1 NF5- Flexibility with Equivalent Fractions and Pages 0 Lowest Terms STANDARDS preparation for 5.NF.A., 5.NF.A. Goals Students will equivalent fractions using division and reduce fractions to lowest terms. Vocabulary division equivalent factor lowest terms PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED Can divide a -digit number by a -digit number Knows the relationship between multiplication and division Drawing equivalent fractions. Draw several of the following diagrams on the board: Have volunteers name the equivalent fractions shown by the pictures. (/4, /6, 4/8, and 5/0) Have another volunteer group all shaded parts together by drawing a thick line around the shaded parts. Then have another volunteer group the unshaded parts in the same way. SAY: Now all of the drawings represent /. ASK: Are / and /4 equivalent? (yes) How do you know? As an answer, write on the board: /4 = / /6 = / 4/8 = / 5/0 = / Draw on the board: SAY: If I group all shaded parts together and all unshaded parts together, then I ll have two equal parts, one shaded and the other unshaded. So the fraction of the whole that is shaded is /. Point to the dotted line and SAY: Now I would like to erase the dotted line: Have a volunteer erase the dotted line and then name the fraction. (/4) Emphasize that from a picture students can make different equivalent fractions, then write on the board: COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION F-48 Teacher s Guide for AP Book 5.
2 4/8 = /4 = / Exercises: Imagine erasing the broken line. Write the equivalent fraction. d) Answer: /4 = /, 4/8 = /4, 4/8 = /, d) 4/6 = / Using division to write an equivalent fraction. Draw the first picture below on the board: 4 6 = 4 6 = ASK: How many parts do I have to group together to get parts for the whole? () PROMPT: Six divided by what is three? ( because 6 = ) Group the parts and then show this relationship as in the second picture above. ASK: How many parts are shaded now? ( of the total parts are shaded now) Fill in the numerator (). Exercises: Divide to find the missing numerator. 5 = 5 6 = 4 0 = 6 d) = 0 50 Bonus: = 000, 00 Answers:,, 5, d) 9, Bonus: e) 5 COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION Sample Solution: 5 = 5 Reducing a fraction to lowest terms. Remind students that they can make an equivalent fraction using bigger numbers by multiplying both the numerator and the denominator by the same number. Write the fraction on the board and ASK: If you have a fraction like 5 /5 (point to it), how can you make an equivalent fraction with smaller numbers, like /5? (divide the numerator and denominator by the same number) 7 5 = 7 5 Exercises: Divide the numerator and denominator by the same number to make an equivalent fraction Answers: /4, 4/5, /, d) /6 8 d) 5 0 Number and Operations Fractions 5- F-49
3 Point out that the number students are dividing by (7 in the example of /5) is a factor of both the numerator and the denominator, so it is a common factor. If necessary, students can repeatedly divide the numerator and the denominator by a common factor until there is no common factor except. Demonstrate doing so to solve the first exercise below, and have students do the remaining ones. Exercises: Divide the numerator and the denominator by a common factor until there is no common factor except d) Sample Answers: 84 6 = 4 6 = 6 9 = 00, 50 = 0 5 = 6 7,, d) 7 9 When solving part, point out how useful it is to know the times tables. If students can recognize 4 and 6 as both being in the 7 times table, then they can recognize 7 as a common factor. When students finish, tell them that the process they just did results in the equivalent fraction that uses the smallest possible numbers, that is, the fraction in lowest terms. This process is called reducing the fraction to lowest terms. Extension You can reduce a fraction to lowest terms using the greatest common factor (GCF). Step : Find the GCF of the numerator and the denominator. (See Extension 4 in NF5-.) Step : Divide the numerator and the denominator by the GCF. Example: To reduce 4 to lowest terms, first find the GCF of 4 40 and 40. Factors of 4:,,, 4, 6, 8,, 4 Factors of 40:,, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 40 So the GCF of 4 and 40 is 8. Divide the numerator and the denominator by = 8 5 Reduce to lowest terms: Answers:, 4, 5, d) 5 0 d) 4 60 COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION F-50 Teacher s Guide for AP Book 5.
