Wisconsin Model Academic Standards and Next Generation Science Standards Content Analysis

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1 Wisconsin Model Academic Standards and Next Generation Science Standards Content Analysis Table of Contents Introduction 1 Alignment Summary 3 Science Themes in WMASS 5 Grades K-4 Comparison 8 WMASS Category A 8 WMASS Category B 9 WMASS Category C 10 WMASS Category D 11 WMASS Category E 16 WMASS Category F 20 WMASS Category G & H 24 Grades 5-8 Comparison 27 WMASS Category A 27 WMASS Category B 29 WMASS Category C 31 WMASS Category D 33 WMASS Category E 41 WMASS Category F 48 WMASS Category G 56 WMASS Category H 58 Grades 9-12 Comparison 59 WMASS Category A 59 WMASS Category B 60 WMASS Category C 61 WMASS Category D 63 WMASS Category E 69 WMASS Category F 75 WMASS Category G & H 83 Acknowledgements This report was created by Eric Brunsell, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh. It was reviewed extensively by Chad Janowski, Shawano Community High School. Additional input was provided by the Science Futures Participants. Correspondence should be directed to Eric Brunsell at

2 Introduction The Next Generation Science Standards were released in April, 2013 by Achieve, Inc. These standards are a culmination of a comprehensive and transparent development process led by Achieve, Inc., The National Research Council, The National Science Teachers Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The standards are organized by grade level in elementary (K-5) and by grade band in middle school and high school. For more information, visit: This report provides a content analysis and comparison of the Wisconsin Model Academic Standards for Science and the Next Generation Science Standards. The intent of this report is to assist school districts in Wisconsin in their decision process related to using NGSS for K-12 science curriculum reform. This document is not intended as a checklist. Instead, it is a resources that can be used to develop a K-12 Scope and Sequence, courses and instruction aligned to NGSS with some confidence that this work is consistent with the Wisconsin Model Academic Standards for Science. NGSS Terminology The Next Generation Science Standards are based on the Framework for K-12 Science Education ( published by the National Research Council. The Framework identified three dimensions (Disciplinary Core Ideas, Science and Engineering Practices, and Crosscutting Concepts) that should form the cornerstone of a world-class K-12 science education. This report makes extensive use of the following NGSS terminology. Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI): The Framework defines the content that is central to science. This content is described by using a small number of Disciplinary Core Ideas that grow in complexity from kindergarten through high school. In addition to traditional science content, NGSS includes disciplinary core ideas related to engineering. [NGSS Appendix E Summarizes the DCIs] 1

3 Science and Engineering Practices (SEP): The Framework defines eight Science and Engineering Practices. These practices describe the skills and associated knowledge that scientists and engineering. These practices provide definition to science inquiry and engineering design activities. In addition, many of the practices are well aligned to the Common Core State Standards English Language Arts Literacy Standards for Science and Technical Fields. Instruction should provide students with opportunities to engage in the practices throughout the school year. [NGSS Appendix F Summarizes the Practices] Crosscutting Concepts (CCC): The Framework and NGSS define seven Crosscutting Concepts. These concepts (e.g. patterns, energy, systems, etc.) provide connections across all science disciplines. Scientists often use these crosscutting concepts as a lens to view and understand science phenomena. Instruction should help students make explicit connections between the crosscutting concepts and the content that they are learning. [NGSS Appendix G Summarizes the Crosscutting Concepts] Nature of Science (NOS): Nature of Science refers to the assumptions and norms that define science as a body of knowledge and as a process. Nature of Science statements are embedded in the Science and Engineering Practices and Crosscutting Concepts. [NGSS Appendix H Summarizes the Crosscutting Concepts] Performance Expectations (PE): The NGSS are written as performance expectations. These performance expectations are not descriptions of activities, but are statements of what students should know and be able to do at the end of instruction. Therefore, the NGSS Performance Expectations provide guidance as to how to assess students. NGSS Performance Expectations integrate disciplinary core ideas, science and engineering practices, and crosscutting concepts. 2

