Potential GDP and Economic Growth

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Potential GDP and Economic Growth"

Transcription

1 Potential GDP and Economic Growth CHAPTER17 C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to 1 Explain the forces that determine potential GDP and the real wage rate and employment at full employment. 2 Define and calculate the economic growth rate, and explain the implications of sustained growth. 3 Identify the main the sources of economic growth and explain the growth process. 4 Describe the policies that might speed economic growth. 1

2 MACROECONOMIC APPROACHES AND PATHWAYS The Two Main Schools of Thought The two main approaches to macroeconomics are based on two schools of thought: Classical macroeconomics Keynesian macroeconomics MACROECONOMIC APPROACHES AND PATHWAYS Classical macroeconomics is a body of theory about how a market economy works and why it experiences economic growth and fluctuations. The classical view is that markets work well and deliver the best available macroeconomic performance. The economy will fluctuate, and growth will slow down from time to time. But no government remedy can improve the performance of the market. MACROECONOMIC APPROACHES AND PATHWAYS Classical macroeconomic fell into disrepute during the 1930s, which was a decade of high unemployment and stagnant production throughout the world. Great Depression is a decade (the 1930s) of high unemployment and stagnant production throughout the world economy. Classical macroeconomics predicted that the Great Depression would end but gave no method for ending it more quickly. 2

3 MACROECONOMIC APPROACHES AND PATHWAYS Keynesian macroeconomics is a body of theory about how a market economy works that stresses it inherent instability and the need for active government intervention to achieve full employment and sustained economic growth. John Maynard Keynes, in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, began this school of thought. Keynes theory was that too little consumer spending and investment lead to the Great Depression. MACROECONOMIC APPROACHES AND PATHWAYS Keynes solution to depression and high unemployment was increased government spending. But Keynes predicted that his policy aimed at curing unemployment in the short term might increase it in the long term. This prediction became reality during the 1960s and 1970s, when inflation exploded, growth slowed, and unemployment increased. It was time for another challenge to the mainstream: new macroeconomics MACROECONOMIC APPROACHES AND PATHWAYS The New Macroeconomics New macroeconomics is a body of theory about how a market economy works based on the view that macro outcomes depend on micro choices the choices of rational individuals and firms interacting in markets. New classical macroeconomics incorporates the ideas of classical economists that markets work and new Keynesian macroeconomics incorporates the ideas of Keynesian economists that markets adjust slowly. 3

4 MACROECONOMIC APPROACHES AND PATHWAYS The key difference between the two new schools is in their view of how quickly price and wages adjust in the face of excess demand or excess supply. But this difference is tiny, and a consensus is emerging. The Road Ahead We follow the new consensus and begin with an explanation of what determines real GDP and employment and the pace of economic growth POTENTIAL GDP Potential GDP is the level of real GDP that the economy would produce if it were at full employment. We produce the goods and services that make up real GDP by using factors of production: labor and human capital, physical capital, land, and entrepreneurship. At any given time, the quantities of human capital, physical capital, land, entrepreneurship, and the state of technology are fixed POTENTIAL GDP The quantity of labor employed depends on the choices of people and businesses. So real GDP produced depend on the quantity of labor employed. To describe the relationship between real GDP and the quantity of labor employed, we use a relationship called the production function. 4

5 17.1 POTENTIAL GDP The Production Function Production function is a relationship that shows the maximum quantity of real GDP that can be produced as the quantity of labor employed changes and all other influences on production remain the same POTENTIAL GDP Figure 17.1 shows the production function. 100 billion hours of labor can produce $6 trillion of real GDP at point A POTENTIAL GDP 200 billion hours of labor can produce $10 trillion of real GDP at point B. 300 billion hours of labor can produce $12 trillion of real GDP at point C. The production function PF is a limit to what is attainable. 5

6 17.1 POTENTIAL GDP The production function is a boundary between the attainable and the unattainable. The production function displays diminishing returns: The tendency for each additional hour of labor employed to produce successively smaller additional amounts of real GDP POTENTIAL GDP The Labor Market The Demand for Labor Quantity of labor demanded is the total labor hours that all the firms in the economy plan to hire during a given time period at a given real wage rate. 6

7 17.1 POTENTIAL GDP Demand for labor is the relationship between the quantity of labor demanded and real wage rate when all other influences on firms hiring plans remain the same. The lower the real wage rate, the greater is the quantity of labor demanded POTENTIAL GDP Figure 17.2 shows the demand for labor. 7

8 17.1 POTENTIAL GDP The Supply of Labor Quantity of labor supplied is the number of labor hours that all the households in the economy plan to work during a given time period and at a given real wage rate. Supply of labor is the relationship between the quantity of labor supplied and the real wage rate when all other influences on work plans remain the same POTENTIAL GDP Figure 17.3 shows the supply of labor. 8

9 17.1 POTENTIAL GDP The quantity of labor supplied increases as the real wage rate increases for two reasons: Hours per person increase as the real wage rate increases. The labor force participation rate increases as the real wage rate increases POTENTIAL GDP Labor Market Equilibrium A rise in the real wage rate eliminates a shortage of labor by decreasing the quantity demanded and increasing the quantity supplied. A fall in the real wage rate eliminates a surplus of labor by increasing the quantity demanded and decreasing the quantity supplied. If there is neither a shortage nor a surplus, the labor market is in equilibrium POTENTIAL GDP Figure 17.4(a) shows labor market equilibrium. 1. Full employment occurs when the quantity of labor demanded equals the quantity of labor supplied. 2. Equilibrium real wage rate is $30 an hour. 3. Full-employment quantity of labor is 200 billion hours a year. 9

