10/7/2013. Chapter 9: Introduction to Economic Fluctuations. Facts about the business cycle. Unemployment. Okun s Law Y Y

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1 Facts about the business cycle Chapter 9: GD growth averages percent per year over the long run with large fluctuations in the short run. Consumption and investment fluctuate with GD, but consumption tends to be less volatile and investment more volatile than GD. Unemployment rises during recessions and falls during expansions. Okun s Law: the negative relationship between GD and unemployment. 1 Growth rates of real GD, consumption ercent change from 4 quarters earlier 8 verage 4 growth rate 2-2 Real GD Consumption Growth rates of real GD, consumption, investment ercent change from 4 quarters earlier Investment Real GD Consumption Unemployment Okun s Law ercent of labor force 12 8 ercentage change in 8 real GD u Change in unemployment rate 1

2 Index of Leading Economic Indicators ublished monthly by the Conference oard. ims to forecast changes in economic activity -9 months into the future. Used in planning by businesses and govt, despite not being a perfect predictor. Components of the LEI index verage workweek in manufacturing Initial weekly claims for unemployment insurance New orders for consumer goods and materials New orders, nondefense capital goods Vendor performance New building permits issued Index of stock prices M2 ield spread (-year minus 3-month) on Treasuries Index of consumer expectations 7 Index of Leading Economic Indicators 24 = Time horizons in macroeconomics Long run rices are flexible, respond to changes in supply or demand. Short run Many prices are sticky at a predetermined level. The economy behaves much differently when prices are sticky. Source: 3 Conference 197 oard Recap of classical macro theory (Chaps. 3-8) Output is determined by the supply side: supplies of capital, labor technology Changes in demand for goods & services (C, I, G ) only affect prices, not quantities. ssumes complete price flexibility. pplies to the long run. When prices are sticky output and employment also depend on demand, which is affected by: fiscal policy (G and T ) monetary policy (M ) other factors, like exogenous changes in C or I 11 2

3 The model of aggregate demand and supply The paradigm most mainstream economists and policymakers use to think about economic fluctuations and policies to stabilize the economy Shows how the price level and aggregate output are determined Shows how the economy s behavior is different in the short run and long run ggregate demand The aggregate demand curve shows the relationship between the price level and the quantity of output demanded. For this chapter s intro to the D/S model, we use a simple theory of aggregate demand based on the quantity theory of money. Chapters -12 develop the theory of aggregate demand in more detail The Quantity Equation as ggregate Demand The downward-sloping D curve From Chapter 4, recall the quantity equation MV = For given values of M and V, this equation implies an inverse relationship between and n increase in the price level causes a fall in real money balances (M/), causing a decrease in the demand for goods & services. D Shifting the D curve ggregate supply in the long run n increase in the money supply shifts the D curve to the right. Recall from Chapter 3: In the long run, output is determined by factor supplies and technology F ( K, L) is the full-employment or natural level of output, at which the economy s resources are fully employed. Full employment means that unemployment equals its natural rate (not zero)

4 The long-run aggregate supply curve Long-run effects of an increase in M does not depend on, so is vertical. In the long run, this raises the price level 2 1 n increase in M shifts D to the right. F ( K, L) 18 but leaves output the same. 19 ggregate supply in the short run The short-run aggregate supply curve Many prices are sticky in the short run. For now (and through Chap. 12), we assume all prices are stuck at a predetermined level in the short run. firms are willing to sell as much at that price level as their customers are willing to buy. Therefore, the short-run aggregate supply (SRS) curve is horizontal: The SRS curve is horizontal: The price level is fixed at a predetermined level, and firms sell as much as buyers demand. SRS 2 21 Short-run effects of an increase in M From the short run to the long run In the short run when prices are sticky, an increase in aggregate demand Over time, prices gradually become unstuck. When they do, will they rise or fall? In the short-run equilibrium, if then over time, will causes output to rise. 1 2 SRS rise fall remain constant The adjustment of prices is what moves the economy to its long-run equilibrium

5 The SR & LR effects of M > How shocking!!! = initial equilibrium shocks: exogenous changes in agg. supply or demand = new short- run eq m after Fed increases M C = long-run equilibrium 2 C 2 SRS Shocks temporarily push the economy away from full employment. Example: exogenous decrease in velocity If the money supply is held constant, a decrease in V means people will be using their money in fewer transactions, causing a decrease in demand for goods and services The effects of a negative demand shock Supply shocks D shifts left, depressing output and employment in the short run. Over time, prices fall and the economy moves down its demand curve toward fullemployment. 2 2 C SRS supply shock alters production costs, affects the prices that firms charge. (also called price shocks) Examples of adverse supply shocks: ad weather reduces crop yields, pushing up food prices. Workers unionize, negotiate wage increases. New environmental regulations require firms to reduce emissions. Firms charge higher prices to help cover the costs of compliance. Favorable supply shocks lower costs and prices CSE STUD: The 197s oil shocks Early 197s: OEC coordinates a reduction in the supply of oil. Oil prices rose 11% in % in % in 1975 Such sharp oil price increases are supply shocks because they significantly impact production costs and prices. 28 CSE STUD: The 197s oil shocks The oil price shock shifts SRS up, causing output and employment to fall. 2 In absence of SRS 2 further price SRS 1 1 shocks, prices will D fall over time and economy moves back toward full 2 employment. 29 5

6 CSE STUD: The 197s oil shocks redicted effects of the oil shock: inflation output unemployment 7% % 5% 4% 3% 2% and then a gradual recovery. % Unemployment rate (right scale) 12% 8% % 4% Change in oil prices (left scale) Inflation rate-ci (right scale) 3 CSE STUD: The 197s oil shocks % Late 197s: 5% s economy 4% was recovering, 3% oil prices shot up again, causing 2% another huge supply shock!!! % Change in oil prices (left scale) Inflation rate-ci (right scale) Unemployment rate (right scale) 14% 12% 8% % 4% 31 CSE STUD: The 198s oil shocks 198s: favorable supply shock-- a significant fall in oil prices. s the model predicts, inflation and unemployment fell: 4% 3% 2% % - -2% -3% -4% -5% Change in oil prices (left scale) Inflation rate-ci (right scale) Unemployment rate (right scale) 8% % 4% 2% % 32 Stabilization policy def: policy actions aimed at reducing the severity of short-run economic fluctuations. Example: Using monetary policy to combat the effects of adverse supply shocks 33 Stabilizing output with monetary policy Stabilizing output with monetary policy The adverse supply shock moves the economy to point SRS 2 SRS 1 ut the Fed accommodates the shock by raising agg. demand. results: is permanently higher, but remains at its fullemployment level C SRS

7 Chapter Summary 1. Long run: prices are flexible, output and employment are always at their natural rates, and the classical theory applies. Short run: prices are sticky, shocks can push output and employment away from their natural rates. 2. ggregate demand and supply: a framework to analyze economic fluctuations Chapter Summary 3. The aggregate demand curve slopes downward. 4. The long-run aggregate supply curve is vertical, because output depends on technology and factor supplies, but not prices. 5. The short-run aggregate supply curve is horizontal, because prices are sticky at predetermined levels. Chapter Summary. Shocks to aggregate demand and supply cause fluctuations in GD and employment in the short run. 7. The Fed can attempt to stabilize the economy with monetary policy. 7

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