4 Alignment Summary This section of the report provides a brief summary of the Wisconsin Model Academic Standards for Science and Next Generation Science Standards comparison. The remainder of this report provides a detailed comparison. WMASS Category K Science Themes NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds A. Science Connections NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS does not include A12.1 and A12.5 Meets 5 of 7 standards. B. Nature of Science NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds C. Science Inquiry NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds D. Physical Science NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds E. Earth and Space NGSS Meets or Exceeds for 6 of 8 standards. WMASS E.4.1, E.4.2 are not explicitly met by NGSS. However, these two standards can be met by using earth materials as examples during instruction on properties of materials (NGSS Physical Science) NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds F. Life and Environmental NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds NGSS Meets or Exceeds G. Science Applications See Below See Below See Below H. Science in Personal and Social Perspectives See Below NGSS Meets or Exceeds See Below 3

5 The Next Generation Science Standards do not explicitly align with WMASS standards in category G (Science Applications) and H (Science in Personal and Social Perspectives) - with the exception of grades 6-8. Instead, NGSS identifies disciplinary core ideas in Engineering, Technology, and Society. Districts can meet the WMASS standards in three areas using the NGSS ETS core ideas, however special attention will need to be given to local examples, career connections, and other aspects that are not explicitly described in NGSS. References This document includes content drawn from the following documents: The Wisconsin Model Academic Standards for Science The NRC publication, A Framework for K-12 Science Education The Next Generation Science Standards and Appendices The Disciplinary Core Idea Matrix created by the National Science Teachers Association GSS-May2013.pdf 4

6 Science Themes The Wisconsin Model Academic Standards (WMASS) includes a series of themes that connect or unify the disciplines of science. WMASS describes the themes as follows: Each of the following terms refers to a theme that connects and unifies the many disciplines of science. The themes are found particularly in Standard A and are mentioned consistently throughout the science standards. They are identified with an asterisk (*) each time they appear ( These themes are also evident in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in two different constructs. Crosscutting Concepts (CCC) identify concepts that connect all science disciplines. They often act as a lens through which scientists and engineers can view phenomena. Some of the themes are encoded in NGSS as Science and Engineering Practices (SEP). NGSS integrates the Practices and Crosscutting Concepts with Disciplinary Core Ideas in each NGSS Performance Expectation. WMASS THEMES Change. A variance in the rate, scale, and pattern, including trends and cycles. NGSS CROSSCUTTING CONCEPTS OR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES CCC: Patterns. Observed patterns of forms and events guide organization and classification, and they prompt questions about relationships and the factors that influence them. CCC: Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation. Events have causes, sometimes simple, sometimes multifaceted. A major activity of science is investigating and explaining causal relationships and the mechanisms by which they are mediated. Such mechanisms can then be tested across given contexts and used to predict and explain events in new contexts. CCC: Stability and change. For natural and built systems alike, conditions of stability and determinants of rates of change or evolution of a system are critical 5

7 elements of study. Constancy. The stability of a property, such as the speed of light. Equilibrium. The physical state in which forces and changes occur in opposite and offsetting directions. CCC: Stability and change. For natural and built systems alike, conditions of stability and determinants of rates of change or evolution of a system are critical elements of study. CCC: Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation. Events have causes, sometimes simple, sometimes multifaceted. A major activity of science is investigating and explaining causal relationships and the mechanisms by which they are mediated. Such mechanisms can then be tested across given contexts and used to predict and explain events in new contexts. CCC: Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation. Tracking fluxes of energy and matter into, out of, and within systems helps one understand the systems possibilities and limitations. Evidence. Data and documentation that support inferences or conclusions. SEP: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions SEP: Engaging in Argument from Evidence Evolution. A series of changes, some gradual and some sporadic, that accounts for the present form and function* of objects. Explanation. The skill of communication in which an interpretation of information is given and stated to others. Form and Function. Complementary aspects of objects, organisms, and systems in the natural world. Measurement. The quantification of changes in systems, including mathematics. CCC: Stability and change. For natural and built systems alike, conditions of stability and determinants of rates of change or evolution of a system are critical elements of study. SEP: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions SEP: Engaging in Argument from Evidence CCC: Structure and function. The way in which an object or living thing is shaped and its substructure determine many of its properties and functions. SEP: Planning and Conducting Investigations SEP: Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking CCC: Scale, proportion, and quantity. In considering phenomena, it is critical to recognize what is relevant at 6

