A Simple Model. Introduction to Financial Statements

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1 Introduction to Financial Statements NOTES TO ACCOMPANY VIDEOS These notes are intended to supplement the videos on ASimpleModel.com. They are not to be used as stand alone study aids, and are not written as comprehensive overviews of the topic detailed. The purpose of these notes is to provide a tangible collection of the visuals used in the videos with comments highlighting the more important aspects covered. 2013, LLC. All rights reserved.

2 002 The Accounting Equation This video introduces the accounting equation, which is the most important concept in accounting. This relationship between assets, liabilities and stockholders equity must always hold true. There are no exceptions to this rule. The Accounting Equation ASSETS = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY All property owned by the company. All debts the company currently has outstanding. Ownership interests in the company after all debts have The resources a company uses to generate revenue. The means of acquiring assets. After briefly defining the terms and walking through an illustrated example, the equation is expanded upon to introduce double-entry bookkeeping: DOUBLE-ENTRY BOOKKEEPING: the system most commonly employed by businesses to record financial information. Double-entry bookkeeping requires that a change in one account be matched in another account. This is done by recording debits and credits. For every entry the sum of debits must equal the sum of credits. Please see video for an example and greater detail on this topic. The Accounting Equation Double-entry bookkeeping: most businesses employ a double-entry bookkeeping system to record financial data. Under this system a change in one account must be matched in another account. These changes are made by DEBITS (dr) and CREDITS (cr) to the accounts. For every entry the sum of DEBITS must equal the sum of CREDITS. ASSETS = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY dr cr dr cr dr cr $ 5,000,000 $ 5,000,000

3 002 The Accounting Equation Debits and credits are difficult to grasp at first. The best way to approach this concept is to revisit the definition as your accounting vocabulary grows. This definition is not included in the video, but can be found under Reference on the website. It can be helpful in better understanding debits and credits because it applies the concept to something everyone understands: cash.

4 002 The Accounting Equation The video continues to expand upon the accounting equation to show that Stockholders equity is equal to the sum of contributed capital and retained earnings. Net income is equal to revenues less expenses. ASSETS = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY dr cr dr cr dr cr STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY = CONTRIBUTED CAPITAL + RETAINED EARNINGS dr cr dr cr Dividends Net Income NET INCOME = REVENUES - EXPENSES dr cr dr cr These relationships are important in understanding how financial statements relate to one another and will be elaborated upon in future videos.

5 002 The Accounting Equation The video concludes by pointing out that the balance sheet is simply a more formal presentation of the accounting equation. To demonstrate this the video organizes the components of the accounting equation vertically, and then details accounts that fall under assets, liabilities and stockholders equity. Balance Sheet Company Name (000s) ASSETS + - dr cr LIABILITIES - + dr cr STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY - + dr cr Balance Sheet Company Name (000s) BALANCE SHEET 20X1 ASSETS Current Assets Cash 1,773 Accounts Receivable 7,750 Inventory 4,800 Prepaid Expenses 456 Total Current Assets 14,779 Fixed Assets PP&E, Net of Accum. Depreciation 10,913 TOTAL ASSETS 25,692 LIABILITIES Current Liabilities Accounts Payable 5,665 Line of Credit 792 Current Maturities of Long Term Debt 500 Total Current Liabilities 6,957 Long Term Liabilities Long Term Debt, Net of Current Maturities 5,000 TOTAL LIABILITIES 11,957 EQUITY Common Stock 15 Additional Paid In Capital 5,000 Retained Earnings 8,720 TOTAL EQUITY 13,735 TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY 25,692 Check 0.0 Finally, the video points out that in every thorough financial model, for every accounting period, the balance sheet has a check to make certain that the accounting equation holds true.

6 003 Balance Sheet This video introduces the balance sheet. After a quick reminder that the balance sheet is just a formal presentation of the accounting equation, the video walks through some definitions: BALANCE SHEET: The balance sheet shows the financial position of a company at a given moment. It may help to think of it as a photograph depicting everything that the company has (Assets), what it owes (Liabilities) and the ownership interests in the company (Stockholders Equity). ASSETS: Assets consists of the physical properties of the company, money it holds or has invested and money that is owed to the company. You can also have intangible assets, such as goodwill. LIABILITIES: Liabilities include debts incurred in the ordinary course of business (accounts payable and other obligations), and more formal borrowings (notes from a bank). STOCKHOLDERS EQUITY: Stockholders equity represents the ownership interests in the company. Because these concepts can still be a little abstract the video then walks through an illustrated example to provide greater context. In the example you are asked to consider the items you would require to start a company and determine how you would finance the purchase of these items.