4 NF5- Adding and Subtracting Fractions I Page STANDARDS 5.NF.A., 5.NF.A. Goals Students will add and subtract fractions in which one denominator is a multiple of the other denominator. Vocabulary equivalent fractions lowest terms multiple multiplication PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED Can find equivalent fractions Can add and subtract fractions with the same denominator Review adding and subtracting fractions. Write on the board: Have volunteers write the answers, reducing them to lowest terms. (/5, /4 = /, 6/7, 4/6 = /) Point out that the denominators say what objects are being counted; pointing to each sum or difference in turn, SAY: fifths, fourths, sevenths, or sixths, so they are in the answer also. Point out that the numerators do the counting. SAY: fifth plus fifths is fifths. So the numerators get added or subtracted, and the denominators stay the denominator. Exercises: Add or subtract Answers: /4 = 6/7, 6/7, /9, d) 6/5 d) COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION Using what you know to add fractions with unlike denominators. After adding fractions with the same denominator, challenge students to find a way to add fractions with different denominators. Discuss the strategy of students changing the problem into one they already know how to solve. Emphasize that, if students know how to add fractions with the same denominator, and they can change fractions into equivalent ones with the same denominator, then they can add any pair of fractions. Remind them that comparing fractions with the same denominator was easier than comparing fractions with different denominators, but they still managed to find a way to compare fractions with different denominators. First challenge students to find two fractions with the same denominator when one denominator is a multiple of the other. In this case students need to find an equivalent fraction for just one fraction. Exercises: Multiply to find an equivalent fraction. = 6 4 = Answers: /6, /, 6/0, d) /6 5 = 0 d) 4 = 6 Number and Operations Fractions 5- F-5
5 After reviewing equivalent fractions, tell students that they can add or subtract fractions with different denominators by first changing one fraction to an equivalent fraction with the same denominator. Demonstrate with the example below. Example: = = 9 0 Exercises: Add or subtract fractions by changing to equivalent fractions with the same denominator. Reduce to lowest terms Answers: /6, 8/ = /, 7/0, d) 5/6 Extensions. Add and then reduce to lowest terms d) Answers: 6 =, 8 =, 5 0 =. Add or subtract fractions by changing to equivalent fractions with the same denominator. Then reduce to lowest terms Answers: 8 6 = 4 =, 4 6 =. You can use fraction strips to show subtraction. For example, for the subtraction 5 - = = you can use the following fraction 0 strip model: Ask students to draw a model for each subtraction Answers: /6, /4, /0 4. John ran mile on Tuesday, mile on Wednesday, and 5 mile on 6 Friday. How many miles did John run on these three days? Answer: 0 6 mi = 5 mi = mi 0 0 COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION F-5 Teacher s Guide for AP Book 5.
6 NF5-4 Adding and Subtracting Fractions II Pages 4 5 STANDARDS 5.NF.A., 5.NF.A. Goals Students will add and subtract fractions with different denominators. Vocabulary common denominator PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED Can find equivalent fractions Can add and subtract fractions with the same denominator Can add and subtract fractions when one denominator is the multiple of the other denominator Using what you know to add fractions with unlike denominators. Write on the board: + 5 ASK: How is this different from other fractions we ve added? (the fractions have different denominators and we can t multiply one denominator to become the same as the other) Tell students that you want to find a way to add fractions with different denominators. ASK: How have we done that already? (we have changed fractions to equivalent fractions to get fractions with the same denominator) Point out that by doing this, they changed a problem that they didn t know how to do into one that they already knew how to do. Emphasize that if students know how to add fractions with the same denominator, and can change fractions into ones with the same denominator, then they can add any pair of fractions. COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION Finding a common denominator. Have students find two fractions with the same denominator, one equivalent to / and the other equivalent to /5. They can copy and complete the lists below until they find two fractions with the same denominator. = 6 = 9 = = = = 5 = 0 = 5 = = = = When students finish, fill in the lists and circle the two that have denominator 5. Explain that since = 5 5 and 5 = 6 5 then + 5 = = 5 Exercises: Use this method to add the fractions Number and Operations Fractions 5-4 F-5
7 Answers: 5 9,, 0 Students should create lists of equivalent fractions for each fraction being added. They can then use their lists to subtract the same fractions as above. Exercises: Subtract Answers: 7 5, 5, 0 Reviewing the common denominator. Explain that by finding the first fraction in each list with the same denominator, students are finding the number that is a multiple of both denominators. ASK: When else have you used the common denominators of fractions? (when comparing fractions, we found two fractions with the same denominator) Review comparing fractions with different denominators. For example, remind students that to compare / and /5, first they need to find equivalent fractions with common denominators. SAY: We can multiply by 5 to change /, and we can multiply 5 by to change /5: SAY: Because 5 = 5, the denominators are now the same, and / < /5 because 5/5 < 6/5. Emphasize that to find the common denominator, students can multiply the numerator and denominator of the first fraction by the denominator of the second and multiply the numerator and denominator of the second fraction by the denominator of the first, so to find a common denominator students can multiply both denominators together. Adding and subtracting fractions by finding a common denominator. Write on the board: ASK: What is a common denominator of the fractions? (0) How do you know? (it is 5 4) Point out that we have to multiply 5 and by 4 and 4 and by 5 to change both fractions into fractions with the denominator = 0 = 0 Demonstrate again by adding the fractions /6 + /8. Have a volunteer find a common denominator of the fractions. Remind students that a common denominator of the fractions can be found by multiplying the two denominators. COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION F-54 Teacher s Guide for AP Book 5.