10 17.1 POTENTIAL GDP Full Employment and Potential GDP When the labor market is in equilibrium, the economy is at full employment. When the economy is at full employment, real GDP equals potential GDP POTENTIAL GDP Figure 17.4(b) shows potential GDP. 1. When the fullemployment quantity of labor is 200 billion hours a year, 2. Potential GDP is $10 billion. 10

11 17.2 THE BASICS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Economic growth is a sustained expansion of production possibilities measured as the increase in real GDP over a given period. Calculating Growth Rates Economic growth rate is the rate of change of real GDP expressed as a percentage per year THE BASICS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH To calculate this growth rate, we use the formula: Growth of real GDP = Real GDP in current year Real GDP in previous year Real GDP in previous year x 100 For example, if real GDP in the current year is $8.4 trillion and if real GDP in the previous year was $8.0 trillion, then the growth rate of real GDP is Growth of real GDP = $8.4 trillion $8.0 trillion $8.0 trillion x 100 = 5 percent. 11

12 17.2 THE BASICS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH The standard of living depends on real GDP per person. Real GDP per person is real GDP divided by the population. The contribution of real GDP growth to the change in the standard of living depends on the growth rate of real GDP per person THE BASICS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH We use the above formula to calculate this growth rate, replacing real GDP with real GDP per person. Suppose, for example, that in the current year, when real GDP is $8.4 trillion, the population is 202 million. Then real GDP per person is $8.4 trillion divided by 202 million, which equals $41,584. And suppose that in the previous year, when real GDP was $8.0 trillion, the population was 200 million. Then real GDP per person in that year was $8.0 trillion divided by 200 million, which equals $40, THE BASICS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Use these two values of real GDP per person in the growth formula to calculate the growth rate of real GDP per person. It is Growth rate of real GDP per person $41,584 $40,000 = $40,000 x 100 = 4 percent. 12

13 17.2 THE BASICS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH The growth rate of real GDP per person can also be calculated by using the formula: Growth of real = GDP per person Growth rate of real GDP Growth rate of population Growth of population = 202 million 200 million 200 million x 100 = 1 percent THE BASICS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Growth of real GDP per person = 5 percent 1 percent = 4 percent. This formula makes it clear that real GDP per person grows only if real GDP grows faster than the population grows. If the growth rate of the population exceeds the growth of real GDP, real GDP per person falls THE BASICS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH The Magic of Sustained Growth Sustained growth of real GDP per person can transform a poor society into a wealthy one. The reason is that economic growth is like compound interest. Rule of 70 is the number of years it takes for the level of any variable to double is approximately 70 divided by the annual percentage growth rate of the variable. 13

14 17.2 THE BASICS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Table 17.1 Growth Rates Growth rate Years for level (% per year) to double Example 2 35 U.S. real GDP per person 7 10 China real GDP per person 17.3 THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH To understand what determines the growth rate of real GDP, we must understand what determines the growth rates of the factors of production and rate of increase in their productivity. All the influences on real GDP growth can be divided into those that increase Aggregate hours Labor productivity 17.3 THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Aggregate Hours Over time, aggregate hours increase. This growth in aggregate hours comes from growth in the labor force rather than from growth in average hours per worker. While the participation rate has increased over the past few decades, it has an upper limit, and most of the growth of aggregate hours comes from population growth. So population growth is the only source of growth in aggregate labor hours that can be sustained over long periods. 14

15 17.3 THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Population growth brings economic growth, but it does not bring growth in real GDP per person unless labor becomes more productive. Labor Productivity Labor productivity is the quantity of real GDP produced by one hour of labor. It is calculated by using the formula: Real GDP Labor productivity = Aggregate hours 17.3 THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH For example, if real GDP is $8,000 billion and if aggregate hours are 200 billion, then we can calculate labor productivity as Labor productivity = $8,000 billion 200 billion = $40 per hour You can turn this formula around and see that Real GDP = Aggregate hours x Labor productivity 17.3 THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH When labor productivity grows, real GDP per person grows, so the growth in labor productivity is the basis of rising living standards. The growth of labor productivity depends on three things: Saving and investment in physical capital Expansion of human capital Discovery of new technologies 15

16 17.3 THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Saving and Investment in Physical Capital Saving and investment in physical capital increase the amount of capital per worker and increase labor productivity. Expansion of Human Capital Human capital the accumulated skill and knowledge of people comes from two sources: Education and training Job experience 17.3 THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Discovery of New Technologies To reap the benefits of technological change, capital must increase. Some of the most powerful and far-reaching technologies are embodied in human capital. For example, language, writing, and mathematics. But most technologies are embodied in physical capital THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Sources of Growth: A Summary Figure 17.5 shows the sources of economic growth. Real GDP growth depends on aggregate labor hours growth and on labor productivity growth. 16

17 17.3 THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Aggregate hours growth depends on Population growth The labor force participation rate Average hours per worker 17.3 THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Labor productivity growth depends on Physical capital growth Human capital growth Technological advances 17

18 17.3 THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Figure 17.6 illustrates the growth process as a perpetual motion machine. 1. People want a higher standard of living and are spurred by Profit incentives to make the Innovations that lead to THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH 4. New and better techniques and new and better products, which in turn lead to The birth of new firms and the death of some old firms, 6. New and better jobs, and More leisure and more consumption goods and services THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH The result is A higher standard of living. But people want a yet higher standard of living, and the growth process continues. 18