8 different measures of size, time, and energy and to recognize how changes in scale, proportion, or quantity affect a system s structure or performance. Models. Tentative schemes or structures that correspond to real objects, events, or classes of events, and that have explanatory power. SEP: Developing and Using Models CCC: Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation. Events have causes, sometimes simple, sometimes multifaceted. A major activity of science is investigating and explaining causal relationships and the mechanisms by which they are mediated. Such mechanisms can then be tested across given contexts and used to predict and explain events in new contexts. CCC: Systems and system models. Defining the system under study specifying its boundaries and making explicit a model of that system provides tools for understanding and testing ideas that are applicable throughout science and engineering. Order. The behavior of units of matter, objects, organisms, or events in the universe. Organization. Descriptions of systems based on complexity and/or order. CCC: Patterns. Observed patterns of forms and events guide organization and classification, and they prompt questions about relationships and the factors that influence them. CCC: Patterns. Observed patterns of forms and events guide organization and classification, and they prompt questions about relationships and the factors that influence them. CCC: Systems and system models. Defining the system under study specifying its boundaries and making explicit a model of that system provides tools for understanding and testing ideas that are applicable throughout science and engineering. Systems. An organized group of related objects or components that form a whole. CCC: Systems and system models. Defining the system under study specifying its boundaries and making explicit a model of that system provides tools for understanding and testing ideas that are applicable throughout science and engineering. 7

9 K-4 Comparison GRADE K-4 SCIENCE CONNECTIONS (A), NATURE OF SCIENCE (B), SCIENCE INQUIRY (C) NOTE: SEP refers to the Science and Engineering Practices in NGSS, CCC refers to the Crosscutting Concepts in NGSS, NOS refers to the Nature of Science concepts embedded in NGSS, and ETS refers to the grade-band Engineering, Technology, and Science standards in NGSS. These practices and concepts are expected to be developed throughout the school year at each grade level and are integrated with disciplinary core ideas in the NGSS Performance Expectations. Each of these categories includes specific grade-band endpoints to assist in defining and assessing the practice, crosscutting concept, or other concept. SCIENCE CONNECTIONS (A) A.4.1 When conducting science investigations, ask and answer questions that will help decide the general areas of science being addressed SEP: Asking Questions and Defining Problems A.4.2 When faced with a science-related problem, decide what evidence, models, or explanations previously studied can be used to better understand what is happening now SEP: Developing and Using Models SEP: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions SEP: Engaging in Argument from Evidence A.4.3 When investigating a science-related problem, decide what data can be collected to determine the most useful explanations SEP: Planning and Carrying Out Investigations SEP: Analyzing and Interpreting Data SEP: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions SEP: Engaging in Argument from Evidence A.4.4 When studying science-related NOTE: SEE THE DISCUSSION OF 8

10 problems, decide which of the science themes are important A.4.5 When studying a science-related problem, decide what changes over time are occurring or have occurred SCIENCE THEMES AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS DOCUMENT CCC: Patterns. Observed patterns of forms and events guide organization and classification, and they prompt questions about relationships and the factors that influence them. CCC: Stability and change. For natural and built systems alike, conditions of stability and determinants of rates of change or evolution of a system are critical elements of study. NATURE OF SCIENCE (B) B.4.1 Use encyclopedias, source books, texts, computers, teachers, parents, other adults, journals, popular press, and various other sources, to help answer sciencerelated questions and plan investigations SEP: Asking Questions and Defining Problems SEP: Planning and Carrying Out Investigations SEP: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information B.4.2 Acquire information about people who have contributed to the development of major ideas in the sciences and learn about the cultures in which these people lived and worked SEP: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information NOS: Science is a Way of Knowing NOS: Science is a Human Endeavor B.4.3 Show* how the major developments of scientific knowledge in the earth and space, life and environmental, and physical sciences have changed over time SEP: Engaging in Argument from Evidence NOS: Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence NOS: Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence NOS: Scientific Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena NOS: Science is a Way of Knowing 9

11 NOS: Science is a Human Endeavor SCIENCE INQUIRY (C) C.4.1 Use the vocabulary of the unifying themes to ask questions about objects, organisms, and events being studied C.4.2 Use the science content being learned to ask questions, plan investigations, make observations, make predictions, and offer explanations SEP: Asking Questions and Defining Problems SEP: Asking Questions and Defining Problems SEP: Planning and Carrying Out Investigations SEP: Analyzing and Interpreting Data SEP: Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking SEP: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions NOS: Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods C.4.3 Select multiple sources of information to help answer questions selected for classroom investigations C.4.4 Use simple science equipment safely and effectively, including rulers, balances, graduated cylinders, hand lenses, thermometers, and computers, to collect data relevant to questions and investigations SEP: Engaging in Argument from Evidence SEP: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information SEP: Planning and Carrying Out Investigations NOS: Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods C.4.5 Use data they have collected to develop explanations and answer questions generated by investigations SEP: Developing and Using Models SEP: Analyzing and Interpreting Data SEP: Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking SEP: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions 10

