Günter Seeber. Satellite Geodesy 2nd completely revised and extended edition

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1 Günter Seeber Satellite Geodesy 2nd completely revised and extended edition Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York 2003

2 Contents Preface Abbreviations vii xvii 1 Introduction Subject of Satellite Geodesy Classification and Basic Concepts of Satellite Geodesy Historical Development of Satellite Geodesy Applications of Satellite Geodesy Structure and Objective of the Book Fundamentals Reference Coordinate Systems Cartesian Coordinate Systems and Coordinate Transformations Reference Coordinate Systems and Frames in Satellite Geodesy Conventional Inertial Systems and Frames Conventional Terrestrial Systems and Frames Relationship between CIS and CTS Reference Coordinate Systems in the Gravity Field of Earth. 21 Ellipsoidal Reference Coordinate Systems Ellipsoid, Geoid and Geodetic Datum World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) Three-dimensional Eccentricity Computation Time Basic Considerations Sidereal Time and Universal Time Atomic Time Ephemeris Time, Dynamical Time, Terrestrial Time Clocks and Frequency Standards Signal Propagation Some Fundamentals of Wave Propagation Basic Relations and Definitions Dispersion, Phase Velocity and Group Velocity Frequency Domains Structure and Subdivision of the Atmosphere Signal Propagation through the Ionosphere and the Troposphere Ionospheric Refraction Tropospheric Refraction... 56

3 x Contents 3 Satellite Orbital Motion Fundamentals of Celestial Mechanics. Two-Body Problem Keplerian Motion Newtonian Mechanics. Two-Body Problem Equation of Motion Elementary Integration Vectorial Integration Orbit Geometry and Orbital Motion Perturbed Satellite Motion Representation of the Perturbed Orbital-Motion Osculating and Mean Orbital Elements Lagrange s Perturbation Equations Gaussian Form of Perturbation Equation Disturbed Motion due to Earth s Anomalous Gravity Field Perturbation Equation and Geopotential Perturbations of the Elements Perturbations Caused by the Zonal Coefficients Jn Other Perturbations Perturbing Forces Caused by the Sun and Moon Solid Earth Tides and Ocean Tides Atmospheric Drag Direct and Indirect Solar Radiation Pressure Further Perturbations Resonances Implications of Perturbations on Selected Satellite Orbits Orbit Determination Integration of the Undisturbed Orbit Integration of the Perturbed Orbit Analytical Methods of Orbit Integration Numerical Methods of Orbit Integration Precise Orbit Determination with Spaceborne GPS Orbit Representation Ephemeris Representation for Navigation Satellites Polynomial Approximation Simplified Short Arc Representation Satellite Orbits and Constellations Basic Aspects Orbits and Constellations Sun-synchronous, Geostationary, and Transfer Orbits

4 Contents xi 4 Basic Observation Concepts and Satellites Used in Geodesy Satellite Geodesy as a Parameter Estimation Problem Observables and Basic Concepts Determination of Directions Determination of Ranges Determination of Range Differences (Doppler method) Satellite Altimetry Determination of Ranges and Range-Rates (Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking) Interferometric Measurements Further Observation Techniques Satellites Used in Geodesy Basic Considerations Some Selected Satellites Satellite Subsystems Drag Free Systems Attitude Control Navigation Payload, PRARE Planned Satellites and Missions Some Early Observation Techniques (Classical Methods) Electronic Ranging SECOR Other Early Observation Techniques Optical Methods for the Determination of Directions Photographic Determination of Directions Satellites used for Camera Observations Satellite Cameras Observation and Plate Reduction Spatial Triangulation Results Directions with CCD Technology Image Coordinates from CCD Observations Star Catalogs, Star Identification and Plate Reduction Applications, Results and Prospects Directions from Space Platforms Star Tracker Astrometric Satellites, HIPPARCOS Planned Missions Doppler Techniques Doppler Effect and Basic Positioning Concept One Successful Example: The Navy Navigation Satellite System System Architecture Broadcast and Precise Ephemerides