19 25.4 ACHIEVING FASTER GROWTH Preconditions for Economic Growth Economic freedom is the fundamental precondition for creating the incentives that lead to economic growth. Economic freedom is a condition in which people are able to make personal choices, their private property is protected, and they are free to buy and sell in markets ACHIEVING FASTER GROWTH Economic freedom requires the protection of private property the factors of production and goods that people own. Property rights are the social arrangements that govern the protection of private property. Economic freedom also requires free markets. 19

20 25.4 ACHIEVING FASTER GROWTH To achieve faster economic growth, we must increase The growth rate of capital per hour of labor or The growth rate of human capital or The pace of technological advance ACHIEVING FASTER GROWTH Policies to Achieve Faster Growth The main actions that governments can take to achieve these objectives are Create the incentive mechanisms Encourage saving Encourage research and development Encourage international trade Improve the quality of education 25.4 ACHIEVING FASTER GROWTH Create Incentive Mechanisms Economic growth occurs when the incentive to save, invest, and innovate is strong enough. These incentives exist only when private property is protected. Encourage Saving Saving finances investment, which brings capital accumulation. Tax incentives can encourage saving, increase the growth of capital, and stimulate economic growth. 20

21 25.4 ACHIEVING FASTER GROWTH Encourage Research and Development Everyone can use the fruits of basic research and development efforts. Because basic inventions can be copied, the inventor s profit is limited and so the market allocates too few resources to this activity. Governments can direct public funds toward financing basic research, but it requires a mechanism for allocating public funds to their highest-valued use ACHIEVING FASTER GROWTH Encourage International Trade Free international trade stimulates economic growth by extracting all the available gains from specialization and trade. Improve the Quality of Education By funding basic education and by ensuring high standards in skills such as language, mathematics, and science, governments can contribute enormously to a nation s growth potential ACHIEVING FASTER GROWTH How Much Difference Can Policy Make? A well-intentioned government cannot dial up a big increase in the growth rate. But it can pursue policies that will nudge the growth rate upward. And over time, the benefits from these policies will be large. 21

Economic growth rate and the implications of sustained growth. The economic growth trends in Canada and other countries and regions

Economic growth rate and the implications of sustained growth. The economic growth trends in Canada and other countries and regions 22 Economic Growth Learning Objectives Economic growth rate and the implications of sustained growth The economic growth trends in Canada and other countries and regions Labour productivity growth and

More information

Define and calculate the economic growth rate, and explain the implications of sustained growth.

Define and calculate the economic growth rate, and explain the implications of sustained growth. Economic Growth Chapter CHAPTER CHECKLIST Chapter 9 discusses the factors that determine economic growth, studies different theories that explain economic growth, and examines possible government polices

More information

Chapter 13. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis

Chapter 13. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Chapter 13. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Instructor: JINKOOK LEE Department of Economics / Texas A&M University ECON 203 502 Principles of Macroeconomics In the short run, real GDP and

More information

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Microeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi. Chapter 22 Economic Growth

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Microeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi. Chapter 22 Economic Growth University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Microeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi Chapter 22 Economic Growth 1) Economic growth is A) equal to real GDP per capita multiplied

More information

What causes the business cycle? Why did U.S. economy go into recession in 2008?

What causes the business cycle? Why did U.S. economy go into recession in 2008? What causes the business cycle? Why did U.S. economy go into recession in 2008? Aggregate Supply and 13 Aggregate Demand When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to CHAPTER

More information

7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Chapter. Aggregate Supply

7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Chapter. Aggregate Supply Chapter 7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Aggregate Supply Topic: Aggregate Supply/Aggregate Demand Model 1) The aggregate supply/aggregate demand model is used to help understand all of the following

More information

Chapter 6 Economic Growth

Chapter 6 Economic Growth Chapter 6 Economic Growth 1 The Basics of Economic Growth 1) The best definition for economic growth is A) a sustained expansion of production possibilities measured as the increase in real GDP over a

More information

CHAPTER 7: AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY

CHAPTER 7: AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY CHAPTER 7: AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY Learning goals of this chapter: What forces bring persistent and rapid expansion of real GDP? What causes inflation? Why do we have business cycles? How

More information

The Aggregate Demand- Aggregate Supply (AD-AS) Model

The Aggregate Demand- Aggregate Supply (AD-AS) Model The AD-AS Model The Aggregate Demand- Aggregate Supply (AD-AS) Model Chapter 9 The AD-AS Model addresses two deficiencies of the AE Model: No explicit modeling of aggregate supply. Fixed price level. 2

More information

Chapter 13: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis

Chapter 13: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Chapter 13: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Yulei Luo SEF of HKU March 25, 2013 Learning Objectives 1. Identify the determinants of aggregate demand and distinguish between a movement along

More information

7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Chapter. Key Concepts

7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Chapter. Key Concepts Chapter 7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Key Concepts Aggregate Supply The aggregate production function shows that the quantity of real GDP (Y ) supplied depends on the quantity of labor (L ),

More information

THE ECONOMY AT FULL EMPLOYMENT: THE CLASSICAL MODEL*

THE ECONOMY AT FULL EMPLOYMENT: THE CLASSICAL MODEL* Chapter 8 THE ECONOMY AT FULL EMPLOYMENT: THE CLASSICAL MODEL* The Classical Model: A Preview Topic: Real Variables 1) Real variables A) are those that determine the cost of living. B) are those that determine