12 SEP: Engaging in Argument from Evidence C.4.6 Communicate the results of their investigations in ways their audiences will understand by using charts, graphs, drawings, written descriptions, and various other means, to display their answers SEP: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions SEP: Engaging in Argument from Evidence SEP: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information C.4.7 Support their conclusions with logical arguments SEP: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions SEP: Engaging in Argument from Evidence C.4.8 Ask additional questions that might help focus or further an investigation SEP: Asking Questions and Defining Problems GRADE K-4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE (D) Note: Performance expectations in NGSS are described in grade-levels in K-5. This crosswalk includes the disciplinary core ideas for grades K-4. PROPERTIES OF EARTH MATERIALS D.4.1 Understand that objects are made of more than one substance, by observing, describing and measuring the properties of earth materials, including properties of size, weight, shape, color, temperature, and the ability to react with other substances Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. (2- PS1-1) Different properties are suited to different purposes. (2-PS1-2),(2-PS1-3) A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces. (2-PS1-3) D.4.2 Group and/or classify objects and substances based on the properties of earth materials Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. (2- PS1-1) 11

13 Different properties are suited to different purposes. (2-PS1-2),(2-PS1-3) D.4.3. Understand that substances can exist in different states-solid, liquid, gas Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. (2- PS1-1) D.4.4 Observe and describe changes in form, temperature, color, speed, and direction of objects and construct explanations for the changes Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible, and sometimes they are not. (2-PS1-4) Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it. (K-PS2-1),(K-PS2-2) When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion. (K- PS2-1) The patters of an object s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. (3-PS2-2) D.4.5 Construct simple models of what is happening to materials and substances undergoing change, using simple instruments or tools to aid observations and collect data Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible, and sometimes they are not. (2-PS1-4) The patters of an object s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. (3-PS2-2) POSITION AND MOTION OF OBJECTS D.4.6 Observe and describe physical events in objects at rest or in motion Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it. (K-PS2-1),(K-PS2-2) Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. (KPS2-1),(K-PS2-2) 12

14 The patterns of an object s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. (Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum, and vector quantity, are not introduced at this level, but the concept that some quantities need both size and direction to be described is developed.) (3-PS2-2) D.4.7 Observe and describe physical events involving objects and develop record-keeping systems to follow these events by measuring and describing changes in their properties, including: position relative to another object, motion over time, and position due to forces Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it. (K-PS2-1),(K-PS2-2) When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion. (K- PS2-1) Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. (KPS2-1),(K-PS2-2) A bigger push or pull makes things go faster. (secondary to K-PS2-1) Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. (KPS2-1),(K-PS2-2) The patterns of an object s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. (Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum, and vector quantity, are not introduced at this level, but the concept that some quantities need both size and direction to be described is developed.) (3-PS2-2) Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object s speed or direction of motion. (Boundary: Qualitative and conceptual, but not quantitative addition 13

15 of forces are used at this level.) (3-PS2-1) Objects in contact exert forces on each other. (3-PS2-1) Electric, and magnetic forces between a pair of objects do not require that the objects be in contact. The sizes of the forces in each situation depend on the properties of the objects and their distances apart and, for forces between two magnets, on their orientation relative to each other. (3-PS2-3),(3-PS2-4) LIGHT, HEAT, ELECTRICITY, AND MAGNETISM D.4.8 Ask questions and make observations to discover the differences between substances that can be touched (matter) and substances that cannot be touched (forms of energy, light, heat, electricity, sound, and magnetism) Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating matter can make sound. (1-PS4-1) Objects can be seen only when light is available to illuminate them. Some objects give off their own light. (1-PS4-2) Some materials allow light to pass through them, others allow only some light through and others block all the light and create a dark shadow on any surface beyond them, where the light cannot reach. Mirrors can be used to redirect a light beam. (Boundary: The idea that light travels from place to place is developed through experiences with light sources, mirrors, and shadows, but no attempt is made to discuss the speed of light.) (1-PS4-3) People also use a variety of devices to communicate (send and receive information) over long distances. (1-PS4-4) People also use a variety of devices to communicate (send and receive information) over long distances. (1-PS4-4) Electric, and magnetic forces between a pair of objects do not require that the objects be in contact. The sizes of the forces in each situation depend on the properties of the 14

