t = π i z t i + a t. i=1 From this expression we conclude that the PACF of an MA is non-null for all lags, since a direct effect of z t i on z t exists for all i. The PACF of an MA process thus has the same structure as the ACF of an AR process of the same order. We conclude that a duality exists between the AR and MA processes such that the PACF of an MA(q) has the structure of the ACF of an AR(q) and the ACF of an MA(q) has the structure of the PACF of an AR(q). Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

67 1 1.5 Parameter, θ < Parameter, θ < Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

68 1 1 θ 1 >, θ 2 > θ 1 <, θ 2 > θ 1 >, θ 2 < θ 1 <, θ 2 < Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

69 The MA( ) process and Wold decomposition The autoregressive and moving average processes are specific cases of a general representation of stationary processes obtained by Wold (1938). Wold proved that any weakly stationary stochastic process, z t, with finite mean, µ, that does not contain deterministic components, can be written as a linear function of uncorrelated random variables, a t, as: z t = µ + a t + ψ 1 a t 1 + ψ 2 a t = µ + i= ψ ia t i (ψ = 1) (79) where E(z t ) = µ, and E [a t ] = ; Var (a t ) = σ 2 ; E [a t a t k ] =, k > 1. Letting z t = z t µ, and using the lag operator, we can write: z t = ψ(b)a t, (8) with ψ(b) = 1 + ψ 1 B + ψ 2 B being an indefinite polynomial in the lag operator B. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

70 The MA( ) process and Wold decomposition We denote (8) as the general linear representation of a non-deterministic stationary process. This representation is important because it guarantees that any stationary process admits a linear representation. In general, the variables a t make up a white noise process, that is, they are uncorrelated with zero mean and constant variance. In certain specific cases the process can be written as a function of normal independent variables {a t }. Thus the variable z t will have a normal distribution and the weak coincides with strict stationarity. The series z t, can be considered as the result of passing a process of impulses {a t } of uncorrelated variables through a linear filter ψ (B) that determines the weight of each impulse in the response. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

71 The MA( ) process and Wold decomposition The properties of the process are obtained as in the case of an MA model. The variance of z t in (79) is: Var (z t ) = γ = σ 2 i= ψ2 i (81) and for the process to have finite variance the series { ψ 2 i } must be convergent. We observe that if the coefficients ψ i are zero after lag q the general model is reduced to an MA(q) and formula (81) coincides with (76). The covariances are obtained with γ k = E( z t z t k ) = σ 2 i= ψ iψ i+k, which for k = provide, as a particular case, formula (81) for the variance. Furthermore, if the coefficients ψ i are zero after lag q on, this expression provides the autocovariances of an MA(q) expression. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

72 The MA( ) process and Wold decomposition The autocorrelation coefficients are given by: i= ρ k = ψ iψ i+k, (82) i= ψ2 i which generalizes the expression (78) of the autocorrelations of an MA(q). A consequence of (79) is that any stationary process also admits an autoregressive representation, which can be of infinite order. This representation is the inverse of that of Wold, and we write which in operator notation is reduced to z t = π 1 z t 1 + π 2 z t a t, π(b) z t = a t. The AR( ) representation is the dual representation of the MA( ) and it is shown that: π(b)ψ(b) = 1 such that by setting the powers of B to zero we can obtain the coefficients of one representation from those of another. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

73 The AR and MA processes and the general process It is straightforward to prove that an MA process is a particular case of the Wold representation, as are the AR processes. For example, the AR(1) process (1 φb) z t = a t (83) can be written, multiplying by the inverse operator (1 φb) 1 z t = ( 1 + φb + φ 2 B ) a t which represents the AR(1) process as a particular case of the MA( ) form of the general linear process, with coefficients ψ i that decay in geometric progression. The condition of stationarity and finite variance, convergent series of coefficients ψ 2 i, is equivalent now to φ < 1. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

74 The AR and MA processes and the general process For higher order AR process to obtain the coefficients of the MA( ) representation we impose the condition that the product of the AR and MA( ) operators must be the unit. For example, for an AR(2) the condition is: ( 1 φ1 B φ 2 B 2) ( 1 + ψ 1 B + ψ 2 B ) = 1 and imposing the cancelation of powers of B we obtain the coefficients: where ψ = 1. ψ 1 = φ 1 ψ 2 = φ 1 ψ 1 + φ 2 ψ i = φ 1 ψ i 1 + φ 2 ψ i 2, i 2 Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

75 The AR and MA processes and the general process Analogously, for an AR(p) the coefficients ψ i of the general representation are calculated by: (1 φ 1 B... φ p B p ) ( 1 + ψ 1 B + ψ 2 B ) = 1 and for i p they must verify the condition: ψ i = φ 1 ψ i φ p ψ i p, i p. The condition of stationarity implies that the roots of the characteristic equation of the AR(p) process, φ p (B) =, must lie outside the unit circle. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

76 The AR and MA processes and the general process Writing the operator φ p (B) as: φ p (B) = p i=1 (1 G ib) where G 1 i are the roots of φ p (B) =, it is shown that, expanding in partial fractions: φ 1 p (B) = k i (1 G i B) will be convergent if G i < 1. Summarizing, the AR processes can be considered as particular cases of the general linear process characterized by the fact that: (1) all the ψ i are different from zero; (2) there are restrictions on the ψ i, that depend on the order of the process. In general they verify the sequence ψ i = φ 1 ψ i φ p ψ i p, with initial conditions that depend on the order of the process. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

77 The ARMA(1,1) process One conclusion from the above section is that the AR and MA processes approximate a general linear MA( ) process from a complementary point of view: The AR admit an MA( ) structure, but they impose restrictions on the decay patterns of the coefficients ψ i. The MA require a number of finite terms, however, they do not impose restrictions on the coefficients. From the point of view of the autocorrelation structure, the AR processes allow many coefficients different from zero, but with a fixed decay pattern, whereas the MA permit a few coefficients different from zero with arbitrary values. The ARMA processes try to combine these properties and allow us to represent in a reduced form (using few parameters) those processes whose first q coefficients can be any, whereas the following ones decay according to simple rules. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

78 The ARMA(1,1) process The simplest process, the ARMA(1,1) is written as: or, using operator notations: z t = φ 1 z t 1 + a t θ 1 a t 1, (1 φ 1 B) z t = (1 θ 1 B) a t, (84) where φ 1 < 1 for the process to be stationary, and θ 1 < 1 for it to be invertible. Moreover, we assume that φ 1 θ 1. If both parameters were identical, multiplying both parts by the operator (1 φ 1 B) 1, we would have z t = a t, and the process would be white noise. In the formulation of the ARMA models we always assume that there are no common roots in the AR and MA operators. Alonso and García-Martos (UC3M-UPM) Time Series Analysis June July, / 51

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