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Suvey of Macroeconomics, MBA 641 Fall 2006, Final Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Modern macroeconomics emerged from

More information

THE ECONOMY AT FULL EMPLOYMENT. Objectives. Production and Jobs. Objectives. Real GDP and Employment. Real GDP and Employment CHAPTER

THE ECONOMY AT FULL EMPLOYMENT. Objectives. Production and Jobs. Objectives. Real GDP and Employment. Real GDP and Employment CHAPTER THE ECONOMY AT 29 FULL EMPLOYMENT CHAPTER Objectives After studying this chapter, you will able to Describe the relationship between the quantity of labour employed and real GDP Explain what determines

More information

2009 CHAPTER 11 Self Study Questions

2009 CHAPTER 11 Self Study Questions CHAPTER 11 Self Study Questions 1) The aggregate supply/aggregate demand model is used to help understand all of the following except A) inflation. B) business cycle fluctuations. C) the aggregate value

More information

Questions. True/False and Explain

Questions. True/False and Explain 166 CHAPTER 11 (27) Questions True/False and Explain Aggregate Supply 11. At full employment, there is no unemployment. 12. Along the LAS curve, a rise in the price level and all resource prices increase

More information

Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis

Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Chapter 12 (24) Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Chapter Summary During most years, prices rise (we have inflation) and real GDP increases (we have economic growth). The equilibrium level

More information

Chapter 12 Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand

Chapter 12 Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand Chapter 12 Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand After reading Chapter 12, AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND, you should be able to: Use an Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply model to explain output,

More information

The Full-Employment Model. Stiglitz, Walsh (2006) Economics Chapter 24 (MA6)

The Full-Employment Model. Stiglitz, Walsh (2006) Economics Chapter 24 (MA6) The Full-Employment Model Stiglitz, Walsh (2006) Economics Chapter 24 (MA6) Macroeconomic Equilibrium all markets are interrelated what happens in one market will have impact on other markets wages, interest

More information

The AS AD Model. Aggregate Supply & Aggregate Demand. Classical View of Recessions. Long-Run Macroeconomic equilibrium

The AS AD Model. Aggregate Supply & Aggregate Demand. Classical View of Recessions. Long-Run Macroeconomic equilibrium The AS AD Model Aggregate Supply & Aggregate Demand The AS-AD model uses the aggregate supply curve and the aggregate demand curve together to analyze economic fluctuations. Chapter 11 Long-Run Macroeconomic

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Econ 111 Summer 2007 Final Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The classical dichotomy allows us to explore economic growth

More information

18. Refer to the above diagram. A shortage of 160 units would be encountered if price was: A. $1.10, that is, $1.60 minus $.50.

18. Refer to the above diagram. A shortage of 160 units would be encountered if price was: A. $1.10, that is, $1.60 minus $.50. Exam Review 1. When economists say that people act rationally in their self interest, they mean that individuals: A. look for and pursue opportunities to increase their utility. B. generally disregard

More information

Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand

Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand Econ 120: Global Macroeconomics 1 1.1 Goals Goals Specific Goals Be able to explain GDP fluctuations when the price level is also flexible. Explain how real GDP and

More information

6 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Chapter. Key Concepts

6 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Chapter. Key Concepts Chapter 6 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Key Concepts Aggregate Supply The aggregate production function shows that the quantity of real GDP (Y ) supplied depends on the quantity of labor (L ),

More information

Chapter 1 Introduction to Macroeconomics

Chapter 1 Introduction to Macroeconomics Chapter 1 Introduction to Macroeconomics Multiple Choice Questions 1. The two major reasons for the tremendous growth in output in the U.S. economy over the last 125 years are (a) population growth and

More information

Chapter 20. Short-Run Economic Fluctuations KEY FACTS ABOUT ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS

Chapter 20. Short-Run Economic Fluctuations KEY FACTS ABOUT ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS Chapter 2 urpose of Chapter 2: Develop a model that economists use to analyze the economy s short-run fluctuations - the model of demand and. Short-Run Economic Fluctuations Economic activity fluctuates

More information

At the end of Chapter 10, you will be able to answer the following:

At the end of Chapter 10, you will be able to answer the following: 1 Objectives for Chapter 10 The Circular Flow Model At the end of Chapter 10, you will be able to answer the following: 1. Explain the basic circular flow model. 2. Define "consumption" and "saving" 3.

More information

ECON 1010 Principles of Macroeconomics Exam #2. Section A: Multiple Choice Questions. (30 points; 2 pts each)

ECON 1010 Principles of Macroeconomics Exam #2. Section A: Multiple Choice Questions. (30 points; 2 pts each) ECON 1010 Principles of Macroeconomics Exam #2 Section A: Multiple Choice Questions. (30 points; 2 pts each) #1. If the price level in the economy and the nominal wages both doubled, then real wages would

More information

Chapter 3 AGGREGATE DEMAND AND

Chapter 3 AGGREGATE DEMAND AND Chapter 3 AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE G SULY Dr. Mohammed Alwosabi The aggregate demand and aggregate supply (-AS) model determines RGD and GD Deflator and helps us understand the performance of three

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Inflation can be started by 1) A) an increase in aggregate supply or a decrease in aggregate

More information

Macroeconomic Analysis Econ 6022 Level I

Macroeconomic Analysis Econ 6022 Level I 1 / 66 Macroeconomic Analysis Econ 6022 Level I Lecture 8 Fall, 2011 2 / 66 Business Cycle Analysis: A Preview What explains business cycle fluctuations? Two major business cycle theories - Classical theory

More information

Chapter 29 AS-AD and the Business Cycle

Chapter 29 AS-AD and the Business Cycle Chapter 29 AS-AD and the Business Cycle 29.1 Business-Cycle Definitions and Facts 1) The relationship between real GDP and potential GDP over the business cycle can be best summarized by which of the following

More information

Chapter 12: Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run

Chapter 12: Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run Chapter 12: Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run Yulei Luo SEF of HKU March 4, 2013 Learning Objectives 1 Understand how macroeconomic equilibrium is determined in the aggregate expenditure

More information

Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. et Ph.D.

Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. et Ph.D. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. et Ph.D. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Economic fluctuations, also called business cycles, are movements of GDP away from potential

More information

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi CH 26 AD & AS Use the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure 26.1.1

More information

EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02)

EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02) EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02) Print Your Name: ID Number: Multiple Choice (32 questions, 2.5 points each; 80 points total). Clearly indicate (by circling) the ONE BEST response to each

More information

Chapter 12. Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run

Chapter 12. Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run Chapter 12. Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run Instructor: JINKOOK LEE Department of Economics / Texas A&M University ECON 203 502 Principles of Macroeconomics Aggregate Expenditure (AE)

More information

Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply

Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Demand and Supply Chapter 31 Copyright 21 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to: Permissions Department, Harcourt College

More information

Figure 2-7. Figure 2-7 shows the production possibilities frontiers for Pakistan and Indonesia. Each country produces two goods, cotton and cashews.

Figure 2-7. Figure 2-7 shows the production possibilities frontiers for Pakistan and Indonesia. Each country produces two goods, cotton and cashews. Exam 1 Practice Questions Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) the owners of the factors of production, while what amounts of those

More information

Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand

Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand Chapter CHAPTER CHECKLIST Define and explain the influences on aggregate supply. Aggregate supply is the output from all firms. Other things remaining the same, the

More information

EC and MIDTERM EXAM I. March 26, 2015

EC and MIDTERM EXAM I. March 26, 2015 EC102.03 and 102.05 Spring 2015 Instructions: MIDTERM EXAM I March 26, 2015 NAME: ID #: You have 80 minutes to complete the exam. There will be no extensions. The exam consists of 40 multiple choice questions.

More information

ECON 3312 Macroeconomics Exam 1 Summer Name

ECON 3312 Macroeconomics Exam 1 Summer Name ECON 3312 Macroeconomics Exam 1 Summer 2015 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The demonstrates the roles played by households

More information

The labour market, I: real wages, productivity and unemployment 7.1 INTRODUCTION

The labour market, I: real wages, productivity and unemployment 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7 The labour market, I: real wages, productivity and unemployment 7.1 INTRODUCTION Since the 1970s one of the major issues in macroeconomics has been the extent to which low output and high unemployment

More information

Agenda. Introduction to Macroeconomics. What Macroeconomics Is About. What Macroeconomics Is About. What Macroeconomics Is About.

Agenda. Introduction to Macroeconomics. What Macroeconomics Is About. What Macroeconomics Is About. What Macroeconomics Is About. Agenda. Introduction to Macroeconomics What Macroeconomists Do.. 1-1 1-2 Macroeconomics is the study of: 1. The structure, dynamic adjustment, and performance of national economies, and 2. The government

More information

As you discovered in Chapter 10, unemployment and inflation impose costs

As you discovered in Chapter 10, unemployment and inflation impose costs Keynes and the Classical Economists: The Early Debate on Policy Activism LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Discuss why the classical economists believed that a market economy would automatically tend toward full

More information

Lecture Notes: Chapter 9: The Income- Expenditure Framework: Consumption and the Multiplier

Lecture Notes: Chapter 9: The Income- Expenditure Framework: Consumption and the Multiplier Chapter 9 1 Final Lecture Notes: Chapter 9: The Income- Expenditure Framework: Consumption and the Multiplier J. Bradford DeLong Sticky Prices Business Cycles To understand business cycles, we need a model

More information

Introduction to Macroeconomics 1012 Final Exam Spring 2013 Instructor: Elsie Sawatzky

Introduction to Macroeconomics 1012 Final Exam Spring 2013 Instructor: Elsie Sawatzky Introduction to Macroeconomics 1012 Final Exam Spring 2013 Instructor: Elsie Sawatzky Name Time: 2 hours Marks: 80 Multiple choice questions 1 mark each and a choice of 2 out of 3 short answer question

More information

History of 20 th century macroeconomics

History of 20 th century macroeconomics History of 20 th century macroeconomics Almost no interest in macroeconomic issues late in 19 th century and early in 20 th century This continued until 1930s (the times of the Great Depression) Since

More information

I. MULTIPLE CHOICES. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement to answer the question.

I. MULTIPLE CHOICES. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement to answer the question. Econ 20B- Additional Problem Set I. MULTIPLE CHOICES. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement to answer the question. 1. Which of the following is correct? a. Over the business cycle

More information

Chapter 9. The IS-LM/AD-AS Model: A General Framework for Macroeconomic Analysis. 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Chapter 9. The IS-LM/AD-AS Model: A General Framework for Macroeconomic Analysis. 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Chapter 9 The IS-LM/AD-AS Model: A General Framework for Macroeconomic Analysis Chapter Outline The FE Line: Equilibrium in the Labor Market The IS Curve: Equilibrium in the Goods Market The LM Curve:

