# Time Series Analysis

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1 Time Series Analysis Informatics and Mathematical Modelling Technical University of Denmark DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby 1

2 Outline of the lecture Identification of univariate time series models, cont.: Estimation of model parameters, Sec. 6.4 (cont.) Model order selection, Sec. 6.5 Model validation, Sec

3 Estimation methods (from previous lecture) We have an appropriate model structure AR(p), M A(q), ARMA(p,q), ARIMA(p,d,q) with p, d, and q known Task: Based on the observations find appropriate values of the parameters The book describes many methods: Moment estimates LS-estimates Prediction error estimates Conditioned Unconditioned ML-estimates Conditioned Unconditioned (exact) 3

4 Maximum likelihood estimates ARM A(p, q)-process: Y t + φ 1 Y t φ p Y t p = ε t + θ 1 ε t θ q ε t q Notation: θ T = (φ 1,...,φ p,θ 1,...,θ q ) Y T t = (Y t,y t 1,...,Y 1 ) The Likelihood function is the joint probability distribution function for all observations for given values of θ and σ 2 ε: L(Y N ;θ,σ 2 ε) = f(y N θ,σ 2 ε) Given the observations Y N we estimate θ and σ 2 ε as the values for which the likelihood is maximized. 4

5 The likelihood function for ARM A(p, q)-models The random variable Y N Y N 1 only contains ε N as a random component ε N is a white noise process at time N and does therefore not depend on anything We therefore know that the random variables Y N Y N 1 and Y N 1 are independent, hence (see also page 3): f(y N θ,σ 2 ε) = f(y N Y N 1,θ,σ 2 ε)f(y N 1 θ,σ 2 ε) Repeating these arguments: L(Y N ;θ,σ 2 ε) = N t=p+1 f(y t Y t 1,θ,σε) 2 f(y p θ,σε) 2 5

6 The conditional likelihood function Evaluation of f(y p θ,σ 2 ε) requires special attention It turns out that the estimates obtained using the conditional likelihood function: N L(Y N ;θ,σε) 2 = f(y t Y t 1,θ,σε) 2 t=p+1 results in the same estimates as the exact likelihood function when many observations are available For small samples there can be some difference Software: The S-PLUS function arima.mle calculate conditional estimates The R function arima calculate exact estimates 6

7 Evaluating the conditional likelihood function Task: Find the conditional densities given specified values of the parameters θ and σ 2 ε The mean of the random variable Y t Y t 1 is the the 1-step forecast Ŷt t 1 The prediction error ε t = Y t Ŷ t t 1 has variance σ 2 ε We assume that the process is Gaussian: f(y t Y t 1,θ,σ 2 ε) = 1 e (Y t Y b t t 1(θ))2 /2σ2 ε σ ε 2π And therefore: L(Y N ;θ,σ 2 ε) = (σ 2 ε2π) N p 2 exp 1 2σ 2 ε N ε 2 t(θ) t=p+1 7

8 ML-estimates The (conditional) ML-estimate θ is a prediction error estimate since it is obtained by minimizing S(θ) = N t=p+1 ε 2 t(θ) By differentiating w.r.t. σ 2 ε it can be shown that the ML-estimate of σ 2 ε is σ 2 ε = S( θ)/(n p) The estimate θ is asymptoticly good and the variance-covariance matrix is approximately 2σ 2 εh 1 where H contains the 2nd order partial derivatives of S(θ) at the minimum 8

9 Finding the ML-estimates using the PE-method 1-step predictions: Ŷ t t 1 = φ 1 Y t 1 φ p Y t p θ 1 ε t θ q ε t q If we use ε p = ε p 1 = = ε p+1 q = 0 we can find: Ŷ p+1 p = φ 1 Y p φ p Y θ 1 ε p + + θ q ε p+1 q Which will give us ε p+1 = Y p+1 Ŷ p+1 p and we can then calculate Ŷp+2 p+1 and ε p+2... and so on until we have all the 1-step prediction errors we need. We use numerical optimization to find the parameters which minimize the sum of squared prediction errors 9

10 S(θ) for ( B)Y t = (1 0.4B)ε t with σ 2 ε = Data: arima.sim(model=list(ar= 0.7,ma=0.4), n=500, sd=0.25) AR parameter MA parameter 10

