1 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. et Ph.D.
2 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Economic fluctuations, also called business cycles, are movements of GDP away from potential output. Insufficient demand for goods and services was a key problem of the Great Depression, identified by British economist John Maynard Keynes in the 1930s.
3 Sticky Prices and Their Macroeconomic Consequences Led by Keynes, many economists since his time have focused attention on economic coordination problems. The price system does not always work instantaneously. If prices are slow to adjust, then the proper signals are not given quickly enough to producers and consumers. In modern economies, some prices (auctions prices) are very flexible, while others (custom prices) are not. Like other input prices, the price of labor adjusts very slowly.
4 Sticky Prices and Their Macroeconomic If wages are sticky, firms overall costs will be sticky as well. Sticky wages cause sticky prices and hamper the economy s ability to bring demand and supply into balance in the short run. The short run in macroeconomics is the period in which prices don t change or don t change very much. In the macroeconomic short run, both formal and informal contracts between firms mean that changes in demand will be reflected primarily in changes in output, not prices.
5 Note that changes in prices result in changes in the quantity demand. The Aggregate Demand Curve
6 The Components of Aggregate Demand In our study of GDP accounting, we divided GDP into four components: Consumption spending (C), investment spending (I), government purchases (G), and net exports (NX). These four components are also four parts of aggregate demand because the aggregate demand curve really just describes the demand for total GDP at different price levels.
7 Why the Aggregate Demand Curve Slopes Downward First, we must consider the effects of a change in the overall price level in the economy. As the price level or average level of prices in the economy changes, so does the purchasing power of your money. This is an example of the real-nominal principle. Real-Nominal PRINCIPLE What matters to people is the real value of money or income its purchasing power not the face value of money or income. The change in the purchasing power of money will affect aggregate demand.
8 Why the Aggregate Demand Curve Slopes Downward The increase in spending that occurs because the real value of money increases when the price level falls is called the wealth effect. The interest rate effect: With a given money supply in the economy, a lower price level will lead to lower interest rates and higher consumption and investment spending. The impact of foreign trade: A lower price level makes domestic goods cheaper relative to foreign goods.
9 Why the Aggregate Demand Curve is Downward- Sloping?
10 Why the Aggregate Demand Curve is Downward-Sloping?
11 Why the Aggregate Demand Curve is Downward-Sloping?
12 Why the Aggregate Demand Curve Slopes Downward (1)
13 The Interest Rate Effect (2)
14 International Trade Effect
15 Nonprice Determinants: Changes in Aggregate Demand (1)
16 Nonprice Determinants: Changes in Aggregate Demand (2)
17 Nonprice Determinants: Changes in Aggregate Demand (3)
18 Factors that change aggregate demand
19 Factors that change aggregate demand
20 Shifting the Aggregate Demand Curve
21 Demand-pull inflation: rapid increases in AD outpace the growth of AS, causing price level increases (inflation). Shifting the Aggregate Demand Curve
22 The Multiplier Makes the Shift Bigger Initially, the shift from A to B equals the increase in government spending. But after a brief period of time, due to multiplier effect, total aggregate demand will increase by more than the initial increase in government spending shifts moves to point C
23 How the Multiplier Makes the Shift Bigger The ratio of the final shift in aggregate demand to the initial shift in aggregate demand is known as the multiplier. The logic of the multiplier goes back to Keynes. He believed that as government spending increases and the aggregate demand curve shifts to the right, output will subsequently increase too. Increased output also means increased income for households and higher consumption. It is this additional consumption spending that causes the further shift in the aggregate demand curve.
24 It shows the quantity of real GDP produced at different price levels. Short-run AS slopes upward because an increase in the price level (while production costs and capital are held constant on the short-run), means higher profit margins firms will want to produce more. Aggregate Supply
25 Determinants of Aggregate Supply (1)
26 Determinants of Aggregate Supply (2)
27 Determinants of Aggregate Supply (3)
28 Changes in Aggregate Supply
29 Cost-push inflation: cost increases push AS to the left (relative to AD), causing price level increases (inflation). Effects of a Change in Aggregate Supply
30 Changes in Short-Run Aggregate Supply
31 How Short-Run Equilibrium In The Economy Is Achieved AD and SRAS determine the price level, real GDP, and the unemployment rate in the short run. In instances of both surplus and shortage, economic forces are moving the economy toward the short-run equilibrium point. Ceteris paribus, we expect a higher real GDP level to be associated with a lower unemployment rate and a lower real GDP level to be associated with a higher unemployment rate.
