. d2. Chem. Papers 44(\)\\\ 117 (1990)


 Peregrine Stevens
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Dstrbuton pattern of 4OmethylDglucuronc acd unts n 4OmethylDglucuronoDxylan solated from the leaves of marsh mallow {Althaea offcnals L., var. Rhobusta) A. KARDOŠOVÁ, A. MALOVÍKOVÁ, J. ROSÍK, and P. CAPEK Insttute of Chemstry, Centre for Chemcal Research, Slovak Academy of Scences, CS84238 Bratslava Receved 9 February 1989 Dedcated to Professor P. Krstán, DrSc, n honour of hs 60th brthday A homogeneous, watersoluble 4OmethylDglucuronoDxylan has been solated from the leaves of marsh mallow. The mole rato of Dxylose and 4OmethylDglucuronc acd was 7:1. The man chan was bult of (1 4)lnked ßDxylopyranosyl resdues and 4OmethylDglucuronc acd was attached as sngle termnal unts to 02 of Dxylose. The sngleon actvty coeffcent of calcum counterons y c. d 2 f was estmated n a molecular dsperse soluton of the polysaccharde. The mean dstance of adjacent carboxyl groups, b = 4.00 nm, was obtaned from expermentally determned value of / Ca2+ = 0.712, usng the relaton Xca2+ =f(b). From comparson of the b value wth the length of the Dxylose unt (0.52 nm) t follows that the uronc acd unts are apart and dstrbuted regularly along the macromolecule chan,.e. approxmately each seventh Dxylose unt s substtuted by 4OmethylDglucuronc acd. Из листьев алтея аптечного выделен гомогенный водорастворимый 40метилоглюкуронооксилан. Мольное отношение DКСИЛОЗЫ И 40метилоглюкуроновой кислоты в нем было 7:1. Главная цепь состояла из (1^связанных остатков ßDксилопиранозы, причем 4Ометилоглюкуроновая кислота была присоединена в виде одиночных концевых групп к атому 02 DКСИЛОЗЫ. Величина одноионного коэффициента активности кальциевых противоионов / Са 2+ была определена в молекулярно дисперсном растворе полисахарида. Значение среднего расстояния между соседними карбоксильными группами, b = 4,00 нм, было получено на основе опытно установленного значения y c. d2 + = 0,712, используя соотношение / Са 2+ =f(b). Из сравнения величины b с размером единицы DКСИЛОЗЫ (0,52 нм) следует, что единицы уроновой кислоты не находятся рядом, а регулярно распределены вдоль цепи макромолекулы, т.е. приблизительно каждая седьмая единица DКСИЛОЗЫ замещена 40метилоглюкуроновой кислотой. Elucdaton of sequental arrangement of 4OmethylDglucuronc acd n the Dxylan molecule s not an easy task. Partal acd or enzyme hydrolyss Chem. Papers 44(\)\\\ 117 (1990) 111
2 A. KARDOŠOVÁ. A. MALOVÍKOVÁ, J. ROSÍK. P. CAPĽK followed by fractonaton and characterzaton of olgomerc fragments s tme consumng and may lead to ambguous conclusons. Earler [1] t was generally accepted that n glucuronoxylans the monomerc uronc acd unts are dstrbuted randomly along the Dxylan chan. However, Shmzu and coworkers [2] solated a tetramer contanng two vcnal unts of 4OmethylDglucuronc acd bound to 02 of Dxylobose from the hydrolyzates of hemcelluloses of neutral sulfte waste lquor of larch. Lately, Kohn et al. [3,4] have suggested a blockwse dstrbuton of 4OmethylDglucuronc acd n 4OmethylDglucuronoD xylans solated from the bark of whte wllow and beech. They came to ths concluson on the bass of the results obtaned by a novel methodc approach,.e. by determnaton of the sngleon actvty coeffcent of calcum counterons (ľca 2 +) m solutons of calcum salts of these polysacchardes. In the present work we made use of ths method n determnaton of dstrbuton pattern of sde 4OmethylDglucuronc acd unts n 4OmethylD glucuronodxylan solated from the leaves of marsh mallow (Althaea offcnals L., var. Rhobusta). Expermental Potentometre ttratons were performed on a PHM 64 (Radometer, Copenhagen) potentometer usng a G К 2401 С combned electrode. Spectrophotometry measurements were carred out on a Specol 11 (Zess, Jena) spectrometer. The Cd spectra of both potassum and calcum salts of the polysaccharde were measured n 1.00 mmol dm" 3 solutons of COOK and COOCa () 5 wth a Jobn Yvon Mark III (France) dchrograph. Reagents used: 0.058MKOH, MCa(OH) 2, MCaCl 2, redstlled water freed from carbon doxde, and tetramethylmurexde syntheszed accordng to the method descrbed n [5]. Isolaton and characterzaton of the polysaccharde The solaton of 40methylDglucuronoDxylan from the leaves of marsh mallow and ts subsequent separaton from the accompanyng polysacchardes were carred out as descrbed n our prevous work [6]. The structural features, determned by methylaton analyss and l3 C NMR spectroscopy, are descrbed n the same work. The content of 4OmethylDglucuronc acd was determned by Potentometre ttraton and the methoxyl content accordng to the method of Vebock and Brecher [7]. Both methods afforded consstent results. The number average molecular mass (M n ) was determned osmometrcally at 30 C after equlbraton wth 0.1 MNaCl, usng a Knauer membrane osmometer ftted wth a ZweschchtMembrane (Knauer). 112 Chcm. Paper* 44 (1) (1990)