8 Extensions. Subtract. i) - ii) 4 - iii) iv) Find the next two subtractions in the pattern. Then predict and check your answers. Then predict: d) Make up a subtraction problem that has the answer /999,000. Answers: i) 6, ii), iii) 0, iv) 0, = = 4 ; = =, The pattern in the answers is to have 56 as the numerator and the common denominator equal to the product of the two denominators. So the answer is /9,900. d) Use the pattern 999 from part. The question , 999 has the answer. 999, 000. A team won / of its games and lost /5 of its games. What fraction of the games did the team tie? Explain how you know. Solution: / + /5 = 0/5 + /5 = /5, /5 = /5. Find the missing number. + 5 = 5 Answers:,, Bonus: = 7 0 Bonus: = COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION Number and Operations Fractions 5-4 F-55
9 NF5-5 Adding and Subtracting Fractions Using Pages 6 7 the LCM STANDARDS 5.NF.A., 5.NF.A. Vocabulary common multiple lowest common denominator lowest common multiple (LCM) multiple times table whole number Goals Students will identify multiples of a number, common multiples of two numbers, and the lowest common multiple (LCM) of two numbers (up to ). PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED Can skip count by,, 4, or 5 Can multiply -digit numbers Can find equivalent fractions Knows the times table Can reduce fractions to lowest terms Review whole numbers. Remind students that whole numbers are the numbers 0,,,, and so on. Write whole number on the board, and contrast whole numbers with fractions, which represent parts of a whole. Introduce multiples. The multiples of a whole number are the numbers you get by multiplying the number by another whole number. For example, 6 is a multiple of because = Write multiple and multiply on the board. Point out how similar the words are only the last letter of each is different, e versus y. Emphasize that this makes it easy to remember what a multiple is: You get the multiples of a number by multiplying that number by whole numbers. Skip counting to find multiples. List the first five multiples of 4, including 0, on the board as shown. Have students continue the list by writing the next five multiples of 4. (4 5 = 0, 4 6 = 4, 4 7 = 8, 4 8 =, 4 9 = 6) ASK: Is 6 a multiple of 4? (no) How can you tell? (it is not on the list; it is between 4 and 8, which are right next to each other) Point out that we can list all the multiples of 4 by skip counting: 0, 4, 8,. Exercises: Skip count to decide if each number is a multiple of d) Answers: no, yes, yes, d) no Zero is a multiple of any number. Have students write a multiplication equation that proves that 0 is a multiple of. ( 0 = 0) ASK: Which whole numbers is 0 a multiple of? (all of them, because any whole number can be multiplied by 0 to make 0) The multiples of 0 and. ASK: What are the multiples of 0? (only 0 is a multiple of 0) Demonstrate this by skip counting by 0s from 0: 0, 0, 0,. ASK: What are the multiples of? (every whole number is a multiple of ) PROMPT: What numbers do we get when we skip count by s? (all whole numbers) COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION F-56 Teacher s Guide for AP Book 5.
10 Common multiples. Draw two number lines to on the board, one for the multiples of and the other for the multiples of. Mark the multiples of on the first number line with Xs. Point out that you start at 0 and mark every second number. Ask a volunteer to mark the multiples of, starting at 0 and marking every third number. The number lines on the board should now look like this: : : ASK: Which numbers are multiples of both and? (0, 6, and ) Exercises: Draw two number lines on grid paper to to find numbers that are multiples of and 5 to to find numbers that are multiples of and 6 to 6 to find numbers that are multiples of and 5 Tell students that a number that is a multiple of two numbers is called a common multiple of the two numbers. Ask volunteers to say some common multiples of and. (Examples: 0, 6, ) Challenge students to name more common multiples of and. (8, 4, and so on) ASK: Does anyone know the phrase in common? What does it mean if I say two people have something in common? (the two people share a quality, characteristic, like, or dislike) Have students pair up and find something they have in common with each other. (example: we both like reading) In their pairs, students should take turns saying something about themselves until they find something in common. Relate this to the term common multiple : the numbers and both have as a multiple, so that is something the numbers and have in common. That is why is called a common multiple of and. COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION Introduce lowest common multiples. Remind students that 0 is a multiple of every number. Because of that, it is useless as a multiple and cannot give us extra information. When we want to list multiples, we are only interested in the multiples that are not 0. Tell students that the smallest common multiple of two numbers not including 0 is called the lowest common multiple of the numbers. SAY: Some people call the lowest common multiple the least common multiple. Exercise: Find the lowest common multiple. Write your answer in sentence form. Example: The lowest common multiple of 6 and 0 is 0. and and 5 and 6 d) and 5 e) 4 and 6 f) 6 and 8 Answers: 6, 0, 6, d) 5, e), f) 4 Tell students that the term lowest common multiple is often written as LCM. Write on the board: lowest common multiple. Number and Operations Fractions 5-5 F-57
11 Introduce a shortcut for finding lowest common multiples. Have students list the multiples of up to 0 (not including 0):, 6, 9,, 5, 8,, 4, 7, 0 Point out that you can use this list to find the lowest common multiple of and 4 by finding the first multiple of 4 that is on the list. () Exercises: Use the list of multiples of to find the LCM of and and 5 and 8 d) and 6 e) and 7 Answers: 6, 5, 4, d) 6, e) Listing multiples to use the shortcut. Students will learn that is easier to list the multiples of the larger number to use the shortcut. Tell students that you want to find the common multiples of and 8. List the multiples of, and have a volunteer name the first multiple of 8 they see in the list. (4) Then list the multiples of 8 and have a volunteer name the first multiple of they see in the list. (4) ASK: Did you get the same answer both ways? (yes) SAY: It doesn t matter which list you make the multiples of or the multiples of 8 because you will get the same answer either way. So you might as well make the list that requires less work. ASK: Which requires less work: listing the multiples of until you find a multiple of 8, or listing the multiples of 8 until you find a multiple of? (listing the multiples of 8) Discuss why that is: 8 is more than, so it takes fewer multiples of 8 than multiples of to get to the same number. (4) Exercises: List multiples of the larger number (not including 0) until you find a multiple of the smaller number, to find the LCM of the two numbers. and 7 4 and 8 4 and 0 d) 5 and 9 e) and 0 Answers: 7, 4, ; 8; 0, 0; d) 9, 8, 7, 6, 45; e) 0, 0, 0 Using the LCM to add fractions with unlike denominators. Write the two problems on the board: + 5 = = Discuss how they are different (the first has unlike denominators; the second has the same denominators). Then SAY: One fifth plus two fifths is three fifths, but one third plus two fifths isn t three of anything, because thirds are not the same part of the whole as fifths. Remind students that comparing fractions with the same denominator was easier than comparing fractions with different denominators, but they still managed to do so by changing them to equivalent fractions with the same denominator. Emphasize that if students know how to add fractions with the same denominator and can change fractions into ones with the same denominator, then they can add any pair of fractions. Remind students that they can use the lowest common multiple (LCM) of the denominators to make fractions with the same denominator. ASK: What COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION F-58 Teacher s Guide for AP Book 5.