7 003 Balance Sheet Rearranging these items vertically provides a familiar order that begins to resemble a balance sheet. On the right hand side of the illustration you will note that the accounting equation holds true as well. The video then transitions back to a more thorough balance sheet to walk through a few more definitions. Balance Sheet (000s) BALANCE SHEET 20X1 ASSETS Current Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Prepaid Expenses Total Current Assets 0 Fixed Assets PP&E, Net of Accum. Depreciation TOTAL ASSETS 0 LIABILITIES Current Liabilities Accounts Payable Line of Credit (or other Short Term Borrow ings) Current Maturities of Long Term Debt Total Current Liabilities 0 Long Term Liabilities Long Term Debt, Net of Current Maturities TOTAL LIABILITIES 0 EQUITY Common Stock Additional Paid In Capital Retained Earnings TOTAL EQUITY 0 TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY 0 Check 0.0 ASSETS Cash: Money the company holds or has invested AR: Money that is owed to the company for goods or services sold Inventory: Raw materials, work in process goods and finished goods that are ready for sale (or will be) Prepaid Expenses: Goods or services owed to the company, which were paid for in advance PP&E: Physical property of the company LIABILITIES AP: Debts incurredin ordinary course of business for goods or services purchased by the company Debt for borrowed money STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY Common Stock and APIC: Contributed capital Retained Earnings: Earnings retained by the company (not paid out to shareholders)

8 003 Balance Sheet The expanded accounting equation is revisited to elaborate upon the components of stockholders equity. Contributed Capital: Investors or owners contribute capital to a business hoping for two potential cash flows. 1. Dividends 2. Gains from selling the stock at a higher price. Retained Earnings: Earnings not distributed, but reinvested. The video also points out that this account grows by net income, which is an important relationship. ASSETS = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY dr cr dr cr dr cr STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY = CONTRIBUTED CAPITAL + RETAINED EARNINGS dr cr dr cr Dividends Net Income FINANCING PROVIDED BY OWNERS & COMPANY Two types of cash flows: 1. Dividends 2. Gains from selling the stock at a higher price (Capital Gains) Earnings not distributed, but reinvested

9 003 Balance Sheet To demonstrate how the relationship between retained earnings and net income translates into a financial model in excel the video walks through a couple examples. First by showing the relationship as pictured below, and then by showing the relationship in a fully integrated financial model. Retained earnings grows the equity account by the amount of income generated. INCOME STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 Re venue Expenses Net Income 0 0 BALANCE SHEET 20X1 20X2 ASSETS Cash Accounts Receivable PP&E, Net of Accum. Depreciation TOTAL ASSETS 0 0 LIABILITIES Accounts Payable Line of Credit Long Term Debt TOTAL LIABILITIES 0 0 EQUITY Common Stock Additional Paid In Capital Retained Earnings 0 TOTAL EQUITY 0 0 TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY 0 0 Check

10 003 Balance Sheet The video then points out (broadly) the relationship between the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. An increase in an asset account consumes cash. An increase in a liability account provides cash. Changes in balance sheet accounts will directly impact the Cash Flow Statement Cash is used to acquire assets and pay down liabilities BALANCE SHEET 20X1 20X2 ASSETS Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory PP&E, Net of Accum. Depreciation TOTAL ASSETS 1,000 1,200 LIABILITIES Accounts Payable Line of Credit Long Term Debt TOTAL LIABILITIES EQUITY Common Stock Additional Paid In Capital Retained Earnings TOTAL EQUITY 0 0 TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY Check CASH IMPACT 20X2 Accounts Receivable (100) Inventory (100) Accounts Payable 100

11 003 Balance Sheet The video concludes with an illustration to begin describing how the three primary financial statements relate to one another: The balance sheet shows the financial position of a company at a given point in time, and the income statement and cash flow statement show the economic activity of a company over a given period of time. In this way consecutive balance sheets are essentially linked by income statements and cash flow statements. The difference is that the income statement shows economic activity on an accrual basis of accounting, and the cash flow statement shows economic activity on a cash basis of accounting. This is elaborated upon in the video that follows.