3 40METHYLDGLUCURONODXYLAN Determnaton of actvty of Ca 2+ ons n the soluton of calcum salt of 40methylDglucuronoDxylan The polysaccharde was converted nto H + form by percolatng the polysaccharde soluton through Amberlte IR 120 (H + ) and then t was neutralzed to the pont of equvalence wth saturated Ca(OH) 2 soluton. The actvty of Ca 2+ ons was determned n the soluton of calcum salt of the polysaccharde (<ľ(cooca 05 ) = 3.00 mmol dm ~' 3 ) by the spectrophotometrc method usng tetramethylmurexde (c = 4x 10 _:> moldm~ 3 ) as the metallochromc ndcator [8, 9]; the soluton dd not contan any addtonal nert electrolyte. The calbraton curve was constructed from the data obtaned wth CaCl 2 soluton. The sngleon actvty coeffcent y Ca 2+ was calculated from the Ca 24 actvty and the total concentraton of Ca 24 n the soluton (1.5 mmol dm" 3 ). Determnaton of dstrbuton of 4OmethylDglucuronc acd n the polysaccharde The mean dstance (b/nm) between two adjacent free carboxyl groups n ther perpendcular projecton on the axs of the Dxylan lnear chan was estmated from the analytcal curve y Cl2 + =f(b). Ths functon was ntroduced n our earler paper [10] usng / Ca 2+ determned n model solutons of varously esterfed pectns (E > 43 %) [11]. Results and dscusson A homogeneous, watersoluble 4OmethylDglucuronoDxylan has been solated from the leaves of marsh mallow. The polysaccharde was composed of (l»4)lnked /?Dxylopyranosyl resdues, ^70% beng unsubsttuted, «5% carryng a sngle substtuton at 02 and/or 03, and ^11 % beng doubly branched on 02 and MethylDglucuronc acd was attached to 02 of Dxylose as sngle termnal unts. The mole rato of Dxylose to 40methylD glucuronc acd n the polysaccharde was 7:1 (Table 1). Table 1 Characterzaton of 4OmethylDglucuronoDxylan w (DXylose) w (4OMethylDglucuronc acd) vr(och0 M n [Ö](D, 22 C, Q= 5.0gdm~ 3, water) Mole rato Dxylose: 4OmethylDglucuronc acd 83.10% 16.90% 2.72 % :1.00 Chem. Papers 44 (1) (1990) 113
4 A. KARDOŠOVÁ, A. MALOVÍKOVÁ, J. ROSÍK, P. CAPEK The prncple of the method for determnaton of the dstrbuton pattern of carboxyl groups n an acd polysaccharde molecule, based upon nterpretaton of sngleon actvty coeffcent of calcum counterons (y Ca 2+), has already been descrbed [10]. The prerequste for applyng the foregong method s the electrostatc bond between the calcum ons and carboxyl groups of the polysaccharde. The actvty coeffcent of counterons (yx bound by electrostatc bond to the polysaccharde, s a functon of lnearcharge densty of the macromolecule characterzed by the mean dstance between two adjacent carboxyl groups (6/nm). The functon y Ca2+ =f{b) (Fg. 1) has a general valdty for lnear acd Fg. 1. Dependence of / Ca2+ on the mean dstance (b) of two vcnal free carboxyl groups n a lnear polysaccharde. polysacchardes, regardless of the knd of uronc acd unts n the polysaccharde. As t was mentoned n Expermental, Fg. 1 was constructed from the values of actvty coeffcents determned n solutons of calcum salts of pectns havng more than 43 % carboxyl groups esterfed, wheren the bond between calcum and carboxyl groups was exclusvely electrostatc [11]. The dentty of crcular dchroc spectra (Fg. 2) of calcum and potassum salts of the glucuronoxylan studed heren ndcated that the bond between calcum and carboxyl groups was electrostatc [12]. The spectra, recorded wth transparent solutons (concentraton of COOK and COOCa^ = 1.00 mmol dm" 3 ), revealed the maxmum n the negatve value of the ellptcty range at A = 210nm. The actvty of Ca 2+ counterons (tf C a 2 +) was estmated n the soluton of calcum salt of 40methylDglucuronoDxylan (c(coocao 5 ) = 3 mmol dm 3 ) and the actvty coeffcent y c. d + =0.712 was calculated. Ths value s very 114 Chem. Papers 44(\)\\\ 117(1990)
5 40METHYLDGLUCURONODXYLAN smlar to that found at the same concentraton wth calcum Dglucuronate ( 7ca2+ = 0.755). The dstance between two vcnal carboxyl groups n the polysaccharde At 0 2 1\ Са У к Л/nm Fg. 2. Crcular dchroc spectra of potassum and calcum salts of 40methylDglucuronoDxylan (concentraton of COOK and COOCa 05 = 1 mmol dm ~ 3 ). У Са 2 * I 1 4 " 3 So Ь7пт 1 Fg. 3. Lnearzed form (\/у Са 2+ =/(!//?)) of the relatonshp llustrated n Fg. I. Chem. Papers 44(\)U\ 117(1990) 115
