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1 Syllabus Financial Statement Analysis 1 Purpose and Learning Objectives This is an introductory course in financial (accounting) statements and their analysis. It reviews the basic financial statements, quality issues in using these statements, and the analysis of these statements for the purposes of making credit decisions. Text The NACM s custom version of Lyn M. Fraser and Aileen Ormiston, Understanding Financial Statements, Pearson Learning Solutions. Format This is an on-line self-paced course. You will study the text and view the lectures, which are composed of PowerPoint slides and an audio track. The lectures explain and expand on the material in the text and explain its relevance to trade credit-granting decisions. They also review the problem assignments and present answers to these. Lectures are by Dr. Frederick C. Scherr, Professor of Finance (Emeritus), West Virginia University. The course is composed of six modules. For each module, you should first read the reading assignment, do the assigned problem set, then view the lecture. Each lecture ends with a quiz. Questions may be taken from the assigned reading, the lecture, or the problem assignment for that module and are multiple choice or true/false. There are 10 questions on each quiz and you must get 7 correct to pass the quiz. You will have an opportunity to take a second quiz if you do not pass the first one. You must pass all six quizzes in order to pass the course. The reading and problem assignments are: Do you need a Module Chapter to Read Lecture to View Problem Assignment Calculator for the Test? None No Problems from Ch. 2 Yes Problems from Ch. 3 Yes 4 Appendix 3A 3A None No Problems from Ch. 4 Yes Problems from Ch. 5 Yes 1

2 Problem Sets: For chapter 2: Problems 2.11, 2.14, 2.18, and For problem 2.18, assume that there are no other transactions that would affect retained earnings except for income and dividends. For problem 2.19, assume that bonds payable is long term; that notes payable is short term; and that land held for sale is an other asset. For this problem, also compute: (a) total current assets; (b) total current liabilities; (c) total shareholders equity; and (d) the current ratio, computed as total current assets divided by total current liabilities. For chapter 3: Problem In this problem, note that the entries below net sales are in random order and that you have to put them in the correct order. Assume that equity losses and gain on sale of equipment fall under other income or expense. Incorporate the following subtotals: gross profit (gross margin) EBITDA operating profit (EBIT) pretax income (EBT) net income (net earnings) (Net income is also known as earnings after taxes, or EAT.) Also assume that the firm pays \$100,000 in cash dividends and that there are no other transactions affecting the equity accounts; compute changes in retained earnings. For chapter 4: Dragoon Enterprises (problem 4.9) and Gerber Scientific (case 4.3). For Dragoon Enterprises, cash dividends are \$200. Notes on this problem: (1) be sure to treat the change in interest payable as an item affecting operating cash flow; and (2) the firm issued stock with proceeds of \$400 during the year. For Gerber Scientific, do question 1, then the following: 1. Looking at the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (rather than the Summary Analysis), discuss the composition and stability of operating cash flows over the three years. 2. Looking at both the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows and your Summary Analysis of Cash Flows, identify the major cash flows in each year. Discuss what the firm did in managing its financing (its debt and its equity) over the three-year period. Chapter 5: Razzle-Dazzle Electronics case materials follow. Credit This course is required for the NACM s CBA and CCRA designations. It is also worth 3 CEUs. 2

3 Cash Flow Example ABC Corp. Income Statement Year 2 Net Sales \$45,000 Cost of Goods Sold \$30,000 Gross Profit \$15,000 General and Admin. Exp. \$5,000 Depreciation \$2,000 EBIT (Operating Profit) \$8,000 Interest Expense \$4,000 EBT \$4,000 Taxes \$1,500 Net Income \$2,500 Cash Dividends \$1,000 Change in Retained Earnings \$1,500 ABC Corp. Balance Sheets End Year 1 End year 2 Cash \$1,200 \$2,000 Accounts Receivable \$6,000 \$4,500 Inventory \$8,000 \$9,000 Total Current Assets \$15,200 \$15,500 Gross Prop., Plant, and Eq. \$36,000 \$32,000 Less: Accumulated Depreciation (\$17,500) (\$16,000) Net Prop., Plant, and Eq. \$18,500 \$16,000 Total Assets \$33,700 \$31,500 Accounts Payable \$3,500 \$3,000 Current Long-Term Debt \$1,500 \$2,000 Total Current Liabilities \$5,000 \$5,000 Long-Term Debt \$14,700 \$14,000 Common Stock and Paid-In Capital \$2,000 \$2,000 Retained Earnings \$12,000 \$10,500 Common Equity \$14,000 \$12,500 Total Liabilities and Equity \$33,700 \$31,500 3