16 objects and their distances apart and, for forces between two magnets, on their orientation relative to each other. (3-PS2-3),(3-PS2-4) The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses. (4-PS3-1) Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or electric currents. (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3) Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced. (4-PS3-2),(4- PS3-3) Light also transfers energy from place to place. (4-PS3-2) Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy. (4- PS3-2),(4-PS3-4) When objects collide, the contact forces transfer energy so as to change the objects motions. (4-PS3-3) The expression produce energy typically refers to the conversion of stored energy into a desired form for practical use. (4-PS3-4) Waves, which are regular patterns of motion, can be made in water by disturbing the surface. When waves move across the surface of deep water, the water goes up and down in place; it does not move in the direction of the wave except when the water meets the beach. (Note: This grade band 15

17 endpoint was moved from K 2.) (4-PS4-1) Waves of the same type can differ in amplitude (height of the wave) and wavelength (spacing between wave peaks). (4-PS4-1) An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes. (4-PS4-2) Digitized information transmitted over long distances without significant degradation. High-tech devices, such as computers or cell phones, can receive and decode information convert it from digitized form to voice and vice versa. (4-PS4-3) GRADE K-4: Earth / Space Science Note: Performance expectations in NGSS are described in grade-levels in K-5. This crosswalk includes the disciplinary core ideas for grades K-4. PROPERTIES OF EARTH MATERIALS E.4.1 Investigate that earth materials are composed of rocks and soils and correctly use the vocabulary for rocks, minerals, and soils during these investigations [NOTE: WITH THE EXCEPTION OF WATER, EARTH MATERIALS IS NOT STRONGLY EVIDENT IN NGSS AT THESE GRADE LEVELS (K-4). HOWEVER, THIS CAN EASILY BE ADDRESSED BY INCLUDING EARTH MATERIALS IN AN NGSS UNIT FOCUSED ON PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS] Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. (2-PS1-1) Different properties are suited to different purposes. (2-PS1-2),(2-PS1-3) A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces. (2-PS1-3) E.4.2 Show that earth materials have different physical and [NOTE: WITH THE EXCEPTION OF WATER, EARTH MATERIALS IS NOT STRONGLY 16

18 chemical properties, including the properties of soils found in Wisconsin EVIDENT IN NGSS AT THESE GRADE LEVELS (K-4). HOWEVER, THIS CAN EASILY BE ADDRESSED BY INCLUDING EARTH MATERIALS IN AN NGSS UNIT FOCUSED ON PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS] Water is found in the ocean, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Water exists as solid ice and in liquid form. (2-ESS2-3) Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. (2-PS1-1) Different properties are suited to different purposes. (2-PS1-2),(2-PS1-3) A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces. (2-PS1-3) E.4.3 Develop descriptions of the land and water masses of the earth and of Wisconsin's rocks and minerals, using the common vocabulary of earth and space science Maps show where things are located. One can map the shapes and kinds of land and water in any area. (2-ESS2-2) Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils, and sediments into smaller particles and move them around. In most cases the movement is responsible for the formations that currently exist. (4-ESS2-1) OBJECTS IN THE SKY E.4.4 Identify celestial objects (stars, sun, moon, planets) in the sky, noting changes in patterns of those objects over time Patterns of the motion of the sun, moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, and predicted. (1-ESS1-1) Some events happen very quickly; others occur very slowly, over a time period much longer than one can observe. (2-ESS1-1) Seasonal patters of sunrise and sunset can be observed, described, and predicted. (1-ESS1-2) 17

19 CHANGES IN THE EARTH AND SKY E.4.5 Describe the weather commonly found in Wisconsin in terms of clouds, temperature, humidity, and forms of precipitation, and the changes that occur over time, including seasonal changes Sunlight warms Earth s surface. (K-PS3-1),(K- PS3-2) Weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, snow or rain, and temperature in a particular region at a particular time. People measure these conditions to describe and record the weather and to notice patterns over time. (K- ESS2-1) Scientists record patterns of the weather across different times and areas so that they can make predictions about what kind of weather might happen next. (3-ESS2-1) Climate describes a range of an area's typical weather conditions and the extent to which those conditions vary over years. (3-ESS2-2) A variety of natural hazards result from natural processes. Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can take steps to reduce their impacts. (3-ESS3-1) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by 4-ESS3-2.) Some events happen very quickly; others occur very slowly, over a time period much longer than one can observe. (2-ESS1-1) [In terms of changes on Earth s surface] Wind and water can change the shape of the land. (2-ESS2-1) Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils, and sediments into smaller particles and move them around. (4-ESS2-1) E.4.6 Using the science themes, find patterns and cycles in the earth's daily, yearly, and longterm changes Patterns of the motion of the sun, moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, and predicted. (1-ESS1-1) Seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset can be 18