6 A. KARDOŠOVÁ, A. MALOVÍKOVÁ, J. ROSÍK, P. CAPEK b = 4.00 nm, correspondng to the found actvty coeffcent, was obtaned from the lnearzed form (1// C a 2 + =f0/b); Fg. 3) of the functon y Ca2+ =f(b) (Fg. 1). Though ths relatonshp was proved to be vald for lnear acd polysacchardes [11],.e. when the uronc acd unts are bult n the lnear chan, we consder ths dependence applcable to our polysaccharde, snce 40methylDglucuronc acd s attached to the man lnear chan exclusvely as sngle termnal unts. When consderng the analogy wth the macromolecule of Dmannuronan, havng the same type of glycosdc bonds (ß(\ >4)) of the saccharde unts n 4 C, conformaton, the length of one Dxylose unt n the Dxylan chan s 0.52 nm [13]. Then from the b value 4.00 nm t follows that approxmately each seventh Dxylose unt n the macromolecule s substtuted by one unt of 4OmethylD glucuronc acd. Ths concluson s n agreement wth the results of structural studes. Table 2 Mean dstance between two adjacent carboxyl groups (b) n 40methylDglucuronoDxylans n a perpendcular projecton on the man axs of ther molecules Source Mole rato v T A Ĺ / Xyl: UA b/nm Bark of whte wllow [3] Beech wood [4] Leaves of marsh mallow For comparson, we present n Table 2 the b values determned wth 40 methyldglucuronodxylans solated from the bark of whte wllow and beech wood [3, 4]. These pont to rregular dstrbuton of uronc acd unts n the macromolecule. The polysacchardes are composed of blocks wth more frequent branchng (approxmately at each second xylose unt), alternatng wth those composed exclusvely of xylose unts or contanng only small amount of uronc acd unts. Contrary to these polysacchardes, n the 40methylD glucuronodxylan studed heren, the uronc acd unts are apart and dstrbuted regularly along the macromolecule chan. Ths fndng completes the knowledge on the structure of ths polysaccharde. Moreover, t may be of mportance n vew of nvestgatons and possble classfcatons of further types of glucuronoxylans or hemcelluloses n general, consderng ther orgn. Acknowledgements. The authors thank M. Bys t ran for techncal assstance. 116 Chem. Papers 44(\)\\\ 117(1990)
7 40MF,THYLDGLUCURONODXYLAN References 1. Tmell, T. E., Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. 19, 247 (1964). 2. Shmzu, K. and Samuelson, O., Svensk Papperstdn. 76, 156 (1973). 3. Toman, R., Kohn, R., Malovíková, A., and Rosík, J., Collect. Czechoslov. Chem. Commun. 46, 1405(1981). 4. Kohn, R., Hromádková, Z., Ebrngerová, A., and Toman, R., Collect. Czechoslov. Chem. Commun. 51, 2243 (1986). 5. Gyslng, H. and Schwarzenbach, G., Helv. Chm. Acta 32, 1484 (1949). 6. Kardošová, A., Capek, P., and Rosík, J., Chem. Papers (1989). 7. Vebock, F. and Brecher, C, Ber. 63В, 3207 (1930). 8. Kohn, R. and Furda, I., Collect. Czechoslov. Chem. Commun. 32, 1925 (1967). 9. Kohn, R., Chem. Zvest 28, 625 (1974). 10. Kohn, R., Rosík, J., Kubala, J., and Malovíková. A., Collect. Czechoslov. Chem. Commun. 44, 2517(1979). 11. Kohn, R. and Luknár, О., Collect. Czechoslov. Chem. Commun. 40, 959 (1975). 12. Kohn, R. and Stczay, Т., Collect. Czechoslov. Chem. Commun. 42, 2372 (1977). 13. Atkns, E. D. Т., Pure Appl. Chem. 49, 1135 (1977). Translated by A. Kardošová Chem. Papers 44 (1) (1990) 117
FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF CERTAIN CHEMICAL CLASSES OF GSR FROM VARIOUS AMMUNITION TYPES
FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF CERTAIN CHEMICAL CLASSES OF GSR FROM VARIOUS AMMUNITION TYPES Zuzanna BRO EKMUCHA, Grzegorz ZADORA, 2 Insttute of Forensc Research, Cracow, Poland 2 Faculty of Chemstry, Jagellonan
More informationSemiconductor sensors of temperature
Semconductor sensors of temperature he measurement objectve 1. Identfy the unknown bead type thermstor. Desgn the crcutry for lnearzaton of ts transfer curve.. Fnd the dependence of forward voltage drop
More informationbenefit is 2, paid if the policyholder dies within the year, and probability of death within the year is ).
REVIEW OF RISK MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS LOSS DISTRIBUTIONS AND INSURANCE Loss and nsurance: When someone s subject to the rsk of ncurrng a fnancal loss, the loss s generally modeled usng a random varable or
More information8.5 UNITARY AND HERMITIAN MATRICES. The conjugate transpose of a complex matrix A, denoted by A*, is given by
6 CHAPTER 8 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES 5. Fnd the kernel of the lnear transformaton gven n Exercse 5. In Exercses 55 and 56, fnd the mage of v, for the ndcated composton, where and are gven by the followng
More informationCHOLESTEROL REFERENCE METHOD LABORATORY NETWORK. Sample Stability Protocol
CHOLESTEROL REFERENCE METHOD LABORATORY NETWORK Sample Stablty Protocol Background The Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network (CRMLN) developed certfcaton protocols for total cholesterol, HDL
More informationDETERMINATION OF MOLAR MASS FROM FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION
Exercse 1 DETERINTION OF OLR SS FRO FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION Collgatve propertes The propertes we now consder are the lowerng of vapour pressure, the elevaton of bolng pont, the depresson of freezng pont,
More informationv a 1 b 1 i, a 2 b 2 i,..., a n b n i.
