1 North Georgia College & State University LART 7200: Trends and Practices in Reading Education (Meets Requirements for Maryland s Processes and Acquisition of Reading) Course Description This course assists teachers in understanding the reading acquisition process. Using scientifically-based research, participants learn the foundational concepts of how children learn to read (characteristics, assessment, and instruction) from the most emergent stage through adulthood. Through the use of online case studies, readings, and collaboration, educators gain an understanding of the predictors of success and failure in reading, and apply knowledge of language structure to understand the reading and writing processes of children. Competencies Upon completion of this course, participants will be able to Describe the phases of reading acquisition; Articulate assessment and instructional strategies appropriate for each stage of reading acquisition; Describe multiple variables that contribute to reading acquisition; Explain dyslexia and the contributions of neuroscience to our understanding of the reading process; and Apply knowledge of language structure to understand the reading and writing processes of children. Materials All materials are accessed via the CaseNEX website using the PIN provided and the user name/password you create. All readings listed can be found by going to Class Materials Virtual Library Readings (Search). See Appendix for an annotated bibliography of course readings. If you do not have the most recent versions of the following software, please download each from the given sites.
2 Windows Media Player RealPlayer Adobe Reader QuickTime Cases Used Get Lost Match Makers Now What On The Same Page Reading Champs Course Requirements and Grades Close reading of all assigned materials is expected prior to beginning other course requirements listed for each session. Please make every effort to complete assignments by the due date. If you are turning in an assignment late, you must your instructor to inform him/her that a late assignment has been posted. Points will be deducted from late work at the instructor's discretion. Graduate Course Policies and Procedures All attendance and academic integrity policies of North Georgia College & State University apply to this course. These policies can be found in the online graduate bulletin. Graduate Course Access North Georgia College & State University is committed to equal access to its programs, services, and activities for individuals with disabilities. If you believe that you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact your instructor. Introductory Session (2 points) Students completing the outlined requirements of the introductory session can earn 2 bonus points. The Journal and Discussion in this session do not count toward your required Journal or Discussion participation. Discussion (48 points) - Informed participation in online Discussions led by the course instructor is required. Discussion topics will be posted each session by your instructor. Participation should not be limited to simply
3 answering the instructor's question. Instead, discussions should follow an ongoing process of reviewing and responding to classmates' and instructor's comments in a dialogue fashion. Discussion postings should include application of the session's readings to the issues raised in the discussion prompt. You should log into and participate in the discussion at least three separate times each session. Your first posting must be your response to the discussion question, followed by at least two responses to your classmates' comments. (Please note, your class discussion can be found under the Discuss' tab on the top menu bar. The Discuss this case' link found within cases is a global' discussion area where you can interact with students in other courses. For the purpose of your class discussion assignments, however, please use the top menu bar.) You are required to participate in 8 topics of Discussion and may earn up to 6 points per session, for a total of 48 possible points. Journal (56 points) Completion of reflections based upon personal and professional experiences, session readings, and Journal prompts is required. These reflections are to be completed in your online Journal and should use components of the five-step case analysis method as indicated in the prompt. To access your Journal, click on the Journal button on the top menu bar. This entry can only be viewed by you and your instructor. Your instructor will provide feedback for each Journal posting. Graduate students are required to complete 8 journals. Each Journal is worth a maximum of 7 points for a total of 56 possible points. The two journals not chosen may be used with prior instructor permission only for make-up or substitution points for a struggling student under unusual circumstances (for example, serious health problem or other family emergency). All Journals have a suggested length of 250 words. See the Case Analysis Rubric in Appendix B for details on how your Journal will be evaluated. Workbook (75 points) The Workbook is intended as a place to apply course concepts to your unique school situation. Graduate students are required to complete three Workbook Assignments as noted in the syllabus. Each Workbook will be worth 25 points, for a total of 75 possible points. See the Workbook Assignment Rubric in Appendix B for details. Workbooks are accessed from the Talking to Each Other menu. Post your Workbook Assignment there following the directions given. (Note: If your Workbook includes images, charts, tables, or other complex formatting, please work in a word processing program and then attach your work to this area. This will ensure that all formatting stays intact). When citing sources, be sure to reference them appropriately using APA style. (See APA Style.org, Electronic References