12 004 Income Statement This video introduces the income statement. The video starts by showing the income statement in its most concise format as pictured below. Income Statement INCOME STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 Revenue 74,452 83,492 Growth (%) NA 12.1% Expenses 72,434 80,925 Margin (%) 97.3% 96.9% Net Incom e 2,018 2,567 Measure of profitability of the firm over a specified time period. Measure of success in selling a good or service. After this introduction the accounting equation is revisited to help illustrate how the balance sheet and income statement relate to one another. The most significant relationship here is that stockholders equity grows with net income. ASSETS = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY dr cr dr cr dr cr STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY = CONTRIBUTED CAPITAL + RETAINED EARNINGS dr cr dr cr Dividends Net Income NET INCOME = REVENUES - EXPENSES dr cr dr cr

13 004 Income Statement The video then elaborates on the various categories of expenses found on the income statement. The text has been included below as a reference. Income Statement INCOME STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 Re venue 74,452 83,492 Growth (%) NA 12.1% Cost of Goods Sold COGS: 64,440 All costs directly 72,524associated with providing the good % of Sales or 86.6% service sold to 86.9% the customer. More specifically this would include the cost of the materials used in creating the good Gross Profit and 10,012 the associated 10,968 direct labor costs. % of Sales 13.4% 13.1% EXPENSES Operating Expenses (SG&A) Operating 6,389 Expenses 6,545 or SG&A: All major non production % of Sales expenses 8.6% incurred 7.8% in running the company. Operating Income (EBIT) 3,623 4,423 Interest Expense Interest Expense: This relates to the cost of borrowing money. 518 It is the price 474 that a lender (bank) charges a Pretax Income borrower 3,105 (company). 3,949 Interest expense creates a tax shield. Income Tax Expense 1,087 1,382 Tax Rate Tax Expense: NM The lastexpense NM listed on the income statement. All profitable corporations are required to Net Income calculate 2,018 taxes owed 2,567 to federal and state governments. NOT MENTIONED IN VIDEO: The text under interest expense concludes stating that interest expense creates a tax shield. This is not elaborated upon in the video, but tax shields (interest expense is not the only tax shield) are important and will be referenced in future videos. For the time being, all that is important is that interest expense is deducted from net income before tax expense is calculated, which results in a lower tax burden (tax shield).

14 004 Income Statement On this tab the video focuses on the difference between operating income (or EBIT) and net income. The reason for making this distinction is that expenses that do not relate to the core operation of the business come after EBIT. For this reason the gross profit margin and EBIT margin are more commonly referenced in analysis detailing a companies operations and profitability. Income Statement INCOME STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 Re venue 74,452 83,492 Growth (%) NA 12.1% Operating Income vs. Net Income Cost of Goods Sold 64,440 72,524 % of Sales Operating Income 86.6% is calculated 86.9% by subtracting Gross Profit expenses related 10,012 to the 10,968 core operation of the % of Sales business. 13.4% 13.1% EXPENSES Operating Expenses (SG&A) 6,389 6,545 % of Sales Net Income is 8.6% calculated 7.8% by subtracting Operating Income (EBIT) additional expenses unrelated to the core 3,623 4,423 operation of the business. Interest Expense Pretax Income 3,105 3,949 Income Tax Expense 1,087 1,382 Tax Rate NM NM Net Income 2,018 2,567

15 004 Income Statement Continuing with measures of profitability, the video then references EBITDA. EBITDA is an acronym that stands for Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization. It is generally not found on a company s income statement, but it is commonly referenced in most financial models because it is frequently used in determining the value of a company. Income Statement INCOME STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 Revenue 74,452 83,492 Growth (%) NA 12.1% EBITDA is frequently used in determining the value of a company. Cost of Goods Sold 64,440 72,524 % of Sales 86.6% 86.9% Gross Profit 10,012 10,968 % of Sales 13.4% 13.1% EBITDA is an acronym that stands for Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization. Operating Expenses (SG&A) 6,389 6,545 % of Sales 8.6% 7.8% Operating Incom e (EBIT) 3,623 4,423 Interest Expense Pretax Income 3,105 3,949 Income Tax Expense 1,087 1,382 Tax Rate NM NM Net Incom e 2,018 2,567 Operating Income (EBIT) 3,623 4,423 EBITDA Depreciation 2,648 2,981 Amortization 0 0 EBITDA 6,271 7,404