12 is the lowest common multiple of and 5? (5) Demonstrate how to use the LCM to add fractions. = 5 5 and 5 = 6 5. So + 5 = = 5. Introduce the lowest common denominator (LCD). ASK: When else have you used the lowest common multiple of the denominators of fractions? (when comparing fractions, we found two fractions with the same denominator) Tell students that, because the lowest common multiple of the denominators is so useful, we have a special name for it: lowest common denominator, or LCD. Exercises: Find the LCD to add or subtract d) 5 - In the following problems, students cannot just multiply the denominators to find the lowest common denominator. Do the first one together. Exercises: Find the LCD to add or subtract. e) 8-6 f) g) Now, in these problems, students will need to change only one denominator. Again, do the first one together. Exercises: Find the LCD to add or subtract. i) j) k) h) l) Answers:, 5, 9 0, d) 0, e) 5 4, f), g) 0, h) 0, 5 i), j) 8 5, k) 9, l) 0 Sample Solutions: e) LCD is 4; /8 = 9/4, /6 = 4/4; 9/4 4/4 = 5/4 COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION i) LCD is 8; /4 = /8; /8 + /8 = 5/8 ACTIVITY Each student will need two dice of one color and two dice of another color. (Alternatively, students can roll the same pair of dice twice.) The student rolls all four dice, adds the results of the dice of the same color, and finds the lowest common multiple of the resulting numbers. For example, if a student rolls and 6 with red dice and and 4 with blue dice, the student has to find the lowest common multiple of 9 (= + 6) and 6 (= + 4). Number and Operations Fractions 5-5 F-59
13 Extensions. Explore the patterns in the ones digits of the multiples of and 8 and 7 4 and 6 What do you notice? In particular, if you know the pattern in the ones digits for multiples of, how can you get the pattern in the ones digits for multiples of 8? Answers: The pattern for is 0,, 4, 6, 8, repeat. The pattern for 8 is 0, 8, 6, 4,, repeat. The pattern for is 0,, 6, 9,, 5, 8,, 4, 7, repeat. The pattern for 7 is 0, 7, 4,, 8, 5,, 9, 6,, repeat. The pattern for 4 is 0, 4, 8,, 6, repeat. The pattern for 6 is 0, 6,, 8, 4, repeat. In each case, after 0, the patterns are the reverse of each other. For example, if you read, 4, 6, 8 (the pattern for ) in reverse order, you get 8, 6, 4, (the pattern for 8). + 4 To understand the reason for the overall pattern, first note that each pair of numbers adds to 0. Then look at the case of and 8. We get the pattern for by adding, so to reverse it, we can subtract. But adding 8 to a number gives the same ones digit as subtracting from the same number, because the results are 0 apart. For example, = has ones digit, and 5 = also has ones digit.. Would it be helpful to reduce the fractions to lowest terms before solving the problem in the margin? Explain. (no; it s easier to add fractions with the same denominator, so leave them as is; for instance, ). What fraction is shaded? Add the fractions from parts and to solve part. Name and add fractions the same way to solve parts d) through f). Then check your answers in a different way. d) e) f) Answers:, 6, + 6 = 4, d) + 9 = 7 6, e) + 9 = 6, f) = 48 Sample checks: Split the rectangle into two parts, both of which have one fourth shaded. (Remember: The distributive property tells us that /4 of one part and /4 of another part is equal to /4 of the whole.) d) Split the rectangle into smaller, equal parts: COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION F-60 Teacher s Guide for AP Book 5.
