Datacommunication. Internet Infrastructure IPv4 & IPv6

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Datacommunication. Internet Infrastructure IPv4 & IPv6"

Transcription

1 Internet Infrastructure IPv4 & IPv6 Eric Malmström Slide 1 Background mid 1970 DARPA finances research on packet switching networks p-p networks, packet radio and satellite comm. implementation of TCP/IP in Arpanet Internet = Arpanet + Milnet DARPA finances TCP/IP --> Berkeley Unix large popularity in the university environment Slide 2 Page 1

2 Internet organisation IAB - Internet Architecture Board IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force ISOC - Internet Society IANA - Internet Assigned Numbers Authority Standardisation through RFC - Request For Comment All standards are RFCs Not all RFCs are standards Coordination with ISO Slide 3 TCP/IP (Internet) services Network layer services connectionless packet forwarding independent of network technology universal connectivity Transport layer services