# GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 21: The Global Positioning System

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1 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 21: The Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System - recognize that GPS is only one of several Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) - the Russian system is GLONASS, the European system is Galileo, the Chinese system is BeiDou How it works - the Global Positioning System was originally developed by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) - locations (lat, long) are calculated using a constellation of 24 satellites - satellites in a high orbit (higher orbit = more stable orbit) - the eact position of each satellite is constantly monitored by 6 ground stations - a GPS receiver calculates the distance to all of the satellites in view above the horizon - uses the travel time of radio waves to calculate the distance to satellites - need at least 4 satellites to fi an,y,z position and calculate GPS time - basis of GPS is "trilateration" from three or more satellites (similar to triangulation) - need at least three satellites to determine, y and z, coordinates - fourth satellite also needed for clock corrections in GPS receiver - GPS errors result from many sources - satellite clocks - orbital errors - ionosphere - troposphere - receiver noise, - multi-path reflection from buildings - selective availability (turned off by DoD in 2000) - in a worst case scenario, accuracy should be within 10 m - under reasonably good conditions, accuracy should be within 3 to 5 m (or better) - increasing accuracy 1) the accuracy of a GPS location is also strongly affected by the PDOP - PDOP (Positional Dilution of Precision) refers to the arrangement of satellites in the sky - good PDOP (low values) - good arrangement of satellites - positions are more accurate - poor PDOP (higher value) - poor arrangement of satellites - positions are less accurate 2) the accuracy of a GPS location can also be improved by collecting positions over time - for eample, data can be collected every 2 seconds over a period of one minute - when these 30 data points are plotted they will tend to cluster then use the average Copyright Kevin Mulligan, Teas Tech University

3 GIST 3300 / 5300 The Global Positioning System Global Positioning - How it works - Coordinate Accuracy and GPS Errors - Positional Dilution of Precision (PDOP) - Differential Correction - Real Time Corrections - Post Processing - Field Mapping Software

4 The Global Positioning System (GPS) How it works - location based upon a constellation of 24 satellites

5 The Global Positioning System (GPS) How it works - satellites are in a very high orbit (more stable) - satellite position constantly monitored by 6 ground control stations

6 The Global Positioning System (GPS) How it works - GPS receiver calculates distance to satellites above the horizon - uses the travel time of radio waves to calculate the distance - need at least 4 satellites to fi an,y,z position and calculate GPS time

7 The Global Positioning System (GPS) How it works - basis of GPS is trilateration from three or more satellites Satellite 2 Satellite 1 You are somewhere here

8 The Global Positioning System (GPS) How it works - basis of GPS is trilateration from three or more satellites Satellite 2 Satellite 1 Satellite 3

9 The Global Positioning System (GPS) Coordinate Accuracy and GPS Errors - GPS errors result from many sources Satellite clocks Orbital errors Ionosphere Troposphere Receiver noise Multipath Selective availability 1.5 m 2.5 m 5.0 m 0.5 m 0.3 m 0.6 m 30 m Worst case scenario 10 m

10 The Global Positioning System (GPS) Increasing Accuracy 1) Positional Dilution of Precision - refers to the geometry of satellites in the sky - has a strong influence on the accuracy of readings - good PDOP (low value) - good arrangement of satellites above the horizon - readings are more accurate - poor PDOP (high value) - poor arrangement of satellites above the horizon - readings are less accurate

11 The Global Positioning System (GPS) Increasing Accuracy 2) Collect Positions over Time - positional accuracy can also be improved by collecting positions over time - for eample, data are collected every 2 seconds over a one minute period - when the positions are plotted they tend to cluster - record only the average of thirty readings

12 Differential GPS (DGPS) Increasing Accuracy with Differential Correction 1) Real-time differential correction a) Trimble base station b) Coast Guard beacon c) WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) 2) Post processing (for differential correction) - use post processing software - e.g. Trimble Pathfinder Office

13 Differential GPS (DGPS) 1) Real-time differential correction a) Trimble base station GPS signal radio antenna GPS receiver BASE STATION GPS receiver with radio antenna ROVER Benchmark (known location)

14 Differential GPS (DGPS) 1) Real-time differential correction b) Coast Guard beacon Summerfield Teas

15 Differential GPS (DGPS) 1) Real-time differential correction c) WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) GPS signal Pacific satellite geostationary Atlantic satellite geostationary

16 Differential GPS (DGPS) 1) Real-time differential correction - Trimble base station - Coast Guard beacon - WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) 2) Post processing (for differential correction) - use post processing software - e.g. Trimble Pathfinder Office

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