14 NF5-6 Adding and Subtracting Mixed Numbers Pages 8 0 (Advanced) STANDARDS 5.NF.A., 5.NF.A., Vocabulary common factor denominator equivalent fractions lowest common denominator (LCD) lowest terms numerator regrouping Goals Students will add and subtract mixed numbers using the LCD of the denominators, and reduce answers to lowest terms using flexibility with equivalent fractions. PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED Can name fractions, including mixed numbers and improper fractions Can find equivalent fractions Can find the lowest common denominator Can reduce a fraction to lowest terms Review adding whole numbers and mixed numbers. Write on the board: + /4 Have a volunteer tell you the answer. (5 /4) Point out that when you add a whole number to a mixed number, you add the whole numbers, then write the fraction part of the mixed number. Exercises: Add: d) Answers: 7, 8, 4, d) Adding mixed numbers with the same denominator, but no regrouping. Draw on the board: COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION Have a volunteer tell you the answer. ( /6) Point out that when you add two mixed numbers, you can add the wholes and the parts separately. Write on the board: + = = = 6 Number and Operations Fractions 5-6 F-6
15 Comparing with adding tens and ones. Point out that adding the wholes and the parts separately is similar to adding they ve done many times before. Write on the board: = Point out that, to add and 46, we add the tens and ones separately. We are doing a similar thing when we add the wholes and the parts separately = Exercises: Add: d) Answers: 7 5, 5 5 8, 6 7, d) Adding mixed numbers with the same denominator, with regrouping. Write on the board: ASK: What is +? (5) What is 6/8 + 7/8? (/8) Write on the board: 5 8 ASK: Do we ever write fractions this way? (no; it combines a whole number and an improper fraction) What is different from how we normally write fractions? (the fraction part is greater than ) What is /8 as a mixed number? ( 5/8) Write on the board: = = ASK: What is 5 + 5/8? (6 5/8) Tell students that this process is called regrouping. We needed to regroup because 6/8 + 7/8 is greater than one whole in other words, it is more than 8 eighths. Compare this to adding tens and ones: COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION F-6 Teacher s Guide for AP Book 5.
16 = 50 + Point out that 6 and 7 add to more than 0, so we need to regroup. ASK: How do we do that? (We write 50 + as 60 +.) SAY: We add to the number of tens and then write the leftover number of ones: Have students tell you whether you need to regroup for each addition problem. Students can signal thumbs up for yes and thumbs down for no. After each question, ASK: How do you know? PROMPT: Do the ones add to 0 or more? d) e) Answers: no, no, yes, d) yes, e) no Now write the fraction addition shown in the margin, on the board. ASK: Do you need to regroup? (yes; / is, so we can add to 5 to make 6) Provide students with pairs of proper fractions to add and have them tell you whether or not they need to regroup. Students can signal their answer with thumbs up for yes and thumbs down for no. Emphasize that the numerators of the fraction parts have to add to more than the denominator. For example, for fractions with denominator 8, ASK: How many eighths make one whole? How can you tell if the fraction parts add to one whole or more? (the numerators add to 8 or more) Exercises: Do you need to regroup? Answers: yes, yes, no, d) yes, e) no, f) yes d) e) Exercises: Now have students add the fractions above, writing their answer as a mixed number when the answer is or more. COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION Answers: /7,, 4/5, d), e) 5 7/8 Exercises: Add the fractions. Regroup when necessary. /5 + /5 4 5/7 + /7 / + 4 / Answers: 5 /5, 6 8/7 = 7 /7, 5 / = 6 Subtracting mixed numbers without regrouping. Write on the board: Number and Operations Fractions 5-6 F-6
17 Have a volunteer circle the part of the picture that shows /5. ASK: How much is left over? () Point out that all the parts in the fraction part of 4 /5 were taken away, so they only need to subtract the whole numbers to find the answer. Exercises: Subtract Answers:,, Now write on the board: Point out that now we are not taking away all the parts, but just some of them. ASK: How many wholes are we taking away? () Cross out one whole circle in the picture. ASK: How many fifths are we taking away? () Cross out two parts in the picture. ASK: How many whole circles are left? () How many parts are left? () Write the answer on the board: = 5 Point out that you are subtracting the wholes separately: 4 =, and the parts separately: /5 /5 = /5. Exercises: Subtract the wholes and the parts separately. bonus: Answers: /7, /9, /8 = /4, Bonus: Subtracting mixed numbers with regrouping. Tell students that you want to subtract 9 /4 5 /4. ASK: What makes this problem harder than other problems we ve solved so far? (we can t subtract the parts easily because we can t take /4 away from /4) SAY: I wonder if there is an easier problem that we can get ideas from. PROMPT: Have we ever run into a similar problem when subtracting tens and ones? Ask a volunteer to write such a problem on the board (Example: 8 5). ASK: How did we solve this problem? (we wrote 8 as 7 tens + ones instead of 8 tens + ones; that gave us enough ones to subtract 5 ones) Demonstrate the subtraction on the board. SAY: I wonder how we can use this reasoning to subtract the fractions. Write on the board: 9 /4 = 8 + /4 = 8 + 5/4. ASK: Can we subtract /4 from 5/4? (yes) SAY: Now we can subtract the wholes and parts separately. Demonstrate on the board: 9 /4 5 /4 = 8 5/4 5 /4 = /4 = / COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION F-64 Teacher s Guide for AP Book 5.
