# Income Measurement and Profitability Analysis

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1 PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS The following financial statements for Spencer Company will be used to demonstrate the calculation of the various ratios in profitability analysis. Spencer Company Comparative Balance Sheets December 31, Current Assets: Cash \$210,000 \$60,000 Receivables (net) 230, ,000 Inventories 190, ,000 Total current assets 630, ,000 Property, Plant and Equipment: Land 100, ,000 Buildings 600, ,000 Equipment 150,000 56,000 Accumulated depreciation (130,000) (96,000) Total property, plant and equipment 720, ,000 Total assets \$1,350,000 \$840,000 Current Liabilities: Accounts payable \$120,000 \$80,000 Dividends payable 0 20,000 Total current liabilities 120, ,000 Long-Term Debt: Bonds payable 200,000 0 Total liabilities 320, ,000 Stockholders' equity: Common stock, \$10 par 760, ,000 Retained earnings 270, ,000 Total stockholders' equity 1,030, ,000 Total liabilities and stockholders' equity \$1,350,000 \$840,000 E:\Teaching\3321\web\module2\c5\tnotes\c5b.doc 1/31/2007 1

2 Spencer Company Condensed Income Statement For the Year Ended December 31, 2005 Sales \$1,200,000 Cost of goods sold 800,000 Gross profit 400,000 Administrative and selling expense 162,000 Operating income 238,000 Interest expense 50,500 Income before income taxes 187,500 Income taxes 37,500 Net income \$150,000 Activity Ratios Activity ratios measure how efficiently the company manages its assets. The higher the activity ratio the less cash required to support the asset and the revenue stream. 1. Receivables Turnover An important activity ratio that is used to analyze the liquidity of an entities accounts receivable is the receivables turnover ratio. This is calculated as follows: Accounts Receivable Turnover Average Trade Receivables (net) In our example the receivables turnover ratio would be calculated as follows: Accounts Receivable Turnover Average Trade Receivables (net) \$1,200,000 Average Trade Receivables (net) [(230, ,000)/2] \$1,200,000 Average Trade Receivables (net) \$190,000 Average Trade Receivables (net) 6.3 During 2005 Spencer Company s accounts receivable turned over 6.3 times. A derivative of this ratio which is very useful for management purposes is the average collection period which is calculated as follows: E:\Teaching\3321\web\module2\c5\tnotes\c5b.doc 1/31/2007 2

3 Average Collection Period 365 Receivables Turnover Ratio In our example the average collection period for Spencer Company for the calendar year of 2005 is calculated as follows: 365 Days 365 Accounts Receivable Turnover Days Accounts Receivable Turnover 58 For Spencer Company the average accounts receivable had an outstanding balance of approximately 58 days. 2. Inventory Turnover This is an important activity ratio for a merchandising company. It presents the number of times that inventory is sold during the accounting period. More inventory turns per year the less cash required to support the inventory. This ratio is calculated as follows: Inventory Turnover Ratio Cost of Goods Sold Average Inventory In our example the inventory turnover ratio would be calculated as follows: Cost of Goods Sold \$800,000 Average Inventory [(190, ,000)/2] Cost of Goods Sold \$800,000 Average Inventory \$180,000 Cost of Goods Sold Average Inventory 4.4 During 2005 Spencer Company s inventory turned over 4.4 times. A derivative of this ratio which is very useful for management purposes is the average days in inventory, which is calculated as follows: Average Days in Inventory 365 Inventory Turnover Ratio E:\Teaching\3321\web\module2\c5\tnotes\c5b.doc 1/31/2007 3

4 In our example the average days in inventory for Spencer Company for the calendar year of 2005 is calculated as follows: 365 Days 365 Inventory Turnover Ratio Days Inventory Turnover Ratio 83 For Spencer Company it took approximately 83 days to sell inventory during Asset Turnover The asset turnover ratio provides a measure of the efficiency of the company in utilizing all of its assets to generate revenue. The asset turnover ratio is calculated as follows: Asset Turnover Ratio In our example the asset turnover ratio would be calculated as follows: \$1,200,000 [(840,000+1,350,000)/2] \$1,200,000 \$1,095, During 2005 Spencer Company turned over total assets 1.1 times. This is useful only in comparing the company s asset turnover ratio with industry averages or some other benchmark. It will also be used in conjunction with the profit margin in calculating return on investment (ROA) later in this section. Profitability Ratios Profitability ratios measure earnings in relation to sales and resources committed to operations. 1. Profit Margin on Sales The profit margin is the ratio of net income to net sales. It measures the percentage of every dollar of sales that is available for dividends or reinvestment. The ratio is calculated as follows: E:\Teaching\3321\web\module2\c5\tnotes\c5b.doc 1/31/2007 4

5 Profit Margin on Sales In our example the profit margin on sales would be calculated as follows: \$150,000 \$1,200, % For the calendar year of 2005 Spencer Company earned 12.5% profit margin on sales. For every dollar of sales the company earned.125 cents that could be used to pay dividends or reinvested in the company. 2. Return on Assets This profitability ratio expresses net income as a ratio of the assets used to earn the income. It is calculated as follows: Return on Assets In our example the return on assets would be calculated as follows: \$150,000 [(840,000+1,350,000)/2] \$150,000 \$1,095, % During 2005 the total average assets (\$1,095,000) of Spencer Company generated a return of 13.7%. An alternative computation of ROA removes the net interest expense. This gives a return on assets irrespective of the form of financing. The alternative formula is calculated as follows: Return on Assets + Interest Expense (net of tax) In our example the alternative computation of ROA would be as follows: E:\Teaching\3321\web\module2\c5\tnotes\c5b.doc 1/31/2007 5

6 + Interest Expense (net of tax) [150,000+(50,500-10,100) [(840,000+1,350,000)/2] + Interest Expense (net of tax) \$109,600 \$1,095,000 + Interest Expense (net of tax) 10.0% The ROA exclusive of interest expense (net of tax) is 10.0% of average total assets. 3. Return on Shareholders Equity The return on shareholders equity provides a measure of the return to the owners of the company. The basic ratio is calculated as follows: Return on Shareholders' Equity Average Shareholders' Equity In our example the return on shareholders equity would be calculated as follows: \$150,000 Average Shareholders' Equity [(740,000+1,030,000)/2] \$150,000 Average Shareholders' Equity \$885,000 Average Shareholders' Equity 16.9% For 2005 Spencer Company earned 16.9% on the average equity of the company. If there are more than one class of stock the ratio may be calculated based on just the common shareholders. This topic will be discussed more fully in Intermediate Accounting II. E:\Teaching\3321\web\module2\c5\tnotes\c5b.doc 1/31/2007 6

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Income Statement (1) (in millions of EUR) 1 st Q 2002 1 st Q 2001 2002/2001 Sales 5,402.2 4,993.6 +8.2% (2) EBITDA (FIFO) 408.7 366.1 +11.6% EBITDA margin 7.6% 7.3% - Depreciation (145.5) (134.6) +8.1%