A Selected Glossary, U.S. History to 1837

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1 A Selected Glossary, U.S. History to 1837 Term King Philip's War Virginia Company Northwest Passage coureurs de bois heretics Great Migration Society of Friends (Quakers) Separatists Puritans Pilgrims tobacco burgesses joint-stock company headrights pacifism English Civil War proprietary colony Massachusetts Bay Company Restoration hidalgos vaquero hacienda presidio encomienda privateer El Camino Real conquistador mercantilism natural rights pietism revivals rationalism Great Awakening Royal African Company Glorious Revolution Enlightenment Stono Rebellion Definition war between Massachusetts colonists and the Wampanoag Indian tribe led by Metacom(et) ( ) a joint-stock company chartered by King James I to establish English colonies in North America mythical northern route through North America to the Pacific Ocean French fur traders people whose religious beliefs differ from those accepted by the majority the emigration of thousands of people from England Religious group noted for pacifism, many of whom colonized Pennsylvania Puritans who broke away from the Anglican Church to form their own congregations people who wanted to "cleanse" the Anglican Church of all Catholic elements a group of Separatists who fled to America to escape persecution cash crop that helped make Jamestown successful representatives to Virginia s legislative body company that pooled the money of many investors for big projects a system whereby land was given to settlers to entice them to go to Virginia opposition to war or violence as a means to settle disputes a war between the armies of the English Parliament and those of the English King a colony governed by the proprietor, or owner, of the colony company granted a charter to create a colony in New England, which it did in 1628 the return of Charles II to the English throne low-ranking nobles Spanish cowhand a huge ranch in New Spain a Spanish fort a system of rewarding conquistadors by giving them control of Native American villages privately owned ships licensed by the government to attack ships of other countries meaning "the royal highway," this linked the spanish missions in California a Spanish explorer in the Americas theory that each nation s duty is to accumulate wealth rights that all people are born with a movement that stressed an individual s devoutness and an emotional union with God large public meetings for preaching and prayer an emphasis on logic and reasoning a religious movement that stressed dependence on God being born again; it appealed mostly to farmers, workers, and enslaved people English trading company that engaged in the slave trade the bloodless change of power that occurred in England when William and Mary became the monarchs a movement that challenged the authority of the church in science and philosophy while emphasizing the power of human reason rebellion by enslaved people against white slaveholders in South Carolina

2 plantations Grand Banks fall line Dominion of New England Pennsylvania Dutch cash crop slave code indentured servant triangular trade capitalists Middle Passage town meetings selectmen bills of exchange gentry subsistence farming meetinghouse artisans entrepreneurs pietism revivals Boston Tea Party Patriots Loyalists minutemen committee of correspondence republic Albany Plan of Union Quartering Act Intolerable Acts Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom manumission letters of marque writs of assistance nonimportation agreement inflation guerrilla warfare Molly Pitcher John Trumbull Charles Wilson Peale customs duty large commercial estates where many workers lived on the land and cultivated the crops for the landowner a shallow region in the Atlantic Ocean teeming with fish the area where rivers descend from a high elevation to a lower one, causing waterfalls a royal province created from the merger of Connecticut and Rhode Island with Massachusetts and Plymouth German immigrants in Pennsylvania crop grown primarily for market a set of laws that formally regulated slavery and defined the relationship between enslaved Africans and free people person who agreed to work for an employer in the colonies in exchange for passage to America a three-way trade established by New England merchants people who invest their money in new businesses the journey of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to America meetings in New England in which town residents met to discuss problems and issues men chosen to manage the affairs of New England towns credit slips used by New England and English merchants the wealthy landowners in the South system of farming in which farmers produce only enough crops to feed themselves and their families the name given to Puritan churches skilled workers who manufactured various goods businesspeople who risk their money to earn a profit a movement that stressed an individual's devoutness and an emotional union with God large public meetings for preaching and prayer a raid by colonists on British tea ships Americans who believed the British had become tyrants Americans who backed Britain a special unit of the militia trained to fight at a minute's notice colonial groups designed to communicate with each other about British activities a form of government in which power resides with a body of citizens who could vote early proposal for the colonies to unite to form a federal government law that forced the colonists to pay more for their own defense a group of laws that led the colonists to believe that the British were trying to seize control of the colonial governments a law that declared that Virginia no longer had an official church the voluntary freeing of enslaved persons licenses authorizing private ship owners to attack British merchant ships general search warrants an agreement by New York merchants not to buy any British goods until Parliament repealed the Stamp Act a decline in the value of money a different kind of fighting, in which participants hide and ambush their opponents woman who took part in battle during the Revolutionary War American painter best known for his paintings of battles and important events in the Revolution American painter best known for his portraits of Washington and other Patriot leaders a tax on imports and exports