SECTION 8.4 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES AND INNER PRODUCTS 455 8.4 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES AND INNER PRODUCTS All the vector spaces we have studed thus far n the text are real vector spaces snce the scalars are
More informationInstitute of Informatics, Faculty of Business and Management, Brno University of Technology,Czech Republic
Lagrange Multplers as Quanttatve Indcators n Economcs Ivan Mezník Insttute of Informatcs, Faculty of Busness and Management, Brno Unversty of TechnologCzech Republc Abstract The quanttatve role of Lagrange
More informationAn Alternative Way to Measure Private Equity Performance
An Alternatve Way to Measure Prvate Equty Performance Peter Todd Parlux Investment Technology LLC Summary Internal Rate of Return (IRR) s probably the most common way to measure the performance of prvate
More informationLeast Squares Fitting of Data
Least Squares Fttng of Data Davd Eberly Geoetrc Tools, LLC http://www.geoetrctools.co/ Copyrght c 19982016. All Rghts Reserved. Created: July 15, 1999 Last Modfed: January 5, 2015 Contents 1 Lnear Fttng
More informationL10: Linear discriminants analysis
L0: Lnear dscrmnants analyss Lnear dscrmnant analyss, two classes Lnear dscrmnant analyss, C classes LDA vs. PCA Lmtatons of LDA Varants of LDA Other dmensonalty reducton methods CSCE 666 Pattern Analyss
More informationwhere the coordinates are related to those in the old frame as follows.
Chapter 2  Cartesan Vectors and Tensors: Ther Algebra Defnton of a vector Examples of vectors Scalar multplcaton Addton of vectors coplanar vectors Unt vectors A bass of noncoplanar vectors Scalar product
More information"Research Note" APPLICATION OF CHARGE SIMULATION METHOD TO ELECTRIC FIELD CALCULATION IN THE POWER CABLES *
Iranan Journal of Scence & Technology, Transacton B, Engneerng, ol. 30, No. B6, 789794 rnted n The Islamc Republc of Iran, 006 Shraz Unversty "Research Note" ALICATION OF CHARGE SIMULATION METHOD TO ELECTRIC
More informationLinear Circuits Analysis. Superposition, Thevenin /Norton Equivalent circuits
Lnear Crcuts Analyss. Superposton, Theenn /Norton Equalent crcuts So far we hae explored tmendependent (resste) elements that are also lnear. A tmendependent elements s one for whch we can plot an / cure.
More informationViscosity of Solutions of Macromolecules
Vscosty of Solutons of Macromolecules When a lqud flows, whether through a tube or as the result of pourng from a vessel, layers of lqud slde over each other. The force f requred s drectly proportonal
More informationTHE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES
The goal: to measure (determne) an unknown quantty x (the value of a RV X) Realsaton: n results: y 1, y 2,..., y j,..., y n, (the measured values of Y 1, Y 2,..., Y j,..., Y n ) every result s encumbered
More informationOptical Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air Over the Temperature Range 300650 K
NASA/CR2000210114 ICASE Report No. 200020 Optcal Measurement of the Speed of Sound n Ar Over the Temperature Range 300650 K Roger C. Hart ICASE, Hampton, Vrgna R. Jeffrey Balla and G.C. Herrng NASA
More informationFaraday's Law of Induction
Introducton Faraday's Law o Inducton In ths lab, you wll study Faraday's Law o nducton usng a wand wth col whch swngs through a magnetc eld. You wll also examne converson o mechanc energy nto electrc energy
More informationWhat is Candidate Sampling
What s Canddate Samplng Say we have a multclass or mult label problem where each tranng example ( x, T ) conssts of a context x a small (mult)set of target classes T out of a large unverse L of possble
More informationQuantization Effects in Digital Filters
Quantzaton Effects n Dgtal Flters Dstrbuton of Truncaton Errors In two's complement representaton an exact number would have nfntely many bts (n general). When we lmt the number of bts to some fnte value
More informationSIMPLE LINEAR CORRELATION
SIMPLE LINEAR CORRELATION Smple lnear correlaton s a measure of the degree to whch two varables vary together, or a measure of the ntensty of the assocaton between two varables. Correlaton often s abused.
More informationMulticomponent Distillation
Multcomponent Dstllaton need more than one dstllaton tower, for n components, n1 fractonators are requred Specfcaton Lmtatons The followng are establshed at the begnnng 1. Temperature, pressure, composton,
More informationQUANTUM MECHANICS, BRAS AND KETS
PH575 SPRING QUANTUM MECHANICS, BRAS AND KETS The followng summares the man relatons and defntons from quantum mechancs that we wll be usng. State of a phscal sstem: The state of a phscal sstem s represented
More informationThe OC Curve of Attribute Acceptance Plans
The OC Curve of Attrbute Acceptance Plans The Operatng Characterstc (OC) curve descrbes the probablty of acceptng a lot as a functon of the lot s qualty. Fgure 1 shows a typcal OC Curve. 10 8 6 4 1 3 4
More informationSPEE Recommended Evaluation Practice #6 Definition of Decline Curve Parameters Background:
SPEE Recommended Evaluaton Practce #6 efnton of eclne Curve Parameters Background: The producton hstores of ol and gas wells can be analyzed to estmate reserves and future ol and gas producton rates and
More informationCalculating the high frequency transmission line parameters of power cables
< ' Calculatng the hgh frequency transmsson lne parameters of power cables Authors: Dr. John Dcknson, Laboratory Servces Manager, N 0 RW E B Communcatons Mr. Peter J. Ncholson, Project Assgnment Manager,
More informationFORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN A DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER
FORCED CONVECION HEA RANSFER IN A DOUBLE PIPE HEA EXCHANGER Dr. J. Mchael Doster Department of Nuclear Engneerng Box 7909 North Carolna State Unversty Ralegh, NC 276957909 Introducton he convectve heat
More informationgreatest common divisor
4. GCD 1 The greatest common dvsor of two ntegers a and b (not both zero) s the largest nteger whch s a common factor of both a and b. We denote ths number by gcd(a, b), or smply (a, b) when there s no
More information1. Fundamentals of probability theory 2. Emergence of communication traffic 3. Stochastic & Markovian Processes (SP & MP)
6.3 /  Communcaton Networks II (Görg) SS20  www.comnets.unbremen.de Communcaton Networks II Contents. Fundamentals of probablty theory 2. Emergence of communcaton traffc 3. Stochastc & Markovan Processes
More informationTime Series Analysis in Studies of AGN Variability. Bradley M. Peterson The Ohio State University
Tme Seres Analyss n Studes of AGN Varablty Bradley M. Peterson The Oho State Unversty 1 Lnear Correlaton Degree to whch two parameters are lnearly correlated can be expressed n terms of the lnear correlaton
More information2.4 Bivariate distributions
page 28 2.4 Bvarate dstrbutons 2.4.1 Defntons Let X and Y be dscrete r.v.s defned on the same probablty space (S, F, P). Instead of treatng them separately, t s often necessary to thnk of them actng together
More informationHÜCKEL MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY
1 HÜCKEL MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY In general, the vast maorty polyatomc molecules can be thought of as consstng of a collecton of two electron bonds between pars of atoms. So the qualtatve pcture of σ
More informationNPAR TESTS. OneSample ChiSquare Test. Cell Specification. Observed Frequencies 1O i 6. Expected Frequencies 1EXP i 6
PAR TESTS If a WEIGHT varable s specfed, t s used to replcate a case as many tmes as ndcated by the weght value rounded to the nearest nteger. If the workspace requrements are exceeded and samplng has
More informationBinomial Link Functions. Lori Murray, Phil Munz
Bnomal Lnk Functons Lor Murray, Phl Munz Bnomal Lnk Functons Logt Lnk functon: ( p) p ln 1 p Probt Lnk functon: ( p) 1 ( p) Complentary Log Log functon: ( p) ln( ln(1 p)) Motvatng Example A researcher
More information5.33 Lecture Notes: Introduction To Polymer Chemistry
5. Lecture Notes: Introducton To Polymer Chemstry Polymer: A large molecule (macromolecule) bult up by repettve bondng (covalent) of smaller molecules (monomers) Generally not a well defned structure,
More informationCommunication Networks II Contents
8 / 1  Communcaton Networs II (Görg)  www.comnets.unbremen.de Communcaton Networs II Contents 1 Fundamentals of probablty theory 2 Traffc n communcaton networs 3 Stochastc & Marovan Processes (SP
More informationGibbs Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium (or how to predict chemical reactions without doing experiments)
Gbbs Free Energy and Chemcal Equlbrum (or how to predct chemcal reactons wthout dong experments) OCN 623 Chemcal Oceanography Readng: Frst half of Chapter 3, Snoeynk and Jenkns (1980) Introducton We want
More informationThe Development of Web Log Mining Based on ImproveKMeans Clustering Analysis
The Development of Web Log Mnng Based on ImproveKMeans Clusterng Analyss TngZhong Wang * College of Informaton Technology, Luoyang Normal Unversty, Luoyang, 471022, Chna wangtngzhong2@sna.cn Abstract.
More informationInterlude: Interphase Mass Transfer
Interlude: Interphase Mass Transfer The transport of mass wthn a sngle phase depends drectly on the concentraton gradent of the transportng speces n that phase. Mass may also transport from one phase to
More informationTime Domain simulation of PD Propagation in XLPE Cables Considering Frequency Dependent Parameters
Internatonal Journal of Smart Grd and Clean Energy Tme Doman smulaton of PD Propagaton n XLPE Cables Consderng Frequency Dependent Parameters We Zhang a, Jan He b, Ln Tan b, Xuejun Lv b, HongJe L a *
More informationAn Evaluation of the Extended Logistic, Simple Logistic, and Gompertz Models for Forecasting Short Lifecycle Products and Services
An Evaluaton of the Extended Logstc, Smple Logstc, and Gompertz Models for Forecastng Short Lfecycle Products and Servces Charles V. Trappey a,1, Hsnyng Wu b a Professor (Management Scence), Natonal Chao
More information1 Example 1: Axisaligned rectangles
COS 511: Theoretcal Machne Learnng Lecturer: Rob Schapre Lecture # 6 Scrbe: Aaron Schld February 21, 2013 Last class, we dscussed an analogue for Occam s Razor for nfnte hypothess spaces that, n conjuncton
More informationThe Magnetic Field. Concepts and Principles. Moving Charges. Permanent Magnets
. The Magnetc Feld Concepts and Prncples Movng Charges All charged partcles create electrc felds, and these felds can be detected by other charged partcles resultng n electrc force. However, a completely
More informationLiquidVapor Equilibria in Binary Systems 1
LqudVapor Equlbra n Bnary Systems 1 Purpose The purpose of ths experment s to study a bnary lqudvapor equlbrum of chloroform and acetone. Measurements of lqud and vapor compostons wll be made by refractometry.
More informationSCALAR A physical quantity that is completely characterized by a real number (or by its numerical value) is called a scalar. In other words, a scalar
SCALAR A phscal quantt that s completel charactered b a real number (or b ts numercal value) s called a scalar. In other words, a scalar possesses onl a magntude. Mass, denst, volume, temperature, tme,
More informationRecurrence. 1 Definitions and main statements
Recurrence 1 Defntons and man statements Let X n, n = 0, 1, 2,... be a MC wth the state space S = (1, 2,...), transton probabltes p j = P {X n+1 = j X n = }, and the transton matrx P = (p j ),j S def.
