Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition. Chapter 3: Data Link and Network Layer TCP/IP Protocols

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1 Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition Chapter 3: Data Link and Network Layer TCP/IP Protocols

2 Objectives Understand the role that data link protocols, such as SLIP and PPP, play for TCP/IP Distinguish among various Ethernet and token ring frame types Understand how hardware addresses work in a TCP/IP environment, and the services that ARP and RARP provide for such networks Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 2

3 Objectives (continued) Appreciate the overwhelming importance of the Internet Protocol (IP), and how IP packets behave on TCP/IP networks Understand the lifetime of an IP datagram, and the process of fragmentation and reassembly Appreciate service delivery options Understand IP header fields and functions Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 3

4 Data Link Protocols Key jobs of Data Link layer Media Access Control (MAC) Logical Link Control (LLC) Point-to-point data transfer Shipping data from one MAC layer address to another Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 4

5 Data Link Protocols (continued) WAN encapsulation of frames at Data Link layer involves one or more of the following services Addressing Bit-level integrity check Delimitation Protocol identification (PID) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 5

6 Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) Original point-to-point protocol Sometimes used to Manage communications or networking equipment through a dial-up serial port connection Simple packet-framing protocol described in RFC 1055 Uses a special END character (0xC0) Placed at the beginning and end of each IP datagram to delimit, or separate, each payload Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 6

7 Point-to-Point Protocol Provides Frame delimitation Protocol identification and bit-level integrity check services RFC 1661 includes Encapsulation methods A special Link Control Protocol (LCP) A collection of negotiation protocols Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 7

8 Point-to-Point Protocol (continued) Fields in the PPP header and trailer include Flag Protocol identifier Frame Check Sequence (FCS) Supports a default MTU of 1,500 bytes Which makes it ideal for interconnecting Ethernetbased networks (or peers) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 8

9 Special Handling for PPP Links For switched technologies Bidirectional connections must be negotiated between peers that wish to exchange data X.25: RFC X.25 Standard set of protocols defined in the 1970s by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Frame relay: RFC 2427 Assumes that digital-quality transmission lines are available for creating WAN links Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 9

10 Special Handling for PPP Links (continued) ATM: RFCs 1577 and 1626 High-speed, long-haul, broadband, cell-switched networking technology Offers astonishing and ever-increasing bandwidth PPPoE: RFC 2516 Protocol used by Internet service providers to authenticate and manage broadband subscribers Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 10

11 Frame Types At Data Link layer Protocol data units are called frames Frame Represents same data that appears in digital form at the Network layer in an IP datagram Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 11

12 Ethernet Frame Types Ethernet II frame type De facto standard frame type used for IP datagram transmissions over Ethernet networks Has protocol identification field Ethernet frame types that TCP/IP can use Ethernet II Ethernet Logical Link Control Ethernet Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 12

13 Ethernet II Frame Structure Ethernet II frame type fields and structure Preamble Destination Address Field Source Address Field Type Field Data Field Frame Check Sequence Field Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 13

14 Ethernet II Frame Structure (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 14

15 Ethernet II Frame Structure (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 15

16 Ethernet LLC Frame Structure Unique fields Preamble Start Frame Delimiter Field: Length Field Destination Service Access Point (DSAP) Field: Source Service Access Point (SSAP) Field: Control Field Destination Address Source Address Data Frame Check Sequence Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 16

17 Ethernet LLC Frame Structure (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 17

18 Ethernet LLC Frame Structure (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 18

19 Ethernet SNAP Frame Structure Fields Organization Code Field Ether Type Field Preamble Start Frame Delimiter Destination Address Source Address Length Destination Service Access Point Source Service Access Point Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 19

20 Ethernet SNAP Frame Structure (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 20

21 Token Ring Frame Types IEEE standard Defines token ring networking Token ring networks Rely on a physical star design, although they use a logical ring transmission path On a token ring network Each token ring workstation acts as a repeater Variations of token ring frames Token Ring LLC frames Token Ring SNAP frames Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 21

22 Token Ring Frame Types (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 22

23 Hardware Addresses in the IP IP addresses Environment Identify individual IP hosts on a TCP/IP internetwork TCP/IP networking uses ARP to Determine the hardware address of the local target for the packet ARP cache Table of hardware addresses learned through the ARP process Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 23

24 Hardware Addresses in the IP Environment (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 24

25 Hardware Addresses in the IP Environment (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 25

26 Hardware Addresses in the IP Environment (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 26

27 ARP Packet Fields and Functions Basic ARP packets Broadcast ARP request packet Directed, or unicast, ARP reply packet Most confusing part of ARP Interpretation of the sender and target address information Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 27