4 Total points: 179 Graduate students must earn a B or higher in order to receive graduate credit. The point distribution for graduate students is noted below: A A A B B Assignment Weights: Discussion: 28% Journal: 30% Workbook: 42% Course Schedule Find session dates by selecting Syllabus on the top menu bar. For typical courses, final Discussions, Journals, and Workbooks are due by Saturday at midnight unless otherwise noted. Please see the News Flash for any alterations of the course schedule posted by your instructor. Course Policies and Procedures All attendance and academic integrity policies of North Georgia College & State University apply to this course. Access North Georgia College & State University is committed to equal access to its programs, services, and activities for individuals with disabilities. If you believe that you have a disability requiring an accommodation, reasonable prior notice must be given to the instructor and the Office of Disability Resources. Please contact the Coordinator of the Office of Student Disability Resources, at Barnes Hall, Room 221, or call
5 Introductory Session Exploring the CaseNEX Site The role of orthographies and sound systems in word recognition Complete these tasks prior to the beginning of Session 1. Essential Knowledge/Skills: P2.4, P2.7, P2.10, P2.11 Readings The Evolution of English The Sounds of English and Spanish (Explore the English and Spanish Library) Examples of Different Orthographies (non-latin writing system examples) Read the course requirements, paying special attention to the Case-Analysis and Workbook Assignment Rubrics. They will be used by your instructor throughout the course to evaluate assignments where appropriate. Discussion Post one entry introducing yourself to your classmates. You may choose to describe your professional background and experience, relevant personal information, or why you are taking this course. (100 words or fewer) Journal How can teachers benefit from understanding more about the historical evolution of the English language and alphabetic writing? Similarly, how does an understanding of sound systems (English and other) and orthographies (English and other) enhance one s teaching of reading? (100 words or fewer) Note Use Cas to send a note to your instructor stating that you will be taking this course. To do so, click on Cas on the top menu bar and then Click here to create a new message. Use the marked link to look up an address. Continue linking down until you see the class list. Select the instructor s name and then compose your message and hit Post Message.
6 Session 1 Understand, describe, and recognize phases of the reading acquisition process: Emergent Readers Essential Knowledge/Skills: P1.1, P1.2, P1.3, P1.6, P2.6 Case On The Same Page Readings Developmental Stages of Reading, Emergent Readers Emergent Readers and Writers (pre-kindergarten through first grade) Reading Partners: Parents and Children. Good Beginnings Never End The Importance of Phonemic Awareness in Learning to Read Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Chapter 2, The Process of Learning to Read, Phonemic Segmentation Video The Alphabetic Principle Video Discussion Review the shared reading between Courtney and her dad in this session s case. Using knowledge from this session s readings and your own experiences, provide feedback to her father. How did the father s behavior in the video align with the SBRR regarding reading development? What could the father do differently during future shared readings to further the alignment between his behavior and research? Assume you are meeting with Courtney s family. Describe how Courtney s reading skill (specifically her phonological awareness, print skills word recognition, fluency and comprehension skills) can be enhanced through shared readings, and the role of these skills in Courtney s emergent reading and spelling. As part of your conference with them, explain what is meant by the alphabetic principle. Journal Develop a graphic organizer that describes the relationships between phonological, orthographic, semantic, and syntactic processing in early reading development. Then, describe specific SBRR actions teachers and families can take to promote reading and language development, including comprehension and fluency. Include examples from the readings and video used this session.
7 Note Check your Cas (linked from top menu bar) and News Flash (on the right when you login) for notes from your instructor every time you log on to the site. Workbook Readers Matrix Beginning this Session, use the provided Reader Matrix graphic organizer to summarize information about the various types of readers (emergent, beginning, transitional, advanced). Throughout this course you ll be adding information based on current scientific research about what readers know, what they re learning to do, instructional recommendations, including those for fluency and comprehension, and text recommendations and assessment possibilities,. When considering assessment recommendations for each stage of reading, be sure to articulate what is being assessed by the various tasks (e.g., spelling provides information about a student s phonics skills). You will need to download the Matrix to your computer: 1. Click here to open the Reader Matrix. See Appendix A for course matrix. 2. Once it s opened, save as to your computer s hard drive. 3. Add to the Matrix throughout the course. 4. When the assignment is complete, attach the Matrix to your Workbook to submit it to your instructor. The completed matrix will count as one Workbook Assignment, and is due by the end of Session 6.