16 004 Income Statement The objective of the income statement is then revisited to point out two important accounting concepts: 1. The Matching Principle 2. Depreciation Objective of the Income Statement (Defined & Simplified) The objective of the income statement is to demonstrate how successful a company is at selling a good or service. Matching Principle Matching revenue generated by the sale of a good or service with the expense of providing that good or service in the same accounting period. The matching principle requires that the cost incurred in generating revenues be recognized in the same period. (REGARDLESS OF WHEN CASH IS PAID) Depreciation The allocation of the cost of tangible assets (property, plant or equipment) over multiple accounting periods representing the useful life of the tangible asset. Because the matching principle requires that expenses be recorded when revenue is recognized, the video then details the four conditions required to recognize revenue Matching Principle Relies on Revenue Recognition Revenue Principle Delivery has occurred or services have been rendered. There is persuasive evidence of an arrangement for customer payment. This can be cash or a promise to pay cash at a future date (accounts receivable). The price must be fixed or determinable. Collection is reasonably assured. The company must review the customer's ability to pay.

17 004 Income Statement Another important relationship to keep in mind as you build financial models is that the cash flow statement starts with net income. The video demonstrates this relationship with the visual pictured below, and then by showing this link in a fully integrated financial model. The Cash Flow Statement Starts with Net Income INCOME STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 Revenue Expenses Net Income 0 0 CASH FLOW STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 CASH FLOW FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES Net Income 0 0 Add Back Non-Cash Items Depreciation Amortization Changes in Working Capital Accounts Receivable Inventory Accounts Payable Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities CASH FLOW FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES Capital Expenditures - Purchase of PP&E Net Cash Used in Investing Activities CASH FLOW FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES Revolving Credit Facility (Line of Credit) Long Term Debt Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Fnce Activities Net Cash Flow Beginning Cash Balance Ending Cash Balance Netincome is derived from accounting rules and accruals, and does not equate to the actual cash earnings realized in the accounting period.

18 004 Income Statement The video concludes by highlighting the difference between an accrual basis of accounting and a cash basis of accounting. Accrual vs. Cash Basis of Accounting (Defined & Simplified) ACCRUAL BASIS of Accounting Revenue Recognized when earned. (Revenue Principle) Expenses Recognized when incurred. (Matching Principle) CASH BASIS of Accounting Revenue Recorded when cash is received. (Cash Receipts) Expenses Recorded when cash is paid. (Cash Payments)

19 005 Cash Flow Statement This video introduces the cash flow statement, which is possibly the most straight forward of the three primary financial statements. Whereas both the income statement and balance sheet reflect an accrual basis of accounting, the cash flow statement starts with net income and translates the economic activity of the firm from an accrual basis to a cash basis. The cash inflows and outflows are divided into three categories, which can be seen in the screenshot below. The definitions provided for Cash Flow from Operating Activities (CFO), Cash Flow from Investing Activities (CFI) and Cash Flow from Financing Activities (CFF) will be referenced in the notes that follow. Cash Flow Statement (Defined & Simplified) The cash flow statement starts with net income and shows how changes in balance sheet accounts affect CASH. This calculation is broken down into three categories of cash flows. Cash Flow from Operating Activities (CFO) The cash flows that relate directly to revenues and expenses reported on the income statement. This could include cash receipts from the sale of goods or services, the purchase of raw materials, payments to suppliers for goods or services and payments to employees. Cash Flow from Investing Activities (CFI) Cash flows that relate to the purchase or sale of long-term assets (PP&E), investments in securities and payments related to M&A activity. Cash Flow from Financing Activites (CFF) This includes all cash flows with creditors (banks) and stockholders (owner's of the company). This could include cash proceeds from raising or issuing debt, repayment of debt principal and dividends to stockholders.