18 SAY: Just as we can add 0 to the ones in a number to make sure we have enough ones to subtract from, we can add to the fraction part of a mixed number to make sure we have enough in the fraction part to subtract from. Point to the /4 in 5 /4 and SAY: This number is less than because it s the fraction part of a mixed number. Point to the /4 in 9 /4 and SAY: If we regroup to make this more than, we can be sure to have enough to subtract from. Exercises:. Regroup to make the fraction part more than. 6 /5 = 5 + /5 = 5 4/9 = 4 + 4/9 = /7 = + /7 = d) 7 5/8 e) 6/ Bonus: /5. Regroup the first number and then subtract. /5 /5 5 / / 6 /8 5/8 Answers:. 5 8/5, 4 /9, 8/7, d) 6 /8, e) 7/, Bonus: 7/5;. 7/5 /5 = 4/5, /, 4/8 Using the LCD to add and subtract. For some mixed numbers, the fraction parts must be changed so that they have a denominator equal to the LCD of the fractions. Some problems will require regrouping. Do the first one with students. Exercises: Subtract. 5 /4 / 5 /7 + / /4 5/8 d) 4 /5 / e) 4/9 + 5/7 Bonus: 7 4/9 5/7 Answers: 5 /4 / = 5 9/ 4/ = 5/, 8 /, 5/8, d) 4/5, e) 5 0/6, Bonus: 4 46/6 Extensions. Subtract mixed numbers by adding parts and whole portions of the difference on a number line. Example: 9 /4 5 / COPYRIGHT 0 JUMP MATH: NOT TO BE COPIED. CC EDITION = 4. Ron made 6 pies for a bake sale. He has 5/8 pies left. How many pies did Ron sell? (4 /8) Each pie had 8 pieces. How many pieces of pie did he sell? (5) Ron sold each piece for $. How much money did he make? ($05). Name two fractions that have a sum between and. a sum between / and /4. different denominators and a difference between / and. 4 Number and Operations Fractions 5-6 F-65
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National Center on INTENSIVE INTERVENTION at American Institutes for Research Computation of Fractions 000 Thomas Jefferson Street, NW Washington, DC 0007 E-mail: NCII@air.org While permission to reprint
Introducing Multiplication of Fractions A Lesson for Fifth and Sixth Graders by Marilyn Burns From Online Newsletter Issue Number 12, Winter 200 2004 Teaching multiplication of fractions is, in one way,
Unit 6 Number and Operations in Base Ten: Decimals Introduction Students will extend the place value system to decimals. They will apply their understanding of models for decimals and decimal notation,
RP7-1 Using Proportions to Solve Percent Problems I Pages 46 48 Standards: 7.RP.A. Goals: Students will write equivalent statements for proportions by keeping track of the part and the whole, and by solving
OA-2 Patterns in Multiplication of Odd Numbers Pages 0 1 Standards:.OA.D. Goals: Students will find patterns in the multiplication of odd numbers Students will practice multiplication facts for odd numbers,
Parts and Wholes. L P S SQ M In a tangram small triangles (S) cover a medium triangle (M) small triangles (S) cover a square (SQ) L S small triangles (S) cover a parallelogram (P) small triangles (S) cover
Grade 5 Problem-Solving Lessons Introduction What is a problem-solving lesson? A JUMP Math problem-solving lesson generally follows the format of a regular JUMP Math lesson, with some important differences:
NAME TEST DATE FRACTION STUDY GUIDE/EXTRA PRACTICE PART 1: PRIME OR COMPOSITE? A prime number is a number that has exactly 2 factors, one and itself. Examples: 2, 3, 5, 11, 31 2 is the only even number
Sample Fraction Addition and Subtraction Concepts Activities 1 3 College- and Career-Ready Standard Addressed: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations
NS7-5 Adding Integers on a Number Line Pages 36 37 Standards: 7.NS.A.1b Goals: Students will add integers using a number line. Students will interpret addition of integers when the integers are written
EE6-5 Solving Equations with Balances Pages 77 78 STANDARDS 6.EE.B.5, 6.EE.B.6 Goals Students will use pictures to model and solve equations. Vocabulary balance equation expression sides (of an equation)
Are you tired of finding common denominators to add fractions? Are you tired of converting mixed fractions into improper fractions, just to multiply and convert them back? Are you tired of reducing fractions
.2 Common Multiples.2 OBJECTIVES 1. Find the least common multiple (LCM) of two numbers 2. Find the least common multiple (LCM) of a group of numbers. Compare the size of two fractions In this chapter,
Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal Tenths Hundredths Thousandths WSMA Decimal Numbers Lesson 4 Are you tired of finding common denominators to add fractions? Are you tired of converting mixed fractions
Mathematics Instructional Cycle Guide Fractions on the number line 3NF2a Created by Kelly Palaia, 2014 Connecticut Dream Team teacher 1 CT CORE STANDARDS This Instructional Cycle Guide relates to the following
RP6-2 Ratios and Rates with Fractional Terms Pages 4 4 STANDARDS 6.RP.A.2, 6.RP.A. Vocabulary equivalent ratio rate ratio table Goals Students will understand that ratios with fractional terms can turn
JUMP Math: Teacher's Manual for the Unit J U N I O R U N D I S C O V E R E D M A T H P R O D I G I E S By John Mighton Fall 00 Table of Contents Teaching Units: 1..... Homework.... Tests... 1. Selected
OA4-13 Rounding on a Number Line Pages 80 81 STANDARDS 3.NBT.A.1, 4.NBT.A.3 Goals Students will round to the closest ten, except when the number is exactly halfway between a multiple of ten. PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
Simplifying Improper Fractions Poster Congratulations on your purchase of this Really Good Stuff Simplifying Improper Fractions Poster a reference tool showing students how to change improper fractions
Daily Fraction Five Fraction Five ~ Fifth Grade Laying the Foundation for a Conceptual Understanding of Fractions Fifth Grade FRACTION FIVE RATIONAL Fractions present a considerable challenge to most kids.