More information

INTRODUCTION AGGREGATE DEMAND MACRO EQUILIBRIUM MACRO EQUILIBRIUM THE DESIRED ADJUSTMENT THE DESIRED ADJUSTMENT

INTRODUCTION AGGREGATE DEMAND MACRO EQUILIBRIUM MACRO EQUILIBRIUM THE DESIRED ADJUSTMENT THE DESIRED ADJUSTMENT Chapter 9 AGGREGATE DEMAND INTRODUCTION The Great Depression was a springboard for the Keynesian approach to economic policy. Keynes asked: What are the components of aggregate demand? What determines

More information

Econ 100B: Macroeconomic Analysis Fall Problem Set #3 ANSWERS (Due September 15-16, 2008)

Econ 100B: Macroeconomic Analysis Fall Problem Set #3 ANSWERS (Due September 15-16, 2008) Econ 100B: Macroeconomic Analysis Fall 2008 Problem Set #3 ANSWERS (Due September 15-16, 2008) A. On one side of a single sheet of paper: 1. Clearly and accurately draw and label a diagram of the Production

More information

Long run v.s. short run. Introduction. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply. In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions:

Long run v.s. short run. Introduction. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply. In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions: 33 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply R I N C I L E S O F ECONOMICS FOURTH EDITION N. GREGOR MANKIW Long run v.s. short run Long run growth: what determines long-run output (and the related employment

More information

Lecture 10: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply I

Lecture 10: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply I EC201 Intermediate Macroeconomics EC201 Intermediate Macroeconomics Lecture 10: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply I Lecture Outline: - how to derive the aggregate demand from the IS-LM model; - a preliminary

More information

chapter: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Krugman/Wells 2009 Worth Publishers 1 of 58

chapter: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Krugman/Wells 2009 Worth Publishers 1 of 58 chapter: 12 >> Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Krugman/Wells 2009 Worth Publishers 1 of 58 WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS CHAPTER How the aggregate demand curve illustrates the relationship between

More information

VANCOUVER ISLAND UNIVERSITY. ECON212: PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS, Spring 2013 SAMPLE MIDTERM EXAM. Name (Last, First): ID #: Signature:

VANCOUVER ISLAND UNIVERSITY. ECON212: PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS, Spring 2013 SAMPLE MIDTERM EXAM. Name (Last, First): ID #: Signature: Important: Please remember it is a sample exam. Number of questions in each section and structure of questions in section b and c would vary as discussed in class VANCOUVER ISLAND UNIVERSITY ECON212: PRINCIPLES

More information

Keynesian Fiscal Policy Practice Test

Keynesian Fiscal Policy Practice Test Keynesian Fiscal Policy Practice Test Multiple Choice (13 marks) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Fiscal Policy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.

More information

Chapter 26. An Aggregate Supply and Demand Perspective on Money and Economic Stability. Learning Objectives. Introduction

Chapter 26. An Aggregate Supply and Demand Perspective on Money and Economic Stability. Learning Objectives. Introduction Chapter 26 An Aggregate Supply and Demand Perspective on Money and Economic Stability Learning Objectives Analyze the debate centering on the stability of the economy around its full employment level Define

More information

Mods Practice

Mods Practice Mods 17-18-19 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The aggregate demand curve shows the relationship between the aggregate price level

More information

Chapter 11 Keynesianism: The Macroeconomics of Wage and Price Rigidity

Chapter 11 Keynesianism: The Macroeconomics of Wage and Price Rigidity Chapter 11 Keynesianism: The Macroeconomics of Wage and Price Rigidity Multiple Choice Questions 1. Keynesians are skeptical of the classical theory that recessions are periods of increased mismatch between

More information

THREE KEY FACTS ABOUT ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS

THREE KEY FACTS ABOUT ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS 15 In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions: What are economic fluctuations? What are their characteristics? How does the model of demand and explain economic fluctuations? Why does the

More information

Agenda. Business Cycles. What Is a Business Cycle? What Is a Business Cycle? What is a Business Cycle? Business Cycle Facts.

Agenda. Business Cycles. What Is a Business Cycle? What Is a Business Cycle? What is a Business Cycle? Business Cycle Facts. Agenda What is a Business Cycle? Business Cycles.. 11-1 11-2 Business cycles are the short-run fluctuations in aggregate economic activity around its long-run growth path. Y Time 11-3 11-4 1 Components

More information

Macroeconomics Instructor Miller AD/AS Model Practice Problems

Macroeconomics Instructor Miller AD/AS Model Practice Problems Macroeconomics Instructor Miller AD/AS Model Practice Problems 1. The basic aggregate demand and aggregate supply curve model helps explain A) fluctuations in real GDP and the price level. B) long-term

More information

The session previously discussed important variables such as inflation, unemployment and GDP. We also alluded to factors that cause economic growth

The session previously discussed important variables such as inflation, unemployment and GDP. We also alluded to factors that cause economic growth The session previously discussed important variables such as inflation, unemployment and GDP. We also alluded to factors that cause economic growth enabling us to produce more and more to achieve higher

More information

Miami Dade College ECO 2013.003 Principles of Macroeconomics - Fall 2014 Practice Test #2

Miami Dade College ECO 2013.003 Principles of Macroeconomics - Fall 2014 Practice Test #2 Miami Dade College ECO 2013.003 Principles of Macroeconomics - Fall 2014 Practice Test #2 1. Whose analysis serves as the foundation of modern macroeconomics? A) Milton Friedman B) John Maynard Keynes

More information

Exam 1 Review. Page 1

Exam 1 Review. Page 1 Exam 1 Review 1. When a firm sells a product out of inventory, GDP: A) increases. B) decreases. C) is not changed. D) increases or decreases, depending on the year the product was produced. 2. An economy's

More information

Chapter 9 Aggregate Demand and Economic Fluctuations Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.)