28 ARP Packet Fields and Functions (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 28

29 ARP Packet Fields and Functions (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 29

30 ARP Cache ARP information Kept in an ARP cache in memory on most operating systems Windows-based systems Command arp -a is used to view the table contents Have utility to view IP and hardware addresses Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 30

31 ARP Cache (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 31

32 Proxy ARP Method that allows IP host to use a simplified subnetting design Enables a router to ARP in response to an IP host s ARP broadcasts Most network configurations May never need to use proxy ARP Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 32

33 Proxy ARP (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 33

34 Reverse ARP Used to obtain an IP address for an associated data link address Initially defined to Enable diskless workstations to find their own IP addresses upon booting or startup BOOTP, and eventually DHCP, replaced RARP Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 34

35 About Internet Protocol Network layer communications End-to-end communications Internet Protocol Network layer protocol used in the TCP/IP suite IP version 4 (IPv4) Widely implemented Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Most used in pilot or experimental implementations Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 35

36 Sending IP Datagrams Requirements for building an IP datagram packet to transmit on the wire IP addresses of the source and destination Hardware address of the source and next-hop router IP host Can use a manually entered destination IP address or the DNS to obtain a destination s IP address Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 36

37 Route Resolution Process Enables IP host to determine if desired destination is local or remote Local or Remote Destination? Upon determination of IP address IP host compares network portion of destination address to its own local network address Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 37

38 Route Resolution Process (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 38

39 If Remote, Which Router? Types of route table entries Host route entry Network route entry Receiving gateway typically does one of the following Forwards packet Sends an ICMP reply Sends an ICMP reply indicating that it is unclear where to send the packet Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 39

40 Lifetime of an IP Datagram IP packets Have a pre-defined lifetime indicated in each packet s Time to Live (TTL) field Recommended starting TTL value Default TTL in Windows 2000, Windows 2003, and Windows XP Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 40

41 Lifetime of an IP Datagram (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 41

42 Fragmentation and Reassembly IP fragmentation Enables a larger packet to be automatically fragmented by a router Once fragmented No reassembly occurs until fragments arrive at destination All fragments are given the same TTL value Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 42

43 Service Delivery Options Precedence Used by routers to determine what packet to send Type of Service Used to select routing path when multiple paths exist Routing protocols OSPF and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 43

44 Differentiated Services and Explicit Congestion Notification RFC 2474, RFC 2475, and RFC 3168 Offer a new use of the TOS field bits Suggest that TOS and Precedence field bytes be replaced by a Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) field Diffserv Uses DSCP value to enable routers to offer varying levels of service to traffic based on marker placed in the DSCP field Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 44

45 IP Header Fields And Functions Version Field First field in IP header Header Length Field Denotes the length of the IP header only Type of Service Field Has two components: precedence and Type of Service Total Length Field Defines length of the IP header and any valid data Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 45

46 IP Header Fields And Functions (continued) Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 46

47 IP Header Fields And Functions Identification Field (continued) Each packet is given a unique ID value when sent Flags Field Three bits long Typically, fragmentation is allowed Fragment Offset Field Shows where to place packet s data when fragments are reassembled Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 47

48 IP Header Fields And Functions Time to Live (TTL) Field (continued) Denotes the remaining lifetime of the packet Protocol Field Indicates what is coming up next Header Checksum Field Provides error detection on the contents of the IP header only Source Address Field The IP address of the IP host that sent the packet Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 48

49 IP Header Fields And Functions (continued) Destination Address Field Can include a unicast, multicast, or broadcast address Final destination of the packet Options Fields Exist primarily to provide additional IP routing controls Can be useful when testing or debugging code or specific connections Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 49

50 Summary Data link protocols Manage transfer of datagrams across the network At Data Link layer Protocols must deliver services, such as delimitation, bit-level integrity checks, addressing, and protocol identification Ethernet II frames Most common frame type on LANs Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 50

51 Summary (continued) Understanding frame layouts Crucial for proper handling of contents At the lowest level of detail Important to understand the differences in field layouts and meanings Imperative to understand how TCP/IP manages the translation between MAC layer addresses and numeric IP addresses Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 51

52 Summary (continued) Proxy ARP Permits router to interconnect multiple network segments Network layer protocols Make their way into the Data Link layer through a process known as data encapsulation Important characteristics of IP datagrams Time to Live (TTL) values Fragmentation of incoming frames Service delivery options Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edtion 52

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