20 005 Cash Flow Statement To demonstrate how these three categories are typically represented on the cash flow statement, the video provides a simple cash flow statement. The Cash Flow Statement CASH FLOW STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 CASH FLOW FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES Net Income Add Back Non-Cash Items Changes in Working Capital Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities CASH FLOW FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES Capital Expenditures - Purchase of PP&E Net Cash Used in Investing Activities CASH FLOW FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES Revolving Credit Facility (Line of Credit) Long Term Debt Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Fnce Activities Net Cash Flow Beginning Cash Balance Ending Cash Balance Having introduced the components of the cash flow statement, the video again emphasizes the relationship between net income and the cash flow statement. This is a critical relationship in financial models. As you can see in the image below, the cash flow statement will link directly to the income statement: The Cash Flow Statement Starts with Net Income Converting the economic activity of the company from accrual accounting, which shows the outcome as net income, to reflect the outcome on a cash basis. INCOME STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 Revenue Expe ns e s Net Income 0 0 CASH FLOW STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 CASH FLOW FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES Net Income 0 0 Add Back Non-Cash Items Changes in Working Capital Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities CASH FLOW FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES Capital Expenditures - Purchase of PP&E Net Cash Used in Investing Activities CASH FLOW FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES Revolving Credit Facility (Line of Credit) Long Term Debt Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Fnce Activities Net Cash Flow Beginning Cash Balance Ending Cash Balance

21 005 Cash Flow Statement As you work through the cash flow statement from top to bottom you are effectively converting the economic activity of the company from an accrual basis of accounting to a cash basis. To work towards the cash balance calculation: 1. Calculate cash from operations: Start with net income. Add back non-cash items. In the video, depreciation and amortization are listed as non-cash items because they are commonly referenced examples. Adjust for changes in working capital. Recall that as an asset increases it consumes cash, and as a liability increases it provides cash. 2. Calculate cash flow from investing activities: The video uses capital expenditures as an example. Future videos will introduce more examples. 3. Calculate cash flow from financing activities: This category will be elaborated upon in future videos describing working models. 4. Sum all three categories to arrive at cash balance. The Cash Flow Statement CASH FLOW STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 CASH FLOW FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES Net Income Add Back Non-Cash Items Depreciation Amortization Changes in Working Capital Accounts Receivable Inventory Accounts Payable Add Back Non Cash Items: Depreciation and amortization are good examples of non cash items. Working Capital Accounts: Reflect amounts that are to be paid or received in less than a year, and the inventory of materials and products. In this video we will focus on three working capital accounts: Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities CASH FLOW FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES Accounts Receivable Capital Expenditures - Purchase of PP&E Inventory Net Cash Used in Investing Activities Accounts Payable CASH FLOW FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES Revolving Credit Facility (Line of Credit) Long Term Debt Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Fnce Activities Net Cash Flow Beginning Cash Balance Ending Cash Balance

22 005 Cash Flow Statement The video then shifts focus to cash flow from investing activities. The only example provided in this video is a cash outflow: capital expenditures. Capital expenditures include the purchase of long-term assets or property, plant and equipment (PP&E). The Cash Flow Statement CASH FLOW STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 CASH FLOW FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES Net Income Add Back Non-Cash Items Depreciation Amortization Changes in Working Capital Accounts Receivable Inventory Accounts Payable Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities CASH FLOW FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES Capital Expenditures - Purchase of PP&E Net Cash Used in Investing Activities CASH FLOW FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES Revolving Credit Facility (Line of Credit) Long Term Debt Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Fnce Activities Net Cash Flow Beginning Cash Balance Ending Cash Balance The purpose is to provide the back drop for an illustrated example demonstrating the conversion of the company s economic activity from net income (accrual basis of accounting) to cash, which can be seen on the page that follows.

23 005 Cash Flow Statement To illustrate how this works the video revisits the example where the company purchases a crane for $5M in the first period. On the income statement the crane would be depreciated over 5 periods to reflect its useful life. But the $1M sums in each period do not reflect a cash outflow, because depreciation is a non-cash item. On the cash flow statement you are adjusting net income to arrive at the company s cash balance. In this example that requires adding back depreciation (non-cash item), and under cash flow from investing activities, subtracting $5M to accurately represent the purchase of the crane in period 1.

24 005 Cash Flow Statement So why is this information important? Cash is the lifeblood of a company. People may argue that net income or earnings per share are more important, but I would have to disagree (this is the opinion of the author if you are a student and your professor says otherwise I would advise agreeing with him / her for the final exam )(after the test remember cash is king ). Knowing a company s cash balance and its ability to generate cash helps make important decisions surrounding working capital and the purchase of equipment. And of course, a company s cash (or liquidity) is very important in managing a company s liabilities.

