GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 21: The Global Positioning System

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1 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 21: The Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System - recognize that GPS is only one of several Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) - the Russian system is GLONASS, the European system is Galileo, the Chinese system is BeiDou How it works - the Global Positioning System was originally developed by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) - locations (lat, long) are calculated using a constellation of 24 satellites - satellites in a high orbit (higher orbit = more stable orbit) - the eact position of each satellite is constantly monitored by 6 ground stations - a GPS receiver calculates the distance to all of the satellites in view above the horizon - uses the travel time of radio waves to calculate the distance to satellites - need at least 4 satellites to fi an,y,z position and calculate GPS time - basis of GPS is "trilateration" from three or more satellites (similar to triangulation) - need at least three satellites to determine, y and z, coordinates - fourth satellite also needed for clock corrections in GPS receiver - GPS errors result from many sources - satellite clocks - orbital errors - ionosphere - troposphere - receiver noise, - multi-path reflection from buildings - selective availability (turned off by DoD in 2000) - in a worst case scenario, accuracy should be within 10 m - under reasonably good conditions, accuracy should be within 3 to 5 m (or better) - increasing accuracy 1) the accuracy of a GPS location is also strongly affected by the PDOP - PDOP (Positional Dilution of Precision) refers to the arrangement of satellites in the sky - good PDOP (low values) - good arrangement of satellites - positions are more accurate - poor PDOP (higher value) - poor arrangement of satellites - positions are less accurate 2) the accuracy of a GPS location can also be improved by collecting positions over time - for eample, data can be collected every 2 seconds over a period of one minute - when these 30 data points are plotted they will tend to cluster then use the average Copyright Kevin Mulligan, Teas Tech University

2 DGPS (differential GPS) - GPS receiver coordinates collected in the field (called the rover) are corrected using the GPS receiver coordinates collected at a known location (called a base station) - using differential GPS receiver errors can be corrected to sub-meter accuracy 1) real-time differential correction a) Trimble base station - requires a radio receiver integrated with the GPS receiver b) Coast Guard beacon - requires a radio receiver integrated with the GPS receiver c) WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) - Federal Aviation Administration operates WAAS to aid in aircraft navigation - satellite broadcast of corrections from two satellites off the east and west coast - today, almost all GPS receivers are WAAS capable and it should be turned on - but recognize that these corrections are not as good as corrections from a base station 2) post processing for differential correction - for most field mapping applications we do not need real-time different correction - in this case, we can use post-processing to differentially correct the GPS coordinates - to differentially correct your GPS data (rover files) in the office, you download the corrections (that were recorded at the same time) from the nearest base station and apply the corrections Copyright Kevin Mulligan, Teas Tech University

3 GIST 3300 / 5300 The Global Positioning System Global Positioning - How it works - Coordinate Accuracy and GPS Errors - Positional Dilution of Precision (PDOP) - Differential Correction - Real Time Corrections - Post Processing - Field Mapping Software

4 The Global Positioning System (GPS) How it works - location based upon a constellation of 24 satellites

5 The Global Positioning System (GPS) How it works - satellites are in a very high orbit (more stable) - satellite position constantly monitored by 6 ground control stations

6 The Global Positioning System (GPS) How it works - GPS receiver calculates distance to satellites above the horizon - uses the travel time of radio waves to calculate the distance - need at least 4 satellites to fi an,y,z position and calculate GPS time

7 The Global Positioning System (GPS) How it works - basis of GPS is trilateration from three or more satellites Satellite 2 Satellite 1 You are somewhere here

8 The Global Positioning System (GPS) How it works - basis of GPS is trilateration from three or more satellites Satellite 2 Satellite 1 Satellite 3

9 The Global Positioning System (GPS) Coordinate Accuracy and GPS Errors - GPS errors result from many sources Satellite clocks Orbital errors Ionosphere Troposphere Receiver noise Multipath Selective availability 1.5 m 2.5 m 5.0 m 0.5 m 0.3 m 0.6 m 30 m Worst case scenario 10 m

10 The Global Positioning System (GPS) Increasing Accuracy 1) Positional Dilution of Precision - refers to the geometry of satellites in the sky - has a strong influence on the accuracy of readings - good PDOP (low value) - good arrangement of satellites above the horizon - readings are more accurate - poor PDOP (high value) - poor arrangement of satellites above the horizon - readings are less accurate

11 The Global Positioning System (GPS) Increasing Accuracy 2) Collect Positions over Time - positional accuracy can also be improved by collecting positions over time - for eample, data are collected every 2 seconds over a one minute period - when the positions are plotted they tend to cluster - record only the average of thirty readings

12 Differential GPS (DGPS) Increasing Accuracy with Differential Correction 1) Real-time differential correction a) Trimble base station b) Coast Guard beacon c) WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) 2) Post processing (for differential correction) - use post processing software - e.g. Trimble Pathfinder Office

13 Differential GPS (DGPS) 1) Real-time differential correction a) Trimble base station GPS signal radio antenna GPS receiver BASE STATION GPS receiver with radio antenna ROVER Benchmark (known location)

14 Differential GPS (DGPS) 1) Real-time differential correction b) Coast Guard beacon Summerfield Teas

15 Differential GPS (DGPS) 1) Real-time differential correction c) WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) GPS signal Pacific satellite geostationary Atlantic satellite geostationary

16 Differential GPS (DGPS) 1) Real-time differential correction - Trimble base station - Coast Guard beacon - WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) 2) Post processing (for differential correction) - use post processing software - e.g. Trimble Pathfinder Office

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