20 observed, described, and predicted. (1-ESS1-2) Climate describes a range of an area's typical weather conditions and the extent to which those conditions vary over years. (3-ESS2-2) E.4.7 Using the science themes, describe resources used in the home, community, and nation as a whole Living things need water, air, and resources from the land, and they live in places that have the things they need. Humans use natural resources for everything they do. (K-ESS3-1) Things that people do to live comfortably can affect the world around them. But they can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living things. (K- ESS3-3) (secondary to K-ESS2-2) Energy and fuels that humans use are derived from natural sources, and their use affects the environment in multiple ways. Some resources are renewable over time, and others are not. (4- ESS3-1) E.4.8 Illustrate human resources use in mining, forestry, farming, and manufacturing in Wisconsin and elsewhere in the world Living things need water, air, and resources from the land, and they live in places that have the things they need. Humans use natural resources for everything they do. (K-ESS3-1) Things that people do to live comfortably can affect the world around them. But they can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living things. (K- ESS3-3) (secondary to K-ESS2-2) Energy and fuels that humans use are derived from natural sources, and their use affects the environment in multiple ways. Some resources are renewable over time, and others are not. (4- ESS3-1) Not Evident Local, regional, and global patterns of rock formations reveal changes over time due to earth forces, such as earthquakes. The presence and location of certain fossil types indicate the order in which rock layers were formed. (4-ESS1-1) Some events happen very quickly; others 19

21 occur very slowly, over a time period much longer than one can observe. (2-ESS1-1) [In terms of changes on Earth s surface] The locations of mountain ranges, deep ocean trenches, ocean floor structures, earthquakes, and volcanoes occur in patterns. Most earthquakes and volcanoes occur in bands that are often along the boundaries between continents and oceans. Major mountain chains form inside continents or near their edges. Maps can help locate the different land and water features areas of Earth. (4-ESS2-2) Grades K-4: LIFE SCIENCE Note: Performance expectations in NGSS are described in grade-levels in K-5. This crosswalk includes the disciplinary core ideas for grades K-4. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANISMS F.4.1 Discover* how each organism meets its basic needs for water, nutrients, protection, and energy* in order to survive Living things need water, air, and resources from the land, and they live in places that have the things they need. Humans use natural resources for everything they do. (K-ESS3-1) All organisms have external parts. Different animals use their body parts in different ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and seek, find, and take in food, water and air. Plants also have different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits) that help them survive and grow. (1-LS1-1) Adult plants and animals can have young. In many kinds of animals, parents and the offspring themselves engage in behaviors that help the offspring to survive. (1-LS1-2) All animals need food in order to live and grow. They obtain their food from plants or from other animals. Plants need water and light to live and grow. (K-LS1-1) Plants depend on water and light to grow. (2-LS

22 1) Being part of a group helps animals obtain food, defend themselves, and cope with changes. Groups may serve different functions and vary dramatically in size (Note: Moved from K 2). (3- LS2-1) Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction. (4-LS1-1) Sometimes the differences in characteristics between individuals of the same species provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing. (3-LS4-2) For any particular environment, some kinds of organisms survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all. (3-LS4-3) F.4.2 Investigate* how organisms, especially plants, respond to both internal cues (the need for water) and external cues (changes in the environment) Animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information needed for growth and survival. Animals respond to these inputs with behaviors that help them survive. Plants also respond to some external inputs. (1-LS1-1) Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior and reproductions (4-LS1-1) Being part of a group helps animals obtain food, defend themselves, and cope with changes. Groups may serve different functions and vary dramatically in size (Note: Moved from K 2). (3- LS2-1) Different sense receptors are specialized for particular kinds of information, which may be then processed by the animal s brain. Animals are able to use their perceptions and memories to guide their actions. (4-LS1-2) LIFE CYCLES OF ORGANISMS F.4.3 Illustrate* the different ways that organisms grow through life stages and survive to produce new members of their type Adult plants and animals can have young. In many kinds of animals, parents and the offspring themselves engage in behaviors that help the offspring to survive. (1-LS1-2) 21