Chapter 9 Aggregate Demand and Economic Fluctuations Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.) Chapter 9 Aggregate Demand and Economic Fluctuations Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.) Chapter Overview This chapter first introduces the analysis of business cycles, and introduces you to the

More information

Agenda. The IS-LM/AD-AS Model: A General Framework for Macroeconomic Analysis, Part 3. Disequilibrium in the AD-AS model

Agenda. The IS-LM/AD-AS Model: A General Framework for Macroeconomic Analysis, Part 3. Disequilibrium in the AD-AS model Agenda The IS-LM/AD-AS Model: A General Framework for Macroeconomic Analysis, art 3 rice Adjustment and the Attainment of General Equilibrium 13-1 13-2 General equilibrium in the AD-AS model Disequilibrium

More information

Gross Domestic Product. Will the Canadian economy weaken through the next year and shrink, or will it remain strong and expand?

Gross Domestic Product. Will the Canadian economy weaken through the next year and shrink, or will it remain strong and expand? Will the Canadian economy weaken through the next year and shrink, or will it remain strong and expand? To assess the state of the economy and to make big decisions about business expansion, firms use

More information

SOLUTIONS TO TEXT PROBLEMS:

SOLUTIONS TO TEXT PROBLEMS: SOLUTIONS TO TEXT PROBLEMS: Quick Quizzes 1. Three key facts about economic fluctuations are: (1) economic fluctuations are irregular and unpredictable; (2) most macroeconomic quantities fluctuate together;

More information

THE BUSINESS CYCLE* Chapter. Key Concepts

THE BUSINESS CYCLE* Chapter. Key Concepts Chapter 14 THE BUSINESS CYCLE* Key Concepts Cycle Patterns, Impulses, and Mechanisms The business cycle is the irregular and nonrepeating upand-down movement of business activity. The average recession

More information

1. If the MPS = 0.1, then the value of the multiplier equals: a. 5. b. 10. c. 9. d. 1.

1. If the MPS = 0.1, then the value of the multiplier equals: a. 5. b. 10. c. 9. d. 1. 1. If the MPS = 0.1, then the value of the multiplier equals: a. 5. b. 10. c. 9. d. 1. 2. The marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is equal to the change in: a. consumer spending divided by the change

More information

Exam 1 Review. 3. A severe recession is called a(n): A) depression. B) deflation. C) exogenous event. D) market-clearing assumption.

Exam 1 Review. 3. A severe recession is called a(n): A) depression. B) deflation. C) exogenous event. D) market-clearing assumption. Exam 1 Review 1. Macroeconomics does not try to answer the question of: A) why do some countries experience rapid growth. B) what is the rate of return on education. C) why do some countries have high

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 35 questions, each 1.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 35 questions, each 1. AUBG ECO 302 A F I N A L E X A M Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 35 questions, each 1.5 points 1) The Bigdrill company drills

More information

Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand

Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand 26 Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand Learning Objectives Explain what determines aggregate supply Explain what determines aggregate demand Explain what determines real GDP and the price level and how

More information

Macro CH 28 sample test questions

Macro CH 28 sample test questions Class: Date: Macro CH 28 sample test questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The opportunity cost of holding money is the a. inflation

More information

BADM 527, Fall 2013. Midterm Exam 2. Multiple Choice: 3 points each. Answer the questions on the separate bubble sheet. NAME

BADM 527, Fall 2013. Midterm Exam 2. Multiple Choice: 3 points each. Answer the questions on the separate bubble sheet. NAME BADM 527, Fall 2013 Name: Midterm Exam 2 November 7, 2013 Multiple Choice: 3 points each. Answer the questions on the separate bubble sheet. NAME 1. According to classical theory, national income (Real

More information

Name (Please print) Assigned Seat. ECO202: PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS FIRST MIDTERM EXAM SPRING 2011 Prof. Bill Even FORM 1.

Name (Please print) Assigned Seat. ECO202: PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS FIRST MIDTERM EXAM SPRING 2011 Prof. Bill Even FORM 1. Name (Please print) Assigned Seat ECO202: PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS FIRST MIDTERM EXAM SPRING 2011 Prof. Bill Even FORM 1 Directions 1. Fill in your scantron with your unique id and form number. Doing

More information

Chapter 3 A Classical Economic Model

Chapter 3 A Classical Economic Model Chapter 3 A Classical Economic Model what determines the economy s total output/income how the prices of the factors of production are determined how total income is distributed what determines the demand

More information

ECON 202: Principles of Microeconomics. Chapter 1 Economics: Foundations and Models

ECON 202: Principles of Microeconomics. Chapter 1 Economics: Foundations and Models ECON 202: Principles of Microeconomics Chapter 1 Economics: Foundations and Models Economics: Foundations and Models 1. Introduction. 2. Three key economic ideas. 3. The economic problem that every society

More information

The Macroeconomy in the Long Run The Classical Model

The Macroeconomy in the Long Run The Classical Model PP556 Macroeconomic Questions The Macroeconomy in the ong Run The Classical Model what determines the economy s total output/income how the prices of the factors of production are determined how total

More information

Name: Date: 3. Variables that a model tries to explain are called: A. endogenous. B. exogenous. C. market clearing. D. fixed.