8 Session 2 Applying knowledge of language structure to understand the reading and writing processes of children: Part 1 Essential Knowledge/Skills: P1.9, P2.1, P2.2, P2.3, P2.7, P2.8, P2.9 Case Now What? Readings Findings and Determinations of the National Reading Panel (Alphabetics)--Read Section on Phonemic Awareness Instruction, p. 7 Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read (download entire PDF or order print copy online) Teaching Reading is Rocket Science What Teachers Need to Know About Language Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers Discussion Review the fall assessment results from Shaunna s fall testing presented in the Now What case. This includes data from DIBELS and PALS testing. Shaunna clearly has students with varying levels of literacy preparedness and understanding of the alphabetic principle. Using your readings as a guide, describe specific research-based techniques Shaunna could use to teach letter naming, matching, writing. fluency and comprehension. Based on this session s readings, which students do you consider to be at risk for reading difficult and why? Describe how students fluency in phonological processing, letter naming, and word recognition affects their subsequent reading achievement. Journal Spend this session observing language interactions between children, between a child and a parent, and between individuals from different sociocultural environments. If possible, transcribe or record the conversations to allow further analysis. Then, consider the role language structure played in the success of the conversations you overheard. Did specific word choices, pronunciations, or sentence structures enhance or confuse the conversation? What about other language patterns, such as inflection or dialectical differences? Reflect on ways that differences between the English speech sound system and that of another language may interfere with students
9 understanding of phonics, reading, and comprehension, and consider actions teachers can take to ameliorate those differences. Workbook None this session
10 Session 3 Applying knowledge of language structure to understand the reading and writing processes of children: Part 2 Essential Knowledge/Skills: P2.6, P2.7, P2.9, P2.12 Case Now What? Readings Findings and Determinations of the National Reading Panel (Alphabetics) Read Section on Phonics Instruction, p.8 English Morphemes Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read (review sections related to morphemes and orthography) Discussion From Now What, compare and contrast Madison and Andrew s writing samples. Analyze their work to determine the nature of the errors (phonological, orthographic, morphological). Determine whether these errors are typical of students at risk for reading difficulty. Identify any phonological, phonic, or morphological confusions that you see. Then describe some specific behaviors Shaunna could take to stimulate those students understanding of language structure. Be specific in your recommendations. Journal Consider important vocabulary that you teach within one of your content areas. Then, drawing upon knowledge gained from this session s readings, describe a morphology-based lesson to teach reading, spelling, and vocabulary using one or more words. Using scientifically-based strategies, what new and interesting words could be incorporated into the lesson? What shared readings or class texts could be included as a way to expand students vocabulary and comprehension? Workbook None this session
11 Session 4 Understand, describe, and recognize phases of the reading acquisition process: Beginning/Early Readers Essential Knowledge/Skills: P1.1, P1.2, P1.3, P1.6, P1.7, P1.9, P2.9 Case Reading Champs Readings Developmental Stages of Reading, Early Readers DIBELS information Early Readers (first grade through second grade) Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Chapter 7-- Organizational Strategies for Kindergarten and the Primary Grades What are Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)? Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Chapter 3, Who Has Reading Difficulties? Discussion What specific skills and tasks distinguish an emergent reader from a beginning reader? What skills and task distinguish an emergent reader from a student at risk for reading difficulties? From what you saw in Michael s assessment results (DIBELS results in Scene 2 and spelling results in Scene 4 from Reading Champs) and his work samples, what are his instructional strengths and areas of need? Use the DIBELS descriptive levels of performance links to help you with your interpretation. Describe specific SBRR instructional strategies that teachers could take to help Michael develop as a reader. Journal Compare the spelling samples from Michael and Natalie. Using your knowledge of the continuum of reading development, describe each student s level. In terms of a continuum of stages, which student is more developed? Provide a rationale for your answer. Then, select material that could be used for read-alouds and assisted reading that could expand students vocabulary. Describe how specific teaching behaviors (e.g., sentence extension, rephrasing, modeling, questioning) could be used to stimulate students language development. How might these teaching actions influence comprehension?