32 Short-Run Equilibrium
33 Changes in Short-Run Equilibrium in the economy
34 Supply Shocks Price level AS 1975 AS 1973 AD Adverse supply shocks can cause a recession (a fall in output) with increasing prices. This phenomenon is known as stagflation. A dramatic increase in oil prices caused the stagflation of the 1970s Real GDP
35 How a Factor Affects the Price Level, Real GDP and the Unemployment Rate in the Short Run
36 A Summary Exhibit of AD and SRAS
37 The Shape of the Long-Run Aggregate Supply Curve In the long run, the level of output, depends solely on the supply factors - capital, labor - and the state of technology. In the long run, the economy operates at full employment and changes in the price level do not affect this. Price Level LRAS Y F Goods & Services (real GDP)
38 The Shape of Long-run AS (LRAS) Resource costs are NOT fixed. As prices rises, workers will want higher wages and will eventually get them. The amount of capital is not fixed firms can build new plants and buy new equipment over the longrun. In the long-run, AS is set by the production possibilities curve the capacity of the economy, and is not affected by prices, hence is vertical.
39 Long- and Short-Run Aggregate Supply Shifts in LRAS: A long run change in aggregate supply indicates that it will be possible to achieve and sustain a larger rate of output. A shift in the long run aggregate supply curve (LRAS) will cause the short run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve to shift in the same direction. Shifts in LRAS are an alternative way of indicating that there has been a shift in the economy s production possibilities curve.
40 Shifts in LRAS Aggregate Supply PPC Factors that increase (decrease) LRAS: Increase (decrease) in the supply of resources. Improvement (deterioration) in technology and productivity. Institutional changes that increase (reduce) the efficiency of resource use.
41 Shifts in Aggregate Supply Price Level Price Level LRAS 1 LRAS 2 SRAS 1 SRAS 2 Y F1 Y F2 Goods & Services (real GDP) Goods & Services (real GDP) Such factors as an increase in the stock of capital or an improvement in technology will expand an economy s potential output and shift LRAS to the right (note that when the LRAS curve shifts, so too does SRAS). Such factors as a reduction in resource prices or favorable weather would shift SRAS to the right (note that here the LRAS curve will remain constant).
42 Equilibrium States of the Economy
43 Growth in Aggregate Supply Consider the impact that capital formation or a technological advancement has on an economy. Price Level LRAS 1 LRAS 2 SRAS 1 SRAS 2 Both LRAS and SRAS increase (to LRAS 2 and SRAS 2 ); full employment output expands from Y F1 to Y F2. P 100 P 95 A sustainable, higher level of real output is the result. Y F1 Y F2 AD Goods & Services (real GDP)
44 Unanticipated Changes in Aggregate Demand In the short-run, output will deviate from full employment capacity as prices in the goods and services market deviate from the price level that people expected. Unanticipated changes in aggregate demand often lead to such deviations.
45 Unanticipated Increase in Aggregate Demand Impact of unanticipated increase in AD: Initially, the strong demand and higher price level in the goods & services market will temporarily improve profit margins. Output will increase, the rate of unemployment will drop below the natural rate, and output will temporarily exceed the economy's long-run potential. With time, however, contracts will be modified and resource prices will rise and return to their competitive relation with product prices. Once this happens, output will recede to the economy's long-run potential.
46 Increase in AD: Short Run In response to an unanticipated increase in AD for goods & services (shift from AD 1 to AD 2 ), prices rise to P 105 and output will increase to Y 2, temporarily exceeding full-employment capacity. Price Level P 105 P 100 LRAS Y F Y 2 SRAS 1 AD 2 AD 1 Short-run effects of an unanticipated increase in AD Goods & Services (real GDP)
47 Increase in AD: Long Run With time, resource market prices, including labor, rise due to the strong demand. Higher costs reduce SRAS 1 to SRAS 2. In the long-run, a new equilibrium at a higher price level, P 110, and output consistent with long-run potential will occur. So, the increase in demand only temporarily expands output. P 110 P 105 P 100 Price Level LRAS Y F SRAS 2 SRAS 1 AD 2 AD 1 Long-run effects of an unanticipated increase in AD Goods & Services Y F Y 2 (real GDP)
48 Unanticipated Decrease in Aggregate Demand Impact of unanticipated reduction in AD: Weak demand and lower prices in the goods & services market will reduce profit margins. Many firms will incur losses. Firms will reduce output, the unemployment rate will rise above the natural rate, and output will temporarily fall short of the economy's long-run potential. With time, long-term contracts will be modified. Eventually, lower resource prices and a lower real interest rate will direct the economy back to long-run equilibrium, but this may be a lengthy and painful process.
49 Decrease in AD: Short Run The short-run impact of an unanticipated reduction in AD (shift from AD 1 to AD 2 ) will be a decline in output (to Y 2 ), and a lower price level (P 95 ). Temporarily, profit margins decline, output falls, and unemployment rises above its natural rate. Price Level P 100 P 95 LRAS AD 2 Y 2 Y F SRAS 1 Short-run effects of an unanticipated reduction in AD AD 1 Goods & Services (real GDP)
50 Decrease in AD: Long Run In the long-run, weak demand and excess supply in the resource market leads to lower resource prices (including labor) resulting in an expansion in SRAS (SRAS 1 to SRAS 2 ). A new equilibrium at a lower price level, P 90, and an output consistent with longrun potential will result. Price Level P 100 P 95 P 90 LRAS Y 2 Y F SRAS 1 AD 2 AD 1 SRAS 2 Long-run effects of an unanticipated reduction in AD Goods & Services (real GDP)
51 Unanticipated Changes in Short-Run Aggregate Supply Unanticipated changes in short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) can catch people by surprise. Thus, they are often referred to as supply shocks. A supply shock is an unexpected event that temporarily increases or decreases aggregate supply.