More informationSection 5.4 Annuities, Present Value, and Amortization
Secton 5.4 Annutes, Present Value, and Amortzaton Present Value In Secton 5.2, we saw that the present value of A dollars at nterest rate per perod for n perods s the amount that must be deposted today
More informationFLASH POINT DETERMINATION OF BINARY MIXTURES OF ALCOHOLS, KETONES AND WATER. P.J. Martínez, E. Rus and J.M. Compaña
FLASH POINT DETERMINATION OF BINARY MIXTURES OF ALCOHOLS, KETONES AND WATER Abstract P.J. Martínez, E. Rus and J.M. Compaña Departamento de Ingenería Químca. Facultad de Cencas. Unversdad de Málaga. 29071
More informationsubstances (among other variables as well). ( ) Thus the change in volume of a mixture can be written as
Mxtures and Solutons Partal Molar Quanttes Partal molar volume he total volume of a mxture of substances s a functon of the amounts of both V V n,n substances (among other varables as well). hus the change
More informationQuality Adjustment of Secondhand Motor Vehicle Application of Hedonic Approach in Hong Kong s Consumer Price Index
Qualty Adustment of Secondhand Motor Vehcle Applcaton of Hedonc Approach n Hong Kong s Consumer Prce Index Prepared for the 14 th Meetng of the Ottawa Group on Prce Indces 20 22 May 2015, Tokyo, Japan
More informationExtending Probabilistic Dynamic Epistemic Logic
Extendng Probablstc Dynamc Epstemc Logc Joshua Sack May 29, 2008 Probablty Space Defnton A probablty space s a tuple (S, A, µ), where 1 S s a set called the sample space. 2 A P(S) s a σalgebra: a set
More informationColligative Properties
Chapter 5 Collgatve Propertes 5.1 Introducton Propertes of solutons that depend on the number of molecules present and not on the knd of molecules are called collgatve propertes. These propertes nclude
More informationThe Analysis of Outliers in Statistical Data
THALES Project No. xxxx The Analyss of Outlers n Statstcal Data Research Team Chrysses Caron, Assocate Professor (P.I.) Vaslk Karot, Doctoral canddate Polychrons Economou, Chrstna Perrakou, Postgraduate
More informationData Broadcast on a MultiSystem Heterogeneous Overlayed Wireless Network *
JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 24, 819840 (2008) Data Broadcast on a MultSystem Heterogeneous Overlayed Wreless Network * Department of Computer Scence Natonal Chao Tung Unversty Hsnchu,
More informationMultiple discount and forward curves
Multple dscount and forward curves TopQuants presentaton 21 ovember 2012 Ton Broekhuzen, Head Market Rsk and Basel coordnator, IBC Ths presentaton reflects personal vews and not necessarly the vews of
More informationtotal A A reag total A A r eag
hapter 5 Standardzng nalytcal Methods hapter Overvew 5 nalytcal Standards 5B albratng the Sgnal (S total ) 5 Determnng the Senstvty (k ) 5D Lnear Regresson and albraton urves 5E ompensatng for the Reagent
More informationTrafficlight a stress test for life insurance provisions
MEMORANDUM Date 006097 Authors Bengt von Bahr, Göran Ronge Traffclght a stress test for lfe nsurance provsons Fnansnspetonen P.O. Box 6750 SE113 85 Stocholm [Sveavägen 167] Tel +46 8 787 80 00 Fax
More informationAnalysis of Smallsignal Transistor Amplifiers
Analyss of Smallsgnal Transstor Amplfers On completon of ths chapter you should be able to predct the behaour of gen transstor amplfer crcuts by usng equatons and/or equalent crcuts that represent the
More informationDamage detection in composite laminates using cointap method
Damage detecton n composte lamnates usng contap method S.J. Km Korea Aerospace Research Insttute, 45 EoeunDong, YouseongGu, 35333 Daejeon, Republc of Korea yaeln@kar.re.kr 45 The contap test has the
More informationConversion between the vector and raster data structures using Fuzzy Geographical Entities
Converson between the vector and raster data structures usng Fuzzy Geographcal Enttes Cdála Fonte Department of Mathematcs Faculty of Scences and Technology Unversty of Combra, Apartado 38, 3 454 Combra,
More informationExhaustive Regression. An Exploration of RegressionBased Data Mining Techniques Using Super Computation
Exhaustve Regresson An Exploraton of RegressonBased Data Mnng Technques Usng Super Computaton Antony Daves, Ph.D. Assocate Professor of Economcs Duquesne Unversty Pttsburgh, PA 58 Research Fellow The
More informationx f(x) 1 0.25 1 0.75 x 1 0 1 1 0.04 0.01 0.20 1 0.12 0.03 0.60
BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTIONS Let be a varable that assumes the values { 1,,..., n }. Then, a functon that epresses the relatve frequenc of these values s called a unvarate frequenc functon. It must be true
More informationSUPPLIER FINANCING AND STOCK MANAGEMENT. A JOINT VIEW.
SUPPLIER FINANCING AND STOCK MANAGEMENT. A JOINT VIEW. Lucía Isabel García Cebrán Departamento de Economía y Dreccón de Empresas Unversdad de Zaragoza Gran Vía, 2 50.005 Zaragoza (Span) Phone: 976761000
More informationSupport Vector Machines
Support Vector Machnes Max Wellng Department of Computer Scence Unversty of Toronto 10 Kng s College Road Toronto, M5S 3G5 Canada wellng@cs.toronto.edu Abstract Ths s a note to explan support vector machnes.