11 Moment estimates Given the model structure: Find formulas for the theoretical autocorrelation or autocovariance as function of the parameters in the model Estimate, e.g. calculate the SACF Solve the equations by using the lowest lags necessary Complicated! General properties of the estimator unknown! 11

12 Moment estimates for AR(p)-processes In this case moment estimates are simple to find due to the Yule-Walker equations (page 104). We simply plug in the estimated autocorrelation function in lags 1 to p: ρ(1) 1 ρ(1) ρ(p 1) φ 1 ρ(2). = ρ(1) 1 ρ(p 2) φ ρ(p) ρ(p 1) ρ(p 2) 1 φ p and solve w.r.t. the φ s The function ar in S-PLUS or R use this approach as default 12

13 Model building 1. Identification (Specifying the model order) Data Theory physical insight 2. Estimation (of the model parameters) No 3. Model checking Is the model OK? Yes Applications using the model (Prediction, simulation, etc.) 13

14 Validation of the model and extensions / reductions Residual analysis (Sec ): Is it possible to detect problems with residuals? (the 1-step prediction errors using the estimates, i.e. {ε t ( θ)}, should be white noise) If the SACF or the SPACF of {ε t ( θ)} points towards a particular ARMA-structure we can derive how the original model should be extended (Sec ) If the model pass the residual analysis it makes sense to test null hypotheses about the parameters (Sec ) 14

15 Residual analysis Plot {ε t ( θ)}; do the residuals look stationary? Tests in the autocorrelation. If {ε t ( θ)} is white noise then ˆρ ε (k) is approximately Gaussian distributed with mean 0 and variance 1/N. If the model fails calculate SPACF also and see if an ARMA-structure for the residuals can be derived (Sec ) Since ˆρ ε (k 1 ) and ˆρ ε (k 2 ) are independent (Eq. 6.4) the test m ( ) 2 statistic Q 2 = N ˆρεt( bθ) (k) is approximately distributed k=1 as χ 2 (m n), where n is the number of parameters. S-PLUS: arima.diag( output from arima.mle ) 15

16 Residual analysis (continued) Test for the number of changes in sign. In a series of length N there is N 1 possibilities for changes in sign. If the series is white noise (with mean zero) the probability of change is 1/2 and the changes will be independent. Therefore the number of changes is distributed as Bin(N 1, 1/2) S-PLUS: binom.test(n-1, No. of changes ) Test in the scaled cumulated periodogram of the residuals is done by plotting it and adding lines at ±K α / q, where q = (N 2)/2 for N even and q = (N 1)/2 for N odd. For 1 α confidence limits K α can be found in Table 6.2 S-PLUS (95% confidence interval): library(mass) cpgram( residuals ) 16

17 Sum of squared residuals depend on the model size S( ^θ 1 ) x x x x x x x i = number of parameters (It is assumed that the models are nested) 17

18 Test is the model The test essentially checks if the reduction in SSE (S 1 S 2 ) is large enough to justify the extra parameters in model 2 (n 2 parameters) as compared to model 1 (n 1 parameters). The number of observations used is called N. If vector θ extra is used to denote the extra parameters in model 2 as compared to model 1, then the test is formally: H 0 : θ extra = 0 vs. H 0 : θ extra 0 If H 0 is true it (approximately) hold that (S 1 S 2 )/(n 2 n 1 ) S 2 /(N n 2 ) F(n 2 n 1,N n 2 ) (The likelihood ratio test is also a possibility) 18

19 Testing one parameter for significance H 0 : θ i = 0 against H 1 : θ i 0 Can be done as described on the previous slide Alternatively we can use a t-test based on the estimate and its standard error: ˆθ i / ˆV (ˆθ i ) Under H 0 and for an ARMA(p,q)-model this follows a t(n p q) distribution (or t(n 1 p q) if we estimated an overall mean of the series) Often N is so large compared to the number of parameters that we can just use the standard normal distribution 19

20 Information criteria Select the model which minimize some information criterion Akaike s Information Criterion AIC = 2log(L(Y N ; θ, ˆσ ε)) 2 + 2n par Bayesian Information Criterion BIC = 2log(L(Y N ; θ, ˆσ ε)) 2 + logn n par Except for an additive constant this can also be expressed as AIC = N log ˆσ ε 2 + 2n par BIC = N log ˆσ ε 2 + logn n par BIC yields a consistent estimate of the model order 20

21 Example A model for CO

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