52 Impact of Increase in SRAS SRAS shifts to the right output temporarily exceeds the economy's long-run potential. Since the temporarily favorable supply conditions cannot be counted on in the future, the economy s long-term production capacity will not be altered. If individuals recognize that they will be unable to maintain their current high level of income, they will increase their saving. Lower interest rates, and additional capital formation may result.
53 Unanticipated Increase in SRAS Consider an unanticipated, temporary, increase in SRAS, such as may result from a bumper crop from good weather. Price Level LRAS SRAS 1 SRAS 2 The increase in aggregate supply (to SRAS 2 ) would lead to a lower price level P 95 and an increase in current GDP to Y 2. P 100 P 95 As the supply conditions are temporary, LRAS persists. Y F Y 2 AD Goods & Services (real GDP)
54 Supply Shock: Resource Market Suppose there is an adverse supply shock, perhaps as the result of a crop failure or a sharp increase in the world price of a major resource, such as oil. Here we show the impact in the resource market: prices rise from P r1 to P r2. Price Level P r2 P r1 S 2 S 1 Resource Market Quantity of Q 2 Dresources Q 1
55 Effects of Adverse Supply Shock If the adverse supply shock is temporary, resource prices will eventually fall in the future, shifting SRAS 2 back to SRAS 1, returning equilibrium to (A). Price Level LRAS B SRAS 2 (P r2 ) SRAS 1 (P r1 ) P 110 If the adverse supply factor is permanent, the productive potential of the economy will shrink (LRAS shifts left and Y 2 becomes Y F2 ) and (B) will become the long-run equilibrium P 100 Y 2 Y F A AD Goods & Services (real GDP)
56 Price Level, Inflation, and the AD-AS Model The basic AD-AS model focuses on how the general level of prices influence the choices of business decision makers. Disequilibrium occurs when the actual price level is either greater than or less than the anticipated level. The actual price level will also differ from the level people anticipated when the rate of inflation differs from what is expected. When the inflation rate is greater than anticipated, this implies a higher than anticipated price level. As a result, profit margins will be attractive and business firms will respond with an expansion in output. When the inflation rate is less than anticipated, this implies a lower than anticipated price level. As a result, profit margins will be unattractive and businesses will reduce their output.
57 The Business Cycle -- Revisited Recessions occur because prices in the goods and services market are low relative to the costs of production and resource prices. The two causes of recessions: unanticipated reductions in AD, and, unfavorable supply shocks. An unsustainable economic boom occurs when prices in the goods and services market are high relative to resource prices and other costs. The two causes of booms are: unanticipated increases in AD, and, favorable supply shocks.
58 Does the Market Have a Self-Corrective Mechanism? There are three means by which the economy seems to have a self-corrective mechanism keeping it on-track : Consumption demand is relatively stable over the business cycle. Changes in real interest rates will help to stabilize aggregate demand and redirect economic fluctuations. Interest rates tend to fall during a recession and rise during an economic boom. Changes in real resource prices will redirect economic fluctuations. Real resource prices tend to fall during a recession and rise during an expansion.
59 Changes in Real Interest Rates and Resource Prices Over the Business Cycle Price Level LRAS r Real interest rates fall (because of weak demand for investment) r Real interest rates rise (because of strong demand for investment) P r Real resource prices fall (because of weak demand and high unemployment) P r Real resource prices rise (because of strong demand and low unemployment) Unemployment greater than Natural Rate Y F Unemployment less than Natural Rate Goods & Services (real GDP) If aggregate output is less than full employment potential Y F : weak demand for investment lowers real interest rates. slack employment in resource markets places downward pressure on wages and other resource prices (P r ). Conversely, when output exceeds Y F: strong demand for capital goods and tight labor market conditions will result in both rising real interest rates and resource prices (P r ).
60 Changing One Shot Inflation Into Continued Inflation
61 Thank You for your Attention
62 Literature 1 - John F Hall: Introduction to Macroeconomics, Fernando Quijano and Yvonn Quijano: Introduction to Macroeconomics 3 - Karl Case, Ray Fair: Principles of Economics, Boyes and Melvin: Economics, James Gwartney, David Macpherson and Charles Skipton: Macroeconomics, N. Gregory Mankiw: Macroeconomics, Yamin Ahmed: Principles of Macroeconomics, Olivier Blanchard: Principles of Macroeconomics, 1996
The Fiscal Policy and The Monetary Policy Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. Government in the Economy The Government and Fiscal Policy Fiscal Policy changes in taxes and spending that affect the level of GDP to
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