Name: Date: 3. Variables that a model tries to explain are called: A. endogenous. B. exogenous. C. market clearing. D. fixed. Name: Date: 1 A measure of how fast prices are rising is called the: A growth rate of real GDP B inflation rate C unemployment rate D market-clearing rate 2 Compared with a recession, real GDP during a

More information

1. What is an investment schedule and how does it differ from an investment demand curve? LO1

1. What is an investment schedule and how does it differ from an investment demand curve? LO1 Chapter 28 The Aggregate Expenditures Model QUESTIONS 1. What is an investment schedule and how does it differ from an investment demand curve? LO1 Answer: An investment schedule shows the level of investment

More information

FISCAL POLICY* Chapter. Key Concepts

FISCAL POLICY* Chapter. Key Concepts Chapter 15 FISCAL POLICY* Key Concepts The Federal Budget The federal budget is an annual statement of the government s expenditures and tax revenues. Using the federal budget to achieve macroeconomic

More information

FISCAL POLICY* Chapter. Key Concepts

FISCAL POLICY* Chapter. Key Concepts Chapter 11 FISCAL POLICY* Key Concepts The Federal Budget The federal budget is an annual statement of the government s expenditures and tax revenues. Using the federal budget to achieve macroeconomic

More information

Problem Set 3. Due: Monday, July 21, 2008

Problem Set 3. Due: Monday, July 21, 2008 ECO 1312-0012: Principles of Macroeconomics Department of Economics Southern Methodist University Summer 2008 Problem Set 3 Due: Monday, July 21, 2008 Total Points 50 (1 point each question) Please print

More information

7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* * Chapter Key Ideas. Outline

7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* * Chapter Key Ideas. Outline C h a p t e r 7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* * Chapter Key Ideas Outline Production and Prices A. What forces bring persistent and rapid expansion of real GDP? B. What leads to inflation? C.

More information

2W EB CHAPTER. Since World War II, government policymakers have tried to promote high employment. Preview. ISLM Model

2W EB CHAPTER. Since World War II, government policymakers have tried to promote high employment. Preview. ISLM Model 2W EB CHAPTER Monetary and Fiscal Policy in the ISLM Model Preview Since World War II, government policymakers have tried to promote high employment without causing inflation. If the economy experiences

More information

Review for the Midterm Exam.

Review for the Midterm Exam. Review for the Midterm Exam. 1. Chapter 1 The principles of decision making are: o People face tradeoffs. o The cost of any action is measured in terms of foregone opportunities. o Rational people make

More information

CHAPTER 5 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND DEMAND

CHAPTER 5 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND DEMAND CHAPTER 5 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND DEMAND Chapter Outline: The classical AS-curve The Keynesian AS-curve Frictional unemployment The AD-AS framework The effects of shifts in aggregate demand Supply-side economics

More information

Economics 1012A Introduction to Macroeconomics Fall 2008 Dr. R. E. Mueller Second Midterm Examination October 17, 2008

Economics 1012A Introduction to Macroeconomics Fall 2008 Dr. R. E. Mueller Second Midterm Examination October 17, 2008 Economics 1012A Introduction to Macroeconomics Fall 2008 Dr. R. E. Mueller Second Midterm Examination October 17, 2008 Answer all of the following questions by selecting the most appropriate answer on

More information

Chapter Outline. Chapter 8. What Is a Business Cycle? What Is a Business Cycle?

Chapter Outline. Chapter 8. What Is a Business Cycle? What Is a Business Cycle? Chapter 8 Business Cycles Chapter Outline What is a Business Cycle? The American Business Cycle: Business Cycle Analysis: A Preview 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley.

More information

Chapter 29 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply QUESTIONS

Chapter 29 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply QUESTIONS Chapter 29 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply QUESTIONS 1. Why is the aggregate demand curve downsloping? Specify how your explanation differs from the explanation for the downsloping demand curve for

More information

Part III: Background to the Modern Period

Part III: Background to the Modern Period 1 Part III: Background to the Modern Period 1900-1945 Objectives for Chapter 11: 1900 to 1929 At the end of Chapter 11, you will be able to answer the following: 1. Briefly describe the main economic trends

More information

. consumption and investment spending.

. consumption and investment spending. Chapter 10 1. The aggregate demand curve: A. is upward sloping because a higher price level is necessary to make production profitable as production costs rise. B. is downward sloping because production

More information

Note: This feature provides supplementary analysis for the material in Part 3 of Common Sense Economics.

Note: This feature provides supplementary analysis for the material in Part 3 of Common Sense Economics. 1 Module C: Fiscal Policy and Budget Deficits Note: This feature provides supplementary analysis for the material in Part 3 of Common Sense Economics. Fiscal and monetary policies are the two major tools

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Sample Questions for Chapters 12 & 13 Inflation Unemployment & Business Cycles Fiscal Policy MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Inflation

More information

THE PROBLEM OF FULL EMPLOYMENT

THE PROBLEM OF FULL EMPLOYMENT THE PROBLEM OF FULL EMPLOYMENT PARVEZ HASAN It is quite difficult to give a practical definition covering all the various aspects of Full Employment. The problem of full employment varies from country

More information

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi CH 23 Finance Saving Investment 1) Capital is A) the tools, instruments, machines,

More information

Introduction. Learning Objectives. Chapter 14. Deficit Spending and The Public Debt

Introduction. Learning Objectives. Chapter 14. Deficit Spending and The Public Debt Chapter 14 Deficit Spending and The Public Debt Introduction The federal budget deficit often has appeared to move in tandem with the trade deficit. In the past, they were sufficiently closely related

More information