Level 5 Revised Edition by David Quine The Cornerstone Curriculum Project is the family ministry of David and Shirley Quine. We are dedicated to providing the best quality products at a reasonable price.
Unit 6 Geometry: Constructing Triangles and Scale Drawings Introduction In this unit, students will construct triangles from three measures of sides and/or angles, and will decide whether given conditions
Robyn Seifert Decker UltraMathPD@gmail.com Place Value Addition Subtraction Problem Solving Fractions If time allows: Multiplication and Division Spiral of change From Prochaska, DiClemente & Norcross,
Page1 Grade 9 Mathematics Unit #1 Number Sense Sub-Unit #1 Rational Numbers Lesson Topic I Can 1 Ordering & Adding Create a number line to order integers Integers Identify integers Add integers 2 Subtracting
Fractions Children in the Foundation Stage should be introduced to the concept of halves and quarters through play and practical activities in preparation for calculation at Key Stage One. Y Understand
Lesson 1.2 c Round to the Nearest Ten or Hundred Common Core Standard CC.3.NBT.1 Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100. Lesson Objective Round 2- and 3-digit numbers
East Tennessee State University Digital Commons @ East Tennessee State University Electronic Theses and Dissertations 8-2006 An Introduction to Number Theory Prime Numbers and Their Applications. Crystal
Simply Math Everyday Math Skills 2009 NWT Literacy Council Acknowledgement The NWT Literacy Council gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance for this project from the Department of Education, Culture
What do fractions mean? Fractions Academic Skills Advice Look at the bottom of the fraction first this tells you how many pieces the shape (or number) has been cut into. Then look at the top of the fraction
Tennessee Department of Education Task: Jenna s Homework Problem 5 th Grade Jenna completed 2/3 of the math problems on her homework during her stay at Fun Company after school. Afterward, she finished
Key Terms in This Session Session 7 Fractions and Decimals Previously Introduced prime number rational numbers New in This Session period repeating decimal terminating decimal Introduction In this session,
Getting Started Mental Math and Reflexes Children solve division number stories. They write answers on slates and explain their strategies to the class. Provide counters. There are children in the class.
Gap Closing Multiplying and Dividing Junior / Intermediate Facilitator's Guide Module 5 Multiplying and Dividing Diagnostic...5 Administer the diagnostic...5 Using diagnostic results to personalize interventions...5
INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS If we divide a whole number into equal parts we get a fraction: For example, this circle is divided into quarters. Three quarters, or, of the circle is shaded. DEFINITIONS: The
Word Problems This sheet is designed as a review aid. If you have not previously studied this concept, or if after reviewing the contents you still don t pass, you should enroll in the appropriate math
MD5-26 Stacking Blocks Pages 115 116 STANDARDS 5.MD.C.4 Goals Students will find the number of cubes in a rectangular stack and develop the formula length width height for the number of cubes in a stack.
Fraction Tools - + - 0 - n + n Martin Kindt & Truus Dekker 0 Section A Comparing Fractions - Parts and pieces (). Of each figure, color part. Be as precise as possible.. Of each figure, color part. Each
Day 1 Fractions Obj: To learn how to write fractions, define,and classify fractions Def Fraction Numerator Denominator Fraction part of a whole; made up of 2 parts, a numerator and denominator. The denominator
Lesson 8: Fractions Greater than 1 Objective By the end of the lesson, students will be able to label whole numbers as fractions (e.g., 2 and 8 /4) and label points greater than 1 and between whole numbers
Daily Fraction Five Fraction Five ~ Fourth Grade Laying the Foundation for a Conceptual Understanding of Fractions Fourth Grade FRACTION FIVE RATIONAL Fractions present a considerable challenge to most
Click on the links below to jump directly to the relevant section Basic review Writing fractions in simplest form Comparing fractions Converting between Improper fractions and whole/mixed numbers Operations
Probability and Statistics Activity: TEKS: Your Average Joe (6.10) Probability and statistics. The student uses statistical representations to analyze data. The student is expected to: (B) identify mean
Rational Numbers Fractions Decimals Percents It is important for students to know how these 3 concepts relate to each other and how they can be interchanged. Fraction Vocabulary It is important that vocabulary
Key On screen content Narration voice-over Activity Under the Activities heading of the online program Introduction This topic will cover how to: identify and distinguish between proper fractions, improper
FRACTIONS The student will be able to:. Perform basic operations with common fractions: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Common fractions, such as /, /, and /, are used on the GED Test
E Student Book 6 7 = 4 Name Series E Contents Topic Multiplication facts (pp. 7) 5 and 0 times tables and 4 times tables 8 times table and 6 times tables Date completed Topic Using known facts (pp. 8 )
Objectives: In this fractions unit, we will subtract and add fractions with unlike denominators (pp. 101 102) multiply fractions(pp.109 110) Divide fractions (pp. 113 114) Review: Which is greater, 1/3
GRADE 4 FLORIDA Multiplication WORKSHEETS Multiplication facts 5 and 0 times tables The 5 and 0 times tables are easier if you learn them together. Answer the 5 times table: Count in 5s down the ladders:
Introduction to Fractions Fractions represent parts of a whole. The top part of a fraction is called the numerator, while the bottom part of a fraction is called the denominator. The denominator states
Every Day Counts: s and Math in Focus Alignment Guide Grades K 5 7171_Prtnrs_AlgnmtChrt.indd 1 9/22/10 6:04:49 PM Every Day Counts : s s offers 20 simple yet effective games to help students learn, review,
Unit 5 Ratios and Proportional Relationships: Real World Ratio and Percent Problems The material in this unit crosses three strands The Number System (NS), Expressions and Equations (EE), and Ratios and
Unit 4 Number and Operations in Base Ten: Multiplying and Dividing Decimals Introduction In this unit, students will learn how to multiply and divide decimals, and learn the algorithm for dividing whole
Abercrombie Primary School Progression in Calculation 204 What you need to know about calculations Mathematics will be at the core of your child s schooling from the moment they start to the moment they
Key Terms in This Session Session 6 Number Theory Previously Introduced counting numbers factor factor tree prime number New in This Session composite number greatest common factor least common multiple
Decimal Notations for Fractions Number and Operations Fractions /4.NF Domain: Cluster: Standard: 4.NF Number and Operations Fractions Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.