23 Plants depend on animals for pollination or to move their seeds around. (2-LS2-2) Young animals are very much, but not exactly, like, their parents. Plants also are very much, but not exactly, like their parents. (1-LS3-1) Individuals of the same kind of plant or animal are recognizable as similar but can also vary in many ways. (1-LS3-1) Reproduction is essential to the continued existence of every kind of organism. Plants and animals have unique and diverse life cycles. (3- LS1-1) Many characteristics of organisms are inherited from their parents. (3-LS3-1) Other characteristics result from individuals interactions with the environment, which can range from diet to learning. Many characteristics involve both inheritance and environment. (3-LS3-2) ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT F.4.4 Using the science themes*, develop explanations* for the connections among living and nonliving things in various environments There are many different kinds of living things in any area, and they exist in different places on land and in water. (2-LS4-1) All animals need food in order to live and grow. They obtain their food from plants or from other animals. Plants need water and light to live and grow. (K-LS1-1) Plants depend on water and light to grow. (2-LS2-1) Plants depend on animals for pollination or to move their seeds around (2-LS2-2) Being part of a group helps animals obtain food, defend themselves, and cope with changes. Groups may serve different functions and vary dramatically in size (Note: Moved from K-2). (3- LS2-1) 22

24 Plants and animals can change their environment. (K-ESS2-2) Living things need water, air, and resources from the land, and they live in places that have the things they need. Humans use natural resources for everything they do. (K-ESS3-1) Other characteristics result from individuals interactions with the environment, which can range from diet to learning. Many characteristics involve both inheritance and environment. (3-LS3-2) Different organisms vary in how they look and function because they have different inherited information. (3-LS3-1) The environment also affects the traits that an organism develops. (3-LS3-2) When the environment changes in ways that affect a place s physical characteristics, temperature, or availability of resources, some organisms survive and reproduce, others move to new locations, yet others move into the transformed environment, and some die. (secondary to 3-LS4-4) Populations live in a variety of habitats, and change in those habitats affects the organisms living there. (3-LS4-4) For any particular environment, some kinds of organisms survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all. (3-LS4-3) Living things affect the physical characteristics of their regions. (4-ESS2-1) NOT EVIDENT Some kinds of plants and animals that once lived on Earth are no longer found anywhere. (Note: moved from K-2) (3-LS4-1) Fossils provide evidence about the types of organisms that lived long ago and also about the nature of their environments. (3-LS4-1) 23

25 GRADE K-4 SCIENCE APPLICATIONS (G), SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES (H) These two standards categories in the Wisconsin Model Academic Standards for Science are highly localized to science, technology, and engineering at the state or local level. These connections are not explicitly addressed in the Next Generation Science Standards. However, NGSS does include three Disciplinary Core Ideas in Engineering, Technology and Society. These core ideas are embedded throughout the performance expectations in NGSS. Additionally, grade-band endpoints are defined in NGSS to provide guidance for assessment. More information can be found in NGSS Appendix I and J. NGSS Core Idea: Engineering Design Engineering Design in NGSS is defined as follows for early elementary students: ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems o A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1) o Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1) o Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem. (K-2-ETS1-1) ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions o Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem s solutions to other people. (K-2-ETS1-2) ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution o Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. (K-2-ETS1-3) 24

26 NGSS Core Idea: The Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology The fields of science and engineering are mutually supportive, and scientists and engineers often work together in teams, especially in fields at the borders of science and engineering. Advances in science offer new capabilities, new materials, or new understanding of processes that can be applied through engineering to produce advances in technology. Advances in technology, in turn, provide scientists with new capabilities to probe the natural world at larger or smaller scales; to record, manage, and analyze data; and to model ever more complex systems with greater precision. In addition, engineers efforts to develop or improve technologies often raise new questions for scientists investigations. (NRC, 2012, p. 203) NGSS Core Idea: The Influence of Science, Engineering and Technology on Society and the Natural World Together, advances in science, engineering, and technology can have and indeed have had profound effects on human society, in such areas as agriculture, transportation, health care, and communication, and on the natural environment. Each system can change significantly when new technologies are introduced, with both desired effects and unexpected outcomes. (NRC, 2012, p. 210). While using NGSS to plan instruction, WMASS categories G and H can be met by identifying and emphasizing STEM industry connections in Wisconsin and/or in the school community. Special attention should be given to: Science Applications (WMASS G) G.4.1 Identify* the technology used by someone employed in a job or position in Wisconsin and explain* how the technology helps G.4.2 Discover* what changes in technology have occurred in a career chosen by a parent, grandparent, or an adult friend over a long period of time 25

