1 Chapter 6 Statement of Cash Flows The Statement of Cash Flows describes the cash inflows and outflows for the firm based upon three categories of activities. Operating Activities: Generally include transactions in the normal operations of the firm. Investing Activities: Cash flows resulting from purchases and sales of property, plant and equipment, or securities. Financing Activities: Cash flows resulting from transactions with lenders and owners. Funds received from lenders Payments to lenders (not interest) Contributions of capital from owners (sales of stock) Dividend payments
2 The Direct Method The direct method lists the individual sources and uses of cash. Typical line items include cash received from customers, cash paid to suppliers, cash paid for wages, etc. Consider E3-18 Popovich Co. had the following transactions during June. a. $20,000 of supplies were purchased with cash b. $6,000 of supplies were consumed. c. $60,000 of merchandise was sold. 40% of the sales were on credit. The merchandise cost Popovich $28,000. d. $200,000 was borrowed from a bank e. Interest of $2,000 was incurred and paid f. $100,000 of equipment was purchased by issuing a note payable. g. $4,000 of equipment value was consumed.
3 We could construct the following statement of cash flow: Cash Flow from Operations: Cash received from customers $36,000 Cash paid for supplies (20,000) Cash paid for interest (2,000) Cash provided by operations 14,000 Cash flow for investments 0 Cash flow from financing activities: New bank borrowings $200,000 Net cash flow $214,000 The problem is that these items do not come from the general ledger. There is no account for cash received from customers, or cash paid for supplies. Instead, you would have to infer the amount from the firm s accounting system.
4 For example, assume the following data from the firm s accrual based accounting system (all sales are credit sales); Accounts Receivable 1/1/00 $400,000 Accounts Receivable 12/31/00 $450, Sales $3,000,000 How much cash did the firm receive from customers? First, consider the entries used to record credit sales and the collection of cash. Dr. Accounts Receivable Cr. Sales Dr. Cash Cr. Accounts Receivable Debits to accounts receivable result from sales transactions, and the credits result from cash collections.
5 Therefore: Beginning Accounts Receivable + Credit Sales - Cash Received = Ending Accounts Receivable OR Cash Received = Beg. AR + Credit Sales Ending AR. Define AR = Ending AR Beginning AR, where means the change in the account balance, then: Cash Collections = Credit Sales AR. In our example, Cash collections = $3,000,000 - $50,000 = $2,950,000. There was a total of $3,000,000 in sales, but not all of it was collected in cash. Because there was an increase in AR, the cash received was less than total sales.
6 We can use a similar approach to go from cost of goods sold to cash payments. The balance sheet account affected by cost of goods sold is inventory. Because inventory is usually purchased on account, we also need to consider accounts payable. Beginning Inventory Beginning Accounts Payable + Purchases + Purchases - Cost of Goods Sold - Payments = Ending Inventory = Ending Accounts Payable Inventory = Ending Inventory Beginning Inventory Accounts Payable = Ending AP Beginning AP COGS = Purchases Inventory Payments = Purchases AP Purchases = AP + Payments COGS = AP + Payments inventory Payments = COGS + inventory AP
7 Direct Method Example ABC Co. Balance Sheets Account Cash $100,000 $130,000 Accounts Receivable 420, ,000 Inventory 800, ,000 Prepaid Rent 70,000 50,000 PP & E 1,000, ,000 Total Assets $2,390,000 $2,140,000 Accounts Payable $300,000 $360,000 Accrued Wages 175, ,000 Stockholders Equity 1,915,000 1,660,000 Total Liab & S.E. $2,390,000 $2,140,000 ABC Co. s Income Statement 2000 Sales $5,000,000 Cost of Goods Sold 3,500,000 Gross Margin $1,500,000 Rent Expense $240,000 Wage Expense 800,000 Depreciation Expense 150,000 Net Income $310,000
8 Statement of Cash Flows Direct Method Example Assume that accounts payable was only used to acquire inventory. Use the preceding information to compute the following: 1. Cash Received from Customers. Sales AR 5,000,000 (-40,000) = 5,040, Cash Paid to Suppliers for Inventory COGS + Inventory AP 3,500, ,000 (-60,000) = 3,660, Cash Paid to Landlords Rent Expense + Prepaid rent 240, ,000 = 260, Cash Paid to Employees Wage expense Accrued wages 800,000 55,000 = 745, Cash received from customers 5,040,000 Cash paid to suppliers -3,660,000 Cash paid to landlords -260,000 Cash paid to employees -745,000 Cash flows from operations 375,000
9 Statement of Cash Flows: Indirect Method The indirect method uses changes in balance sheet accounts to reconcile net income to cash flows from operations. Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders Equity Cash + Noncash Assets = Liabilities + SE Cash = L + SE NCA Cash = L + SE NCA This means that we can evaluate changes in cash by looking at changes in balance sheet accounts. We can adjust this further by noting that SE = NI Dividends Cash = L + NI Dividends NCA To get cash flows from operations we start with net income and adjust for changes in current assets and current liabilities.
