Contemporary Linguistics

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1 Contemporary Linguistics An Introduction Editedby WILLIAM O'GRADY MICHAEL DOBROVOLSKY FRANCIS KATAMBA LONGMAN London and New York

2 Table of contents Dedication Epigraph Series list Acknowledgements Preface Preface to the original edition published by Copp Clark Pitman L td, Canada List of technical abbreviations v vi xiii xiv xv xvii xix 1 Language: a preview WILLIAM O'CRADY, MICHAEL DOBROVOLSKY AND FRANCIS KATAMBA 1 1 A creative system 1 2 Grammar and linguistic competence 4 3 Changeability: grammars change over time 9 4 Biological specialization for language 13 Summing up 14 Note 15 Sources 15 Recommended reading 15 Questions 16 2 Phonetics: the sounds of language MICHAEL DOBROVOLSKY AND FRANCIS KATAMBA Phonetic transcription 19 2 The sound-producing system 20 3 Sound classes 23 4 Consonant articulation 25 5 Manners of articulation 27 6 Vowels 35 7 Phonetic transcription of RP vowels and consonants 41 8 Suprasegmentals 41 9 Processes Other vowels and consonants (advanced) 57 Summing up 62 Notes 64

3 viii TABLE OF CONTENTS Sources 64 Recommended reading 64 Questions 65 3 Phonology: the function and patterning of sounds MICHAEL DOBROVOLSKY AND FRANCIS KATAMBA 68 1 Segments in contrast 70 2 Phonetically conditioned variation: phonemes and allophones 72 3 Phonetic and phonemic transcription 82 4 Above the segment: syllables 83 5 Features 95 6 Derivations and rule ordering Representations (advanced) Stress and metrics (advanced) 113 Summing up 121 Notes 122 Sources 122 Recommended reading 123 Appendix: Hints for solving phonology problems 123 Questions Morphology: the analysis of word structure WILLIAM O'GRADY AND VIDEA P. DE GUZMAN Words and word structure Derivation Compounding Other types of word formation Inflection Further examples of inflection 164 Summing up 170 Notes 171 Sources 171 Recommended reading 172 Appendix: How to identify morphemes in unfamiliar languages v 172 Questions Syntax: the analysis of sentence structure WILLIAM O'GRADY Categories and structure Complement options Transformations Universal grammar and parametric variation Some extensions (advanced) Other types of syntactic analysis 229 Summing up 234

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS IX Notes 234 Sources 235 Recommended reading 236 Appendix: How to build tree structures 236 Questions Interfaces MICHAEL DOBROVOLSKY, WILLIAM O'GRADY AND FRANCIS KATAMBA Morphology and phonology Phonology and syntax Morphology and syntax 260 Summing up 264 Notes 264 Sources 265 Recommended reading 265 Questions Semantics: the analysis of meaning WILLIAM O'GRADY The nature of meaning The conceptual system Syntax and sentence interpretation Other factors in sentence interpretation 295 Summing up 305 Notes 305 Sources 306 Recommended reading 307 Questions Historical linguistics: the study of language change ROBERT W. MURRAY The nature of language change Sound change Morphological change Syntactic change Lexical and semantic change The spread of change Language reconstruction Language change and naturalness 362 Summing up 363 Notes 364 Sources 364 Recommended reading 365 Questions 366

5 X TABLE OF CONTENTS 9 The classification of languages ALEKSANDRA STEINBERGS Some preliminaries Typological classification Genetic classification 389 Summing up 410 Notes 411 Sources 411 Recommended reading 412 Questions Brain and language GARY LIBBEN The human brain Investigating the brain Aphasia Acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia Linguistic theory and aphasia Where is language? 434 Summing up 435 Notes 435 Sources 435 Recommended reading 436 Questions Psycholinguistics: the study of language processing GARY LIBBEN Methods of psycholinguistic research Language processing and linguistics Putting it all together: psycholinguistic modelling 457 Summing up 460 Sources 460 Recommended reading 461 Questions Language acquisition: the emergence of a grammar SOOK WHAN CHO AND WILLIAM O'GRADY The study of language acquisition Phonological development Morphological development Syntactic development Semantic development Determinants of language acquisition 488 Summing up 496 Notes 497

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS XI Sources 497 Recommended reading 499 Questions Second language acquisition JOHN ARCHIBALD The study of second language acquisition Interlanguage grammars Factors affecting SLA The L2 classroom 528 Summing up 534 Notes 535 Sources 535 Recommended reading 536 Appendix: L2 pedagogy 536 Questions Language in social contexts RONALD H. SOUTHERLAND AND FRANCIS KATAMBA Fundamental concepts Social differentiation of language Regional differentiation of language Mixed languages Speech situations 576 Summing up 585 Note 586 Sources 586 Recommended reading 588 Questions Writing and language MICHAEL DOBROVOLSKY AND WILLIAM O'GRADY Types of writing The history of writing The evolution of writing Some other writing systems English orthography Writing and reading 619 Summing up 620 Notes 621 Sources 622 Recommended reading 623 Questions 623

7 Xii TABLE OF CONTENTS 16 Animal communication MICHAEL DOBROVOLSKY Non-vocal communication 2 Communication structure: the study of signs 3 The bees 4 The birds 5 Non-human primates 6 Testing non-human primates for linguistic ability 7 Comparing communication systems: design features Summing up Notes Picture credits Sources Recommended reading Questions Computational linguistics JDITH KLAVANS 1 Computational phonetics and phonology 2 Computational morphology 3 Computational syntax 4 Computational lexicology 5 Computational semantics 6 Practical applications of computational linguistics Summing up Recommended reading Questions Glossary Language Index Subject Index

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