More informationAPPLICATION OF PROBE DATA COLLECTED VIA INFRARED BEACONS TO TRAFFIC MANEGEMENT
APPLICATION OF PROBE DATA COLLECTED VIA INFRARED BEACONS TO TRAFFIC MANEGEMENT Toshhko Oda (1), Kochro Iwaoka (2) (1), (2) Infrastructure Systems Busness Unt, Panasonc System Networks Co., Ltd. Saedocho
More informationPredicting Epidemic Tendency through Search Behavior Analysis
Proceedngs of the TwentySecond Internatonal Jont Conference on Artfcal Intellgence Predctng Epdemc Tendency through Search Behavor Analyss Danqng Xu, Yqun Lu, Mn Zhang, Shaopng Ma, Anq Cu, Lyun Ru State
More informationMean Molecular Weight
Mean Molecular Weght The thermodynamc relatons between P, ρ, and T, as well as the calculaton of stellar opacty requres knowledge of the system s mean molecular weght defned as the mass per unt mole of
More information+ + +   This circuit than can be reduced to a planar circuit
MeshCurrent Method The meshcurrent s analog of the nodeoltage method. We sole for a new set of arables, mesh currents, that automatcally satsfy KCLs. As such, meshcurrent method reduces crcut soluton to
More informationWe are now ready to answer the question: What are the possible cardinalities for finite fields?
Chapter 3 Fnte felds We have seen, n the prevous chapters, some examples of fnte felds. For example, the resdue class rng Z/pZ (when p s a prme) forms a feld wth p elements whch may be dentfed wth the
More informationPRIVATE SCHOOL CHOICE: THE EFFECTS OF RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION AND PARTICIPATION
PRIVATE SCHOOL CHOICE: THE EFFECTS OF RELIIOUS AFFILIATION AND PARTICIPATION Danny CohenZada Department of Economcs, Benuron Unversty, BeerSheva 84105, Israel Wllam Sander Department of Economcs, DePaul
More informationHedging InterestRate Risk with Duration
FIXEDINCOME SECURITIES Chapter 5 Hedgng InterestRate Rsk wth Duraton Outlne Prcng and Hedgng Prcng certan cashflows Interest rate rsk Hedgng prncples DuratonBased Hedgng Technques Defnton of duraton
More information1 Approximation Algorithms
CME 305: Dscrete Mathematcs and Algorthms 1 Approxmaton Algorthms In lght of the apparent ntractablty of the problems we beleve not to le n P, t makes sense to pursue deas other than complete solutons
More informationModule 2 LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEMS. Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur
Module LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Lesson 3 Lossless Compresson: Huffman Codng Instructonal Objectves At the end of ths lesson, the students should be able to:. Defne and measure source entropy..
More informationCalibration and Linear Regression Analysis: A SelfGuided Tutorial
Calbraton and Lnear Regresson Analyss: A SelfGuded Tutoral Part The Calbraton Curve, Correlaton Coeffcent and Confdence Lmts CHM314 Instrumental Analyss Department of Chemstry, Unversty of Toronto Dr.
More informationUnderstanding the Genetics of Blood Groups
Name: Key Class: Date: Understandng the Genetcs of Blood Groups Objectves: understand the genetcs of blood types determne the ABO blood type of unknown smulated blood samples predct, usng punnett squares,
More information7.5. Present Value of an Annuity. Investigate
7.5 Present Value of an Annuty Owen and Anna are approachng retrement and are puttng ther fnances n order. They have worked hard and nvested ther earnngs so that they now have a large amount of money on
More informationJ. Parallel Distrib. Comput.
J. Parallel Dstrb. Comput. 71 (2011) 62 76 Contents lsts avalable at ScenceDrect J. Parallel Dstrb. Comput. journal homepage: www.elsever.com/locate/jpdc Optmzng server placement n dstrbuted systems n
More informationErrorPropagation.nb 1. Error Propagation
ErrorPropagaton.nb Error Propagaton Suppose that we make observatons of a quantty x that s subject to random fluctuatons or measurement errors. Our best estmate of the true value for ths quantty s then
More informationFinancial Mathemetics
Fnancal Mathemetcs 15 Mathematcs Grade 12 Teacher Gude Fnancal Maths Seres Overvew In ths seres we am to show how Mathematcs can be used to support personal fnancal decsons. In ths seres we jon Tebogo,
More informationPublished: 20030101. Link to publication
A Thermodesorber for Onlne studes of Combuston Aerosols  Influence of partcle dameter, resdence tme and mass concentraton Dahl, Andreas; Pagels, Joakm Publshed: 20030101 Lnk to publcaton Ctaton for
More informationGoals Rotational quantities as vectors. Math: Cross Product. Angular momentum
Physcs 106 Week 5 Torque and Angular Momentum as Vectors SJ 7thEd.: Chap 11.2 to 3 Rotatonal quanttes as vectors Cross product Torque expressed as a vector Angular momentum defned Angular momentum as a
More information106 M.R. Akbar Jokar and M. Sefbarghy polcy, ndependent Posson demands n the retalers, a backordered demand durng stockouts n all nstallatons and cons
Scenta Iranca, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp 105{11 c Sharf Unversty of Technology, January 006 Research Note Cost Evaluaton of a TwoEchelon Inventory System wth Lost Sales and Approxmately Normal Demand M.R. Akbar
More information8 Algorithm for Binary Searching in Trees