27 G.4.3 Determine what science discoveries have led to changes in technologies that are being used in the workplace by someone employed locally G.4.4 Identify* the combinations of simple machines in a device used in the home, the workplace, or elsewhere in the community, to make or repair things, or to move goods or people G.4.5 Ask questions to find answers about how devices and machines were invented and produced Science in Personal and Social Perspectives (WMASS H) H.4.1 Describe* how science and technology have helped, and in some cases hindered, progress in providing better food, more rapid information, quicker and safer transportation, and more effective health care H.4.2 Using the science themes*, identify* local and state issues that are helped by science and technology and explain* how science and technology can also cause a problem H.4.3 Show* how science has contributed to meeting personal needs, including hygiene, nutrition, exercise, safety, and health care H.4.4 Develop* a list of issues that citizens must make decisions about and describe* a strategy for becoming informed about the science behind these issues 26

28 Grades 5-8 Alignment GRADE 5-8 SCIENCE CONNECTIONS (A), NATURE OF SCIENCE (B), SCIENCE INQUIRY (C) NOTE: SEP refers to the Science and Engineering Practices in NGSS, CCC refers to the Crosscutting Concepts in NGSS, NOS refers to the Nature of Science concepts embedded in NGSS, and ETS refers to the grade-band Engineering, Technology, and Science standards in NGSS. These practices and concepts are expected to be developed throughout the school year at each grade level and are integrated with disciplinary core ideas in the NGSS Performance Expectations. Each of these categories includes specific grade-band endpoints to assist in defining and assessing the practice, crosscutting concept, or other concept. SCIENCE CONNECTIONS (A) A.8.1 Develop their understanding of the science themes by using the themes to frame questions about science-related issues and problems SEP: Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering) SEP: Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information A.8.2 Describe limitations of science systems and give reasons why specific science themes are included in or excluded from those systems SEP: Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering) SEP: Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information SEP: Engaging in Argument from Evidence NOS: Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods A.8.3 Defend explanations and models by collecting and organizing evidence that supports them and critique explanations and models by collecting and organizing evidence that conflicts with them SEP: Developing and using models SEP: Planning and carrying out investigations SEP: Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for 27

29 engineering) SEP: Engaging in argument from evidence A.8.4 Collect evidence to show that models developed as explanations for events were (and are) based on the evidence available to scientists at the time SEP: Developing and using models SEP: Analyzing and interpreting data SEP: Using mathematics and computational thinking SEP: Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering) SEP: Engaging in argument from evidence NOS: Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods A.8.5 Show how models and explanations, based on systems, were changed as new evidence accumulated (the effects of constancy, evolution, change, and measurement should all be part of these explanations) SEP: Developing and using models SEP: Engaging in argument from evidence NOS: Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence A.8.6 Use models and explanations to predict actions and events in the natural world SEP: Developing and using models SEP: Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering) NOS: Scientific Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena A.8.7 Design real or thought investigations to test the usefulness and limitations of a model SEP: Planning and carrying out investigations SEP: Developing and Using Models 28

30 A.8.8. Use the themes of evolution, equilibrium, and energy to predict future events or changes in the natural world CCC: Stability and change. For natural and built systems alike, conditions of stability and determinants of rates of change or evolution of a system are critical elements of study CCC: Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation. Tracking fluxes of energy and matter into, out of, and within systems helps one understand the systems possibilities and limitations. NATURE OF SCIENCE (B) B.8.1 Describe how scientific knowledge and concepts have changed over time in the earth and space, life and environmental, and physical sciences NOS: Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence NOS: Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence NOS: Scientific Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena NOS: Science is a Way of Knowing NOS: Science is a Human Endeavor B.8.2 Identify and describe major changes that have occurred over in conceptual models and explanations in the earth and space, life and environmental, and physical sciences and identify the people, cultures, and conditions that led to these developments NOS: Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence NOS: Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence NOS: Scientific Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena NOS: Science is a Way of Knowing NOS: Science is a Human Endeavor B.8.3 Explain how the general rules of science apply to the development and use of evidence in science investigations, model-making, and SEP: Engaging in argument from evidence NOS: Scientific Investigations Use a 29

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