5 xii Contents 6.3 Doppler Receivers Basic concept Examples of Doppler Survey Sets Error Budget and Corrections Satellite Orbits Ionospheric and Tropospheric Refraction Receiver System Earth Rotation and Relativistic Effects Motion of the Receiver Antenna Observation Strategies and Adjustment Models Extended Observation Equation Single Station Positioning Multi-Station Positioning Applications Applications for Geodetic Control Further Applications DORIS The Global Positioning System (GPS) Fundamentals Introduction Space Segment Control Segment Observation Principle and Signal Structure Orbit Determination and Orbit Representation Determination of the Broadcast Ephemerides S.2 Orbit Representation Computation of Satellite Time and Satellite Coordinates S.4 Structure of the GPS Navigation Data Intentional Limitation of the System Accuracy System Development GPS Receivers (User Segment) Receiver Concepts and Main Receiver Components Code Dependent Signal Processing Codeless and Semicodeless Signal Processing Examples of GPS receivers Classical Receivers Examples of Currently Available Geodetic Receivers Navigation and Handheld Receivers Future Developments and Trends GPS Observables and Data Processing

6 Contents... XIII Observables Classical View Code and Carrier Phases Parameter Estimation Linear Combinations and Derived Observables Concepts of Parametrization Resolution of Ambiguities Data Handling Cycle Slips The Receiver Independent Data Format RINEX Adjustment Strategies and Software Concepts Concepts of Rapid Methods with GPS Basic Considerations Rapid Static Methods Semi Kinematic Methods Pure Kinematic Method Navigation with GPS Error Budget and Corrections Basic Considerations Satellite Geometry and Accuracy Measures Orbits and Clocks Broadcast Ephemerides and Clocks Precise Ephemerides and Clocks, IGS Signal Propagation Ionospheric Effects on GPS Signals Tropospheric Propagation Effects Multipath Further Propagation Effects, Diffraction and Signal Interference Receiving System Antenna Phase Center Variation Other Error Sources Related to the Receiving System Further Influences, Summary, the Issue of Integrity Differential GPS and Permanent Reference Networks Differential GPS (DGPS) DGPS Concepts Data Formats and Data Transmission Examples of Services Real Time Kinematic GPS Multiple Reference Stations Wide Area Differential GPS High Precision Networked Reference Stations

7 xiv Contents 7.6 Applications Planning and Realization of GPS Observation Setting Up an Observation Plan Practical Aspects in Field Observations Observation Strategies and Network Design Possible Applications and Examples of GPS Observations Geodetic Control Surveys Geodynamics Height Determination Cadastral Surveying, Geographic Information Systems Fleet Management, Telematics, Location Based Services Engineering and Monitoring Precise Marine Navigation, Marine Geodesy, and Hydrography Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, Airborne GPS Special Applications of GPS GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS GPS/GLONASS Augmentations GALILEO Services and Organizations Related to GPS The International GPS Service (IGS) Other Services ! 8 Laser Ranging Introduction Satellites Equipped with Laser Reflectors Laser Ranging Systems and Components Laser Oscillators Other System Components Currently Available Fixed and Transportable Laser Systems Trends in SLR System Developments Corrections, Data Processing and Accuracy Extended Ranging Equation Data Control, Data Compression, and Normal Points Applications of Satellite Laser Ranging Realization of Observation Programs. lnternational Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) Parameter Estimation Earth Gravity Field, Precise Orbit Determination (POD) Positions and Position Changes

8 Contents xv Earth Rotation. Polar Motion Other applications Lunar Laser Ranging Spaceborne Laser Satellite Altimetry Basic Concept Satellites and Missions Measurements, Corrections. Accuracy Geometry of Altimeter Observations Data Generation Corrections and Error Budget Determination of the Mean Sea Surface Applications of Satellite Altimetry Geoid and Gravity Field Determination Geophysical Interpretation Oceanography and Glaciology Gravity Field Missions Basic Considerations Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) Concepts High-Low Mode, CHAMP Low-Low Mode. GRACE Satellite Gravity Gradiometry Concepts GOCE mission Related Space Techniques Very Long Baseline Interferometry Basic Concept. Observation Equations. and Error Budget Applications International Cooperation. International VLBI Service (IVS) VLBI with Satellites Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Basic Concepts, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometric SAR I Differential Radar Interferometry Overview and Applications Positioning Concepts. Absolute and Relative Positioning Global and Regional Networks Operational Positioning

9 xvi Contents 12.2 Gravity Field and Earth Models Fundamentals Earth Models Navigation and Marine Geodesy Possible Applications and Accuracy Requirements in Marine Positioning Marine Positioning Techniques Geodynamics Recent Crustal Movements Earth Rotation, Reference Frames. IERS Combination of Geodetic Space Techniques Basic Considerations Fundamental Stations Integrated Global Geodetic Observing System (IGGOS) References 539 Index 575

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