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1 MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC Volume I Hosted for free on livelingua.com

2 TABLE OF CcmmTs PREFACE. Page iii INTRODUCTICN vi Lesson v Hosted for free on livelingua.com

3 : te REVmi 394 VOOABULARY vi Hosted for free on livelingua.com

4 INTRODUCTION The Language diversity. Within the Arabic speaking world there is considerable dialect In addition to the colloquial dialects" there is a superposed literary language which can be roughly divided into three historical periods:* (1) Classical ArabiC" approximately spanning the Sixth through Eighth Centuries" characterized by the daninant influence of Arabs themselves (politically and cultura.lly, including the literary output), and most notably including pre-islamic poetry" the Koran, and the early Islamic literature; (2) Medieval Arabic, continuing up through much of the Nineteenth Century, characterized by a codified grammar and the predaninant influence of non-arab writers, and culminating in a long period of declining social and political importance; and (3) Modern Written Arabic ** (MWA), reflecting a renaissance in Arab self-consciousness and certain very notable trends toward breaking with the traditional forms and ideals. *For a more extensive introduction to this literary language, cf.,carabiyya', Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd. ed., pp **other names currently in use are 'Modern standard Arabic'" 'Contemporary Arabic', 'Modern Literary Arabic', 'Contemporary Standard Arabic', etc. The name abbreviated MWA, however, is intended to represent the written language (rather than a combination of written and oral), and is thus felt to be the least ambiguous for present purposes. vii Hosted for free on livelingua.com

5 However, whatever the differences between the written Arabic of these three periods --- differences seen most obviously in vocabulary and style --- there are strong bonds of continuity, especially in morphology and syntax. Thus, in the Arab world today, MWA has no native speakers, is rather specialized in function as the vehicle of literary expression within Arab society, is of high prestige as the modern counterpart of a highly esteemed literary language of thirteen centuries duration, and has had a long history of painstaking, thorough gra.unnatical study. It has, in addition, a number of grammatical categories not present in the colloquials (e.g., case inflections, dual forms for pronouns and verbs, etc.). Scope and Purpose Instruction in MWA in the Foreign Service Institute takes place, broadly speaking, in three stages, each of which partialj..y overlaps with the stage following: (1) Prepared materials (the MWA course, of which the present volume is the first in the series). During this stage the student gains recognitional mastery of a certain basic vocabulary and becomes thorough ~y familiar with basic morphological and syntactic patterns. Because the goal of instruction in this course is to read Arabic for information (rather than to decipher texts or engage in dictionary look-up exercises), the student will translate extensive selections (approximately 1400 typewritten pages of Arabic for this stage), and will prepare a limited part of the total for reading aloud. Matters of speaking a modified form of MWA, comprehension of formal spoken Arabic viii Hosted for free on livelingua.com

6 or any of the dialects, as well as composition a.re not dealt with in this portion of the FSI curriculum (though they are ha.nclled elsewhere). (2) Newspapers. The student begins to deal with this simplest form of unprepared Arabic materials when he is about three-quarters of the way through the first stage above. He will move progressively from the easier portions of the newspaper (front-page news, usua.j..ly translated from foreign languages into Arabic) to the more difficult loca.j. news, editorials, essays, and the like (all normally composed in Arabic). (3) Anthologies, books, periodicals, etc. After the student has finished the first stage and has shown ability to read newspapers with reasonable facility, he will begin to read Arabic books which are of relevance to his interests. Again, though, he will start With the simpler political, economic, and historical materials before moving into literary material (which has its own inherent difficulties). Thus, the minimum goal for FSI students is to master the second stage; usually not too many go fa.r beyond that unless they have had prior background in Arabic. The MWA course lays the foundation for this second stage. a Outline Of The Lessons In this first volume, the Arabic of all sentences and drills is to be read aloud; in subsequent lessons, the emphasis is shifted to reading an increasing volume of material for canprehension, With a concomitant decrease in emphasis on reading Arabic aloud. Each lesson of this volume is divided into the following sections: ix Hosted for free on livelingua.com