12 Workbook Lesson Planning and Delivery To help you become familiar and proficient with SBRR strategies, this workbook provides an opportunity to use and reflect on the strategies you ve read about thus far in the course. Use the knowledge you have gained from the readings in this course and choose two SBRR strategies to implement that are appropriate for your teaching situation. Describe the strategy and modify it to create a challenging and engaging learning experience specific to your learners. Include the following information: Description of classroom, students, grade level, content, and other relevant information; Goals and objectives Materials Procedures; and Assessment (informal or formal) Be sure to cite the research that supports the strategy s use as well as the rationale for your choice. After you ve carried out the lessons, reflect on how the lessons went. How did the strategy enable student learning? What portions of the lesson would you do again? What portions might you change, and why? AND Add information about beginning/early readers to your Reading Matrix.
13 Session 5 Understand, describe, and recognize phases of the reading acquisition process: Developing/Transitional Readers Essential Knowledge/Skills: P1.2, P1.3, P2.8 Case Match Makers Readings Developmental Stages of Reading, Developing Stage Early Fluent/Fluent Readers (second through third grade) Findings and Determinations of the National Reading Panel: Fluency Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Chapter 4, Predictors of Success and Failure in Reading Reading for Meaning: Tutoring elementary students to enhance comprehension Barbara Foorman video on Word Families Discussion Focusing on Scene 4 from Match Makers, discuss actions that Beth, the teacher, could take to implement one of the SBRR strategies outlined in Reading for Meaning: Tutoring Elementary Students to Enhance Comprehension. Use Jordan s work samples to describe his level of reading development. Then describe how the five components of reading interact for developing and transitional readers. Journal What teaching actions could you (as the teacher) take that would help a developing/transitional level reader progress to the next level? Describe the use of specific instructional strategies to enhance fluency including guided repeated oral reading procedures. Describe the role of fluency in phonological processing, letter naming, word recognition, oral reading, and comprehension. Workbook Add information about developing/transitional readers to your Reading Matrix.
14 Session 6 Understand, describe, and recognize phases of the reading acquisition process: Middle and High School Students (Advanced Reading Level) Essential Knowledge/Skills: P1.2, P1.3, P1.4, P1.5, P1.6, P1.7 Case Get Lost Readings Contexts for Engagement and Motivation in Reading Developmental Stages of Reading, Fluent Stage Findings and Determinations of the National Reading Panel (Vocabulary) Read Vocabulary Instruction and Text Comprehension Instruction, p 13, 14 The Fifteen Key Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy Programs (p. 12) Discussion Review the Guthrie Engagement Model of Reading from the first reading (look closely at the yellow circles in the model) and Deshler s Fifteen Key Elements reading. Choose one to use for this assignment. Consider two students you ve worked with reading difficulty who struggled with motivation and engagement. Using the readings framework as a guide, brainstorm lists of actions you might take to engage those two students using SBRR strategies. Describe how you could incorporate the use of comprehension monitoring, cooperative learning, graphic organizers, question answering, question generation, and summarization into instruction for these students. As you read your colleagues posts, respond in light of the long-term predictions of reading outcomes for struggling readers. Journal Using knowledge gained from the readings on engagement, motivation, and adolescent literacy programs as a guide, describe some of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to reading acquisition. Then, consider teaching actions that address those factors. Workbook Add information about advanced readers to your Reading Matrix so that it now contains information about advanced level readers. Within your matrix,
15 be sure to address the characteristics of proficient, mature readers: sufficient phonological awareness, accurate word recognition, passage reading fluency, active construction of meaning, flexibility, and selfmonitoring. The Reader Matrix is due by the end of this session. Submit the matrix using the Workbook function.