10 Statement of Cash Flows Indirect Method The operating cash flow section of the Statement of Cash Flows using the indirect method has the following form: Net Income + Depreciation Expense - Current Assets (minus increases, plus decreases) + Current Liabilities (plus increases, minus decreases) = Cash flows from operations Following the previous example, we would have: 2000 Net Income $310,000 Depreciation Expense 150,000 - Accounts Receivable 40,000 - Inventory (100,000) - Prepaid Rent (20,000) + Accounts Payable (60,000) + Accrued Wages 55,000 Cash Flows From Operations 375,000 Note that you get the same cash flow from operations under both methods. However, the information provided in the details is substantially different.
11 Investing and Financing Cash Flows Once we have computed the cash flows from operations we need to complete the sections on investing and financing cash flows. In general this is fairly simple. Investing cash flows include purchases of long-term assets and proceeds from the disposal of long-term assets. Financing cash flows include proceeds from the issuance of long-term debt or capital stock, repayments of long-term debt, repurchases of capital stock and dividends.
12 Sample Problem: Use the following data to construct a statement of cash flows using the direct and indirect methods Cash $4,000 $14,000 Accounts receivable 25,000 32,500 Prepaid insurance 5,000 7,000 Inventory 37,000 34,000 Fixed assets 316, ,000 Accumulated Depreciation (45,000) (30,000) Total assets 342, ,500 Accounts payable $18,000 $16,000 Wages payable 4,000 7,000 Note payable 173, ,000 Capital stock 88,000 84,000 Retained earnings 59,000 60,500 Total Liabilities & Equity 342, , Sales $200,000 Cost of goods sold (123,000) Depreciation expense (15,000) Insurance expense (11,000) Wage Expense (50,000) Net Income 1,000 During 2000 declared and paid dividends of $2,500 During 2000, ABC paid $46,000 in cash to acquire new fixed assets. The accounts payable was used only for inventory. No debt was retired during 2000.
13 Direct Method Cash Flow from Operations: Cash received from customers 207,500 Cash paid for inventory -124,000 Cash paid for insurance -9,000 Cash paid for wages -53,000 Cash flow from operations 21,500 Cash Flow from Investments: Cash paid for fixed assets -46,000 Cash flow from financing activities: Cash dividend payments -2,500 Proceeds from issuance of note payable 13,000 Proceeds from issuance of stock 4,000 Cash flows from financing activities 14,500 Net Cash Flow -10,000 Beginning Cash Balance 14,000 Ending Cash Balance 4,000
14 Indirect Method Cash Flow from Operations: Net Income 1,000 Depreciation Expense 15,000 Accounts receivable 7,500 Prepaid insurance 2,000 Inventory -3,000 Accounts payable 2,000 Wages payable -3,000 Cash Flow from Operations 21,500 Cash Flow from Investments: Cash paid for fixed assets -46,000 Cash flow from financing activities: Cash dividend payments -2,500 Proceeds from issuance of note payable 13,000 Proceeds from issuance of stock 4,000 Cash flows from financing activities 14,500 Net Cash Flow -10,000 Beginning Cash Balance 14,000 Ending Cash Balance 4,000
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