7 Basic Sentences: grammatical constructions in the lesson. These sentences contain the new vocabulary and Supplementary Sentences: These sentences utilize the vocabulary and grammatical constructions introduced in the Basic Sentences. Drills: These provide the student with opportunity to familiarize himself with very canmonly recurring grammatical patterns and words and phrases. In subsequent volumes the drills are replaced by reading selections. Notes: The notes are designed to ~lain to the student those new grammatical constructions which are included in the lesson and to enable him to understand the particular construction involved. notes are not intended to be a substitute for a systematic or complete presentation of the grammar (the student in FSI is given a systematic presentation of the grammar after he has finished approximately 60 lessons in the l-tla course), but are rather intended to aid him in understanding the lesson at hand. The Vocabulary: The new vocabulary for each lesson is given in the order in which it occurs in the lesson with the meaning appropriate to it at that point. There is also a complete word list for the book -- arranged by the first Arabic consonant of the form rather than by root --- at the end of the book. Note that, as soon as it is appropriate, both the perfect and imperfect forms of verbs are given. Furth~r, derived forms of the verbs are indicated by the conventional Ranan numeral.s II through X. A1.so, nouns are cited in both the singular and plural., and are transcribed in pause form (diptotes being noted by a superscript 2, e.g. /mambal.ik 2 /).* *'Many of these conventions are the same as those used in Hans Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, ed. J ~l.ton Cowan (Ithaca and Wiesbaden, 1961). x Hosted for free on livelingua.com

8 Haw To Use This Book Prior to beginning this volume, the student is expected to have learned the Arabic writing system and reasonably accurate Arabic pronunciation. In addition, familiarity with the principles of syllabification and stress, pa,usal and non-pausal foms, and the transcription system utilized in the notes and vocabula~ are likewise presupposed. The procedure for utilizing this book is outlined in the following: 1. Each lesson is to be prepared before class by the student. For this, the tapes which accom;pa.ny the text are essential, With the following format to be followed: a. Basic Sentences (1) 'Reading for Listening': The Basic Sentences are read on the tape in good newscast style but without pauses for repetition. The student is to listen and read the printed text silently along with the tape. (2) 'Reading for Repetition': The Basic Sentences are read on the tape With pauses for repetition. During the pauses the student is to read the sentence or part of sentence after the taped voice. In this volume, the taped voice should be copied exactly in the use of pausal and non-pausal forms; in later vol-urnes, greater flexibility on the part of the student is both allowed and expected. (3) The student is then to work out the translation of the sentences, utilizing the Notes and Vocabulary as necessary. b. Supplementary Sentences (1) 'Reading for Listening': As above. (2) The student is then to translate the Supplementary Sentences. (3) He is to prepare to read them aloud. xi Hosted for free on livelingua.com

9 c. Drills (1) 'Reading for Repetition': As above. (2) The student is to be above to translate these sentences (though this is not difficult after the above steps) and to read them loud in class. 2. In cass the following procedures are to be followed: a. Basic Sentences and Supplementary Sentences: Each sentence is to be transj.ated first, and then read aloud by the student. The instructor will make the necessa.ry corrections. b. Drills: The first sentence of each drill should be translated by the student, and the subsequent sentences read aloud in Arabic only. Where deemed necessary, the instructor may read the initial or subsequent sentence a10ud for the student to mimic. xii Hosted for free on livelingua.com

10 Transliteration follows: The transliteration system employed throughout the course is as y?, aa J:> 9 b ~ t t r ~ a '-' f ( j J q C H d k x J 1 t ~ d r m J a v n ) r h ) z, w, uu c.j" s U y, ii If> V'" ~ ~ ", ~.;' q..b t; t ~ 9 a i, -;' u Consonant length will be indicated by a pair of adjacent, identical consonants, e.g. -!!-, -~-, -ff-, etc. xiii Hosted for free on livelingua.com

11 Abbreviations nom. acc. gen. sg. pj.. impf. perf'. subj. juss. impv. nominative accusative genitive singular plural. imperfect perfect subjwlctive jussive imperative - masc. or m. mascul.ine feme or f. feminine 1st 2nd 3rd first person second person third person xiv Hosted for free on livelingua.com

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