Session 22 Fraction Multiplication Solve the following problem. Pat used three-fourths of a bag of flour that was two-thirds full. How much of a full bag of flour did Pat use. Here, we solve this problem
s e s s i o n 5 A. 3 Math Focus Points Recognizing that the numbers 100, 200, 300 represent groups of 100 Adding 10 or 100 to and subtracting 10 or 100 from a given number and describing what part of the
CCSSM: Grade 5 Lesson Plan DOMAIN: Number and Operations Fractions Cluster: Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions. Standard: 5.NF.1 Add and subtract fractions with unlike
. Prime Factorization: Theory and Practice The following is an ecerpt from The GMAT Guru Guide, available eclusively to clients of The GMAT Guru. If you would like more information about GMAT Guru services,
Primes Name Period A Prime Number is a whole number whose only factors are 1 and itself. To find all of the prime numbers between 1 and 100, complete the following exercise: 1. Cross out 1 by Shading in
Fourth Grade Summer Packet Packet Covers 4th Grade Common Core Math Standards My Summer Math Packet Name I can understand that multiplication fact problems can be seen as comparisons of groups (e.g., 24
Sample Fraction Equivalence Activities ( 4) Common Core State Standard(s) Addressed in these activities: 3.NF.3. Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases and compare fractions by reasoning about
Chapter 4 Fractions and Mixed Numbers 4.1 Introduction to Fractions and Mixed Numbers Parts of a Fraction Whole numbers are used to count whole things. To refer to a part of a whole, fractions are used.
Student Information Page We re so proud of you for taking the time to work on math over the summer! This packet is intended for students who just finished fifth grade and will be entering middle school
Eureka Math 2015 2016 Grade 1 Module 1 Lessons 1 39 Eureka Math, Published by the non-profit Great Minds. Copyright 2015 Great Minds. No part of this work may be reproduced, distributed, modified, sold,
EQUATIONS Introduction to Variables, Algebraic Expressions, and Equations (2 days) Overview of Objectives, students should be able to: Main Overarching Questions: 1. Evaluate algebraic expressions given
Grade 4 Problem-Solving Lessons Introduction What is a problem-solving lesson? A JUMP Math problem-solving lesson generally follows the format of a regular JUMP Math lesson, with some important differences:
Italicized words Indicates OSPI Standards Vocabulary as of 10/1/09 Link to Math Expression Online Glossary for some definitions: http://wwwk6.thinkcentral.com/content/hsp/math/hspmathmx/na/gr1/se_9780547153179
FRACTION WORKSHOP Parts of a Fraction: Numerator the top of the fraction. Denominator the bottom of the fraction. In the fraction the numerator is 3 and the denominator is 8. Equivalent Fractions: Equivalent
Sixth Grade Problem Solving Tasks Weekly Enrichments Teacher Materials Summer Dreamers 2013 SOLVING MATH PROBLEMS KEY QUESTIONS WEEK 1 By the end of this lesson, students should be able to answer these
Fractions of an Area Describe and compare fractions as part of an area using words, objects, pictures, and symbols.. Circle the letter of each cake top that shows fourths. A. D. Each part of this rectangle
Pre-Algebra Class 3 - Fractions I Contents 1 What is a fraction? 1 1.1 Fractions as division............................... 2 2 Representations of fractions 3 2.1 Improper fractions................................
Grade Level/Course: 5 th /6 th Grade Math Lesson/Unit Plan Name: Using Prime Factors to find LCM and GCF. Rationale/Lesson Abstract: The objective of this two- part lesson is to give students a clear understanding
Accuplacer Elementary Algebra Study Guide for Screen Readers The following sample questions are similar to the format and content of questions on the Accuplacer Elementary Algebra test. Reviewing these
Module : Working with Fractions and Mixed Numbers.1 Review of Fractions 1. Understand Fractions on a Number Line Fractions are used to represent quantities between the whole numbers on a number line. A
Year 2 Summer Term Oral and Mental Starter Activity Bank Objectives for term Recall x2 table facts and derive division facts. Recognise multiples of 5. Recall facts in x5 table. Recall x10 table and derive