25 005 Cash Flow Statement Next the video reverts back the fully integrated model to demonstrate how the cash flow statement works in a financial model. The first relationship highlighted is that the cash balance calculated on the cash flow statement links to cash on the balance sheet (see arrow on left-hand side of model). In this way the cash flow statement adjusts the asset side of your balance sheet in each consecutive accounting period. And as a reminder, the video then shows that net income (assuming no dividends) adjusts the equity account (retained earnings) in each accounting period (see arrow on right-hand side of model). Financial Statements INCOME STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 20X3 20X4 Revenue 1,000 1,100 1,210 1,331 Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit Operating Expenses (SG&A) Operating Income (EBIT) Interest Expense Pretax Income Income Tax Expense Net Income BALANCE SHEET 20X1 20X2 20X3 20X4 Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Total Current Assets ,047 Property Plant & Equipment (PP&E) TOTAL ASSETS 1,181 1,290 1,421 1,575 Accounts Payable Current Portion on Long Term Debt Total Current Liabilities Long Term Debt TOTAL LIABILITIES Common Stock Retained Earnings ,110 TOTAL EQUITY ,011 1,210 TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY 1,181 1,290 1,421 1,575 Check CASH FLOW STATEMENT 20X1 20X2 20X3 20X4 CASH FLOW FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES Net Income Add Back Non-Cash Items Depreciation Amortization Changes in Working Capital Accounts Receivable (8) (9) (10) Inventory (10) (11) (12) Accounts Payable Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities CASH FLOW FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES Capital Expenditures - Purchase of PP&E (70) (70) (70) Net Cash Used in Investing Activities (70) (70) (70) CASH FLOW FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES Revolving Credit Facility Long Term Debt (Current Portion) (50) (50) (50) Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Fnce Activities (50) (50) (50) Net Cash Flow

26 005 Cash Flow Statement With that in mind, recall that the balance sheet is just a formal presentation of the accounting equation. If the cash flow statement adjusts the left hand side of the equation, or assets, by the companies cash flow in that period, and the income statement adjusts the right-hand side of the equation, or stockholders equity, by net income THEN the cash flow statement, which starts with net income, is making adjustments so that the accounting equation holds true. And that is how the accounting equation is balanced in financial models, and therefore how the balance sheet is balanced in financial models. The cash flow statement grows the left-hand side of this equation by the company's cash balance. The income statement grows the right-hand side of this equation by net income. ASSETS = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY dr cr dr cr dr cr STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY = CONTRIBUTED CAPITAL + RETAINED EARNINGS dr cr dr cr Dividends Net Income This is how the accounting equation is balanced in financial models.

27 005 Cash Flow Statement To elaborate on this concept, consider what would happen if all of the accounts on the balance sheet maintained the same value in each period. Without any fluctuation in balance sheet accounts the effect on cash would be zero. Changes in balance sheet accounts will directly impact the Cash Flow Statement Cash is used to acquire assets and pay down liabilities BALANCE SHEET 20X1 20X2 ASSETS Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory PP&E, Net of Accum. Depreciation TOTAL ASSETS 1,000 1,000 LIABILITIES Accounts Payable Line of Credit Long Term Debt TOTAL LIABILITIES EQUITY Common Stock Additional Paid In Capital Retained Earnings TOTAL EQUITY 0 0 TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY Check CASH IMPACT 20X2 Accounts Receivable 0 Inventory 0 Accounts Payable 0 To take it one step further, what that means is that in any example where all items on the balance sheet are held constant, net income and net cash flow would have the same value.

28 005 Cash Flow Statement The videos concluding remarks highlight three concepts, all of which can be seen in the image below. Cash Flow from Operating Activities Cash Flow from Investing Activities Cash Flow from Financing Activities Cash Flow Statement & Modeling (Concepts / Relationships to Keep in Mind) Three Cash Flow Categories Cash Flow Statement Starts with Net Income The cash flow statement starts with net income and adjusts for non-cash items, working capital, investment and financing activity to arrive at the company's cash balance. Financial Models are Balanced by the Cash Flow Statement Retained earnings, an account on the balance sheet, grows stockholders' equity by net income. The cash flow statement starts with net income and adjusts this sum to account for every other change to balance sheet accounts to arrive at the company's cash balance. This maintains the relationship: Assets = Liabilities + Stockholder's Equity

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