3 Declaration of Independence emancipation French and Indian War Battle of Bunker Hill federalism separation of powers executive branch judicial branch popular sovereignty legislative branch The Constitution of the United States Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union amendment Northwest Ordinance Virginia Plan Shays's Rebellion Three-Fifths Compromise Great (or Connecticut) Compromise New Jersey Plan Federalists Antifederalists James Madison Alexander Hamilton duty recession veto impeach checks and balances bonds speculators agrarianism Jay's Treaty Quasi-War Alien and Sedition Acts aliens sedition document that stated the American colonies were free of British rule and were now the United States of America freedom from enslavement the war between France and Britain in America battle between the colonial militia and the British troops a system of government in which government power is divided between the federal government and the state governments a term for dividing powers of government among branches the branch of government that carries out and enforces the laws the branch of government that interprets the laws rule by the people the branch of government that makes the laws document that replaced the Articles of Confederation as the basis for the U.S. government a plan adopted in 1777 for a loose union of the states under the authority of Congress a change to the Constitution law that provided the basis for governing much of the territory north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River plan of government developed mainly by James Madison and presented by the Virginia delegates to the Constitutional Convention a rebellion against the state government of Massachusetts by farmers protesting taxes and foreclosures a compromise that solved the problem of how enslaved people were to be counted in determining taxation and representation in Congress a compromise that solved the problem of representation in Congress by creating one legislative house based on population and another house with two members per state plan of government presented to the Constitutional Convention that proposed changes to the Articles of Confederation in order to make the central government stronger those who supported ratification of the Constitution those who opposed ratification of the Constitution main author of the Virginia Plan and author of many of The Federalist essays; later he became President of the United States author of many of The Federalist essays, and later Secretary of the Treasury under President Washington a tax on imported goods an economic slowdown to reject to formally accuse of misconduct a system designed to prevent any one of the three branches from becoming too powerful paper notes promising to repay money after a certain length of time with interest people willing to take a risk in hopes of a future financial gain the belief that the strength of a country is in its independent farmers a treaty signed in 1794 between the United States and Great Britain that prevented war between the two countries an undeclared war at sea fought in 1798 between France and the United States four laws that included giving the president the right to deport aliens and made criticism of the government a criminal act people living in a country who are not citizens incitement to rebellion

4 interposition nullification judicial review Louisiana Purchase Sacagawea Zebulon Pike impressment embargo Non-Intercourse Act War Hawks nationalism cabinet enumerated powers implied powers Bank of the United States Whiskey Rebellion most-favored nation Washington's Farewell Address Tecumseh Hartford Convention Era of Good Feelings revenue tariff protective tariff Quadruple Alliance National Road Industrial Revolution interchangeable parts labor union strike cotton gin planter yeoman farmers the theory that said a state could step in between the federal government and the people to stop the federal government from doing something unconstitutional the theory that said the states had the right to declare a federal law invalid if they considered the law unconstitutional the power of the Supreme Court to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional and to strike down those laws that were not land purchased from France in 1803 that more than doubled the size of the United States and gained U.S. control of the entire Mississippi River a Shoshone woman who joined the Lewis and Clark expedition of the Louisiana Territory explorer of the Louisiana Territory who mapped much of the upper Mississippi River and provided a description of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains a legalized form of kidnapping a government ban on trade with other countries a law passed to force the British to stop seizing American ships those who supported war with Britain feelings of strong patriotism a group of advisers to the president powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution powers not explicitly listed in the Constitution but necessary for the government to do its job a national bank a protest by farmers against the government's tax on whiskey status given to a nation that guarantees no discrimination in trade with that nation President Washington's letter to the American people in which he warned them against sectionalism, political parties, and foreign alliances a Shawnee leader who worked for Native American resistance against encroachment on Native American lands a meeting that called for constitutional amendments to increase New England's political power Era of Good Feelings phrase used to describe James Monroe s presidency because of the harmony in national politics tax on goods that provides income for the federal government tax on goods to help domestic manufacturers by taxing imports to drive up their prices alliance formed by the European countries of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and later France, in order to put down movements against monarchies in Europe major east-west highway started in 1811 that by 1818 ran from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, Virginia time of change in business and industry in which manufacturing shifted from hand tools to large, complex machines; goods were made in factories instead of workshops in homes uniform pieces that can be made by machines in large quantities to replace other identical pieces organization of workers that works for better wages and working conditions work stoppage machine for removing cotton seeds from cotton bolls plantation owner ordinary Southern farmer who owned four or fewer slaves, but usually worked the land themselves

5 task system gang system driver slave codes Missouri Compromise favorite son American System corrupt bargain Democratic-Republican mudslinging non-colonization non-intervention non-interference labor system used in the South on farms and small plantations in which enslaved workers were given a set of specific jobs to accomplish every day and worked until these were complete labor system on large plantations in which enslaved persons were organized into work gangs that labored from sunup to sundown director of a work gang on large plantations; oftentimes a slave state laws that limited the legal rights of enslaved persons agreement for admitting Maine to the Union as a free state and Missouri as a slave state man who enjoyed the support of leaders from his own state and region production of many identical parts and their assembly into finished products. accusation that Henry Clay won votes for John Quincy Adams in the House of Representatives vote for president in the election of 1824 in exchange for a cabinet post political party formed by supporters of Andrew Jackson political campaign in which candidates criticize each other s personalities and principles tenet of Monroe Doctrine stating the U.S. would not allow new European colonlization in the W. Hemisphere tenet of Monroe Doctrine stating the U.S. would not allow European intervention in affairs of independent W. Hemisphere nations tenet of Monroe Doctrine stating the U.S. would interfere in the affairs of European nations or their colonies around the globe

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