8 Algorthm for Bnary Searchng n Trees In ths secton we present our algorthm for bnary searchng n trees. A crucal observaton employed by the algorthm s that ths problem can be effcently solved when the
More informationExperiment 4, page 1 Version of February 9, 2015
Experment 4, page 1 Verson of February 9, 215 Experment 446.4 CONDUCTANCE OF SOLUTIONS Theory Ionc solutons conduct electrcty. From a macroscopc pont of vew, conducton of solutons s lke conducton of electrcty
More informationBrigid Mullany, Ph.D University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Evaluaton And Comparson Of The Dfferent Standards Used To Defne The Postonal Accuracy And Repeatablty Of Numercally Controlled Machnng Center Axes Brgd Mullany, Ph.D Unversty of North Carolna, Charlotte
More informationThe Effect of Mean Stress on Damage Predictions for Spectral Loading of Fiberglass Composite Coupons 1
EWEA, Specal Topc Conference 24: The Scence of Makng Torque from the Wnd, Delft, Aprl 92, 24, pp. 546555. The Effect of Mean Stress on Damage Predctons for Spectral Loadng of Fberglass Composte Coupons
More informationFace Verification Problem. Face Recognition Problem. Application: Access Control. Biometric Authentication. Face Verification (1:1 matching)
Face Recognton Problem Face Verfcaton Problem Face Verfcaton (1:1 matchng) Querymage face query Face Recognton (1:N matchng) database Applcaton: Access Control www.vsage.com www.vsoncs.com Bometrc Authentcaton
More informationRELIABILITY, RISK AND AVAILABILITY ANLYSIS OF A CONTAINER GANTRY CRANE ABSTRACT
Kolowrock Krzysztof Joanna oszynska MODELLING ENVIRONMENT AND INFRATRUCTURE INFLUENCE ON RELIABILITY AND OPERATION RT&A # () (Vol.) March RELIABILITY RIK AND AVAILABILITY ANLYI OF A CONTAINER GANTRY CRANE
More informationNumerical Analysis of the Natural Gas Combustion Products
Energy and Power Engneerng, 2012, 4, 353357 http://dxdoorg/104236/epe201245046 Publshed Onlne September 2012 (http://wwwscrporg/journal/epe) Numercal Analyss of the Natural Gas Combuston Products Fernando
More informationRiskbased Fatigue Estimate of Deep Water Risers  Course Project for EM388F: Fracture Mechanics, Spring 2008
Rskbased Fatgue Estmate of Deep Water Rsers  Course Project for EM388F: Fracture Mechancs, Sprng 2008 Chen Sh Department of Cvl, Archtectural, and Envronmental Engneerng The Unversty of Texas at Austn
More informationRealistic Image Synthesis
Realstc Image Synthess  Combned Samplng and Path Tracng  Phlpp Slusallek Karol Myszkowsk Vncent Pegoraro Overvew: Today Combned Samplng (Multple Importance Samplng) Renderng and Measurng Equaton Random
More information5. Simultaneous eigenstates: Consider two operators that commute: Â η = a η (13.29)
5. Smultaneous egenstates: Consder two operators that commute: [ Â, ˆB ] = 0 (13.28) Let Â satsfy the followng egenvalue equaton: Multplyng both sdes by ˆB Â η = a η (13.29) ˆB [ Â η ] = ˆB [a η ] = a
More informationMichał Tadeusiewicz. Electric Circuits. Technical University of Łódź International Faculty of Engineering. Łódź 2009
Mchał Tadeusewcz Electrc Crcuts Techncal Unersty of Łódź Internatonal Faculty of Engneerng Łódź 9 Contents Preface.. 5. Fundamental laws of electrcal crcuts 7.. Introducton... 7.. Krchhoff s oltage Law
More informationEE201 Circuit Theory I 2015 Spring. Dr. Yılmaz KALKAN
EE201 Crcut Theory I 2015 Sprng Dr. Yılmaz KALKAN 1. Basc Concepts (Chapter 1 of Nlsson  3 Hrs.) Introducton, Current and Voltage, Power and Energy 2. Basc Laws (Chapter 2&3 of Nlsson  6 Hrs.) Voltage
More informationA Performance Analysis of View Maintenance Techniques for Data Warehouses
A Performance Analyss of Vew Mantenance Technques for Data Warehouses Xng Wang Dell Computer Corporaton Round Roc, Texas Le Gruenwald The nversty of Olahoma School of Computer Scence orman, OK 739 Guangtao
More informationGRAVITY DATA VALIDATION AND OUTLIER DETECTION USING L 1 NORM
GRAVITY DATA VALIDATION AND OUTLIER DETECTION USING L 1 NORM BARRIOT JeanPerre, SARRAILH Mchel BGI/CNES 18.av.E.Beln 31401 TOULOUSE Cedex 4 (France) Emal: jeanperre.barrot@cnes.fr 1/Introducton The
More informationFatigue damage calculation of ULCS due to quasistatic wave response and springing response
Fatgue damage calculaton of ULCS due to quasstatc wave response and sprngng response V. Boutller 1), S. Maherault 1), M. Huther 1), J. Henry 1), G. Parmenter 1) 1) Bureau Vertas, Marne Dvson, 67/71 Boulevard
More informationThe CoxRossRubinstein Option Pricing Model
Fnance 400 A. Penat  G. Pennacc Te CoxRossRubnsten Opton Prcng Model Te prevous notes sowed tat te absence o arbtrage restrcts te prce o an opton n terms o ts underlyng asset. However, te noarbtrage
More informationFast degree elevation and knot insertion for Bspline curves
Computer Aded Geometrc Desgn 22 (2005) 183 197 www.elsever.com/locate/cagd Fast degree elevaton and knot nserton for Bsplne curves QXng Huang a,shmnhu a,, Ralph R. Martn b a Department of Computer Scence
More informationCan Auto Liability Insurance Purchases Signal Risk Attitude?
Internatonal Journal of Busness and Economcs, 2011, Vol. 10, No. 2, 159164 Can Auto Lablty Insurance Purchases Sgnal Rsk Atttude? ChuShu L Department of Internatonal Busness, Asa Unversty, Tawan ShengChang
More information