16 Session 7 Understanding phases of the reading acquisition process: Reading and the Brain Essential Knowledge/Skills: P1.8, P1.9, P1.10, P1.11 Case None this session Readings A Conversation with Sally Shaywitz Difficulties with Reading Dissecting Dyslexia Discussion NIH defines dyslexia as a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia are: difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds) and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. Discuss ways in which knowledge from cognitive neuroscience can be used within today s classrooms. That is, how can teachers benefit from or translate the information we re learning from brain imaging (fmri) techniques into the classroom? Also, describe how these scientific contributions are contributing to what we know about the reading process for students with various types of reading difficulties. What does it contribute to our knowledge of students with reading difficulties associated with decoding, comprehension, and retention? Journal Create a metaphor or analogy that illustrates differences in the way the brain is activated during reading for both good and poor readers. Share your analogy with your colleagues at work as a way of sharing what you ve learned about reading and the brain, and gather their perspectives on the instructional implications of what you have presented. Specifically, describe
17 how knowledge in cognitive neuroscience can influence how reading is taught to children. Workbook None this session
18 Session 8 Variables and their contribution to reading acquisition: Reading and Second Language Learners Essential Knowledge/Skills: P2.3, P2.13 Case None this session Readings Effective Reading Instruction for Struggling Spanish-Speaking Readers: A Combination of Two Literatures English Language Learners: Boosting Academic Achievement h_points/rp_winter04.pdf Reading Instruction and Literacy in English Language Learners and Other At-Risk Children Discussion In which ways is effective reading instruction for ELL students different from effective reading instruction for all students? In which ways is it the same? Describe the relationship between language proficiency and reading proficiency. Examine any pertinent issues and actions that might be taken to address them. Journal The AERA reading English Language Learners: Boosting Academic Achievement emphasizes the need to craft interactions carefully that help students comprehend text and enrich their vocabularies. Choose a text that you have used or plan to use with a group of students. Examine it critically for aspects that may cause confusion to English Language Learners. What instructional issues does the text present? What pre-teaching activities could you provide to enhance the instructional climate for your second language learners? Identify the text, particular vocabulary words, an activity, and related actions you may take to enhance learning for these students.
19 Workbook Research Summary Throughout this course, we ve sought to understand the reading acquisition process by studying foundational concepts, language structure, and language development. Choose one of the five components of reading to explore in depth. Conduct research and summarize what you ve learned using the following framework: Topic and rationale for choosing the topic How it relates to the processes and acquisition of reading The scientific basis for the instructional strategies used within the component How this information is translated effectively for use within the classroom How you can share this information with others Your written product should be 3-5 pages in length, double spaced. OR Authentic Case Analysis Choose an emergent, beginning, transitional, or advanced level student in your class or school. Describe fully the student s current literacy skills along with skills to be included in long range planning to move this student into the next stage of literacy development. Then, apply the five-step case analysis to this student s instructional situation, detailing the relevant issues, perspectives, knowledge, actions, and consequences. Refer to the Case-Analysis Rubric under the Course Tutorial to guide your thinking. Be sure to cite knowledge from related readings as part of your justification for your chosen actions and forecast the consequences of your proposal. Include a timeline for implementing your plan, notes about other staff you may require to assist you, and any other details that will help you fully implement your ideas. Due by the end of this session
20 Appendix A: Reader Matrix Emergent Reader What they know: What they re learning to do: Instructional recommendations for this type of reader: Text recommendations for this type of reader: Assessment recommendations for this type of reader: 20
21 Beginning Reader What they know: What they re learning to do: Instructional recommendations for this type of reader: Text recommendations for this type of reader: Assessment recommendations for this type of reader: 21
22 Transitional Reader What they know: What they re learning to do: Instructional recommendations for this type of reader: Text recommendations for this type of reader: Assessment recommendations for this type of reader: 22
23 Instructional Reader What they know: What they re learning to do: Instructional recommendations for this type of reader: Text recommendations for this type of reader: Assessment recommendations for this type of reader: 23
24 Appendix B: Journal and Workbook Assignment Rubrics (2) 24
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Welcome Hello and Welcome to the Fast ForWord Family! Congratulations on taking this important step toward helping your students accelerate their learning by developing their brains to process more efficiently.
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