4 Razzle-Dazzle Electronics Razzle-Dazzle Electronics is a small manufacturer of specialized electronic parts. Sales for last year were \$6.613 million. The firm has been your customer for several years. During your recent visit to the customer, their management was enthusiastic about their substantial recent growth and profitability, with sales growing at a 15 percent yearly rate for the last two years and returns on equity in the 20 percent range. This growth, they said, had necessitated the expansion of assets, including the purchase of a substantial amount of new equipment, which was partially financed with new term loans. They pointed out that their quick and current ratios have not declined over the period. However, payments from the firm have become increasingly slow. (Their financial statements for the last three years and a partial analysis follow.) 1. Assume that the financial statements were prepared by a local accountant and that the statements include a letter from the accountant saying that these financial statements were prepared according to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles as the accountant understands them. Give examples of several of the questions you would initially ask the management of Razzle- Dazzle about these statements and the firm s financing. 2. Complete the ratio and cash flow analysis for Razzle-Dazzle. 3. Interpret these results starting with the ratio analysis and proceeding to the cash flow analysis; indicate what has happened to the firm s credit worthiness and why this has occurred. (Notes: (1) While the turnover ratios and days-based ratios for accounts receivable and inventory contain the same information, we are going to compute them both for practice. (2) Similarly, we are going to compute both the Total Debt/Total Assets (the Debt Ratio ) and Total Debt/Equity ratios. (3) This is a manufacturing firm so its cost of goods sold contains both purchases and other costs like factory labor, so days payable outstanding cannot be accurately computed from the information in these financial statements. To allow for this, compute the sum of the ACP and days inventory held rather than the cash conversion cycle.) Graph the following for the three years: (1) quick ratio, current ratio, and the 2013 industry average for each of these; (2) average collection period, days inventory held, and the 2013 industry averages for each of these; (2) total debt to total assets and the 2013 industry ratio for this. 4. Give examples of additional questions you might want to ask the management of Razzle-Dazzle given the results of the financial analysis. 4

5 Razzle-Dazzle Electronics Financial Statements, last three fiscal years, rounded thousands Reordered for Analysis Purposes: Newest Statement on Right Year Income Statements Sales \$5,000 \$5,750 \$6,613 Cost of Goods Sold \$3,500 \$4,025 \$4,629 Gross Margin on Sales \$1,500 \$1,725 \$1,984 Selling and Administrative Expenses \$1,210 \$1,312 \$1,497 Depreciation \$40 \$125 \$156 Earnings Before Interest and Taxes \$250 \$288 \$331 Interest Expense \$47 \$74 \$106 Earnings Before Taxes \$203 \$214 \$225 Taxes \$67 \$70 \$75 Earnings After Taxes \$136 \$144 \$150 Dividends Paid \$109 \$115 \$120 Changes in Retained Earnings \$27 \$29 \$30 Balance Sheets Cash \$136 \$100 \$35 Accounts Receivable \$234 \$376 \$545 Inventory \$650 \$775 \$949 Total Current Assets \$1,020 \$1,251 \$1,529 Gross Equipment \$1,000 \$1,250 \$1,562 Accumulated Depreciation \$320 \$445 \$601 Net Equipment \$680 \$805 \$961 Total Assets \$1,700 \$2,056 \$2,490 Short-Term Bank Debt \$119 \$130 \$178 Trade Payables \$510 \$617 \$747 Current on Term Loans \$40 \$53 \$78 Accruals \$136 \$165 \$199 Total Current Liabilities \$805 \$965 \$1,202 Term Loans \$194 \$361 \$528 Equity \$701 \$730 \$760 Total Liabilities and Equity \$1,700 \$2,056 \$2,490 5

6 Razzle-Dazzle Electronics: Ratios Industry Year Average 2013 Liquidity Current Ratio Quick Ratio Cash Flow Liquidity Ratio Not Avail. Accounts Receivable: Accounts Receivable Turnover Average Collection Period (days) Inventory Inventory Turnover based on CGS Days Inventory Held Sum of ACP and Days Inv. Held Debt Ratios Total Debt/Total Assets 58.76% 57.30% Total Debt/Equity Razzle-Dazzle Electronics: FASB 95 Cash Flow Analysis Year Cash Flow from Operations Calculations: Cash flow from income statement Earnings after Taxes \$144 Depreciation Addback \$125 Total \$269 Changes in accounts receivable (\$142) Changes in inventory (\$125) Changes in Trade Payables \$107 Changes in Accruals \$29 Total Adjustments (\$131) CFFO \$138 Cash Flows from Investing Changes in Gross Equipment (\$250) Cash Flows from Investing (\$250) Cash Flows from Financing Change in Short-Term Bank Debt \$11 Change in Current Long-Term Debt \$13 Change in Term Loans \$167 Dividends Paid (\$115) Cash Flows from Financing \$76 Change in Cash Balance (\$36) 6

7 Razzle-Dazzle Electronics: Summary Cash Flow Analysis Year Inflows CFFO \$138 42% Change in Short-Term Bank Debt \$11 3% Change in Current Long-Term Debt \$13 4% Change in Term Loans \$167 51% Total Cash Inflows \$ % Outflows Changes in Gross Equipment \$250 68% Dividends Paid \$115 32% Total Cash Outflows \$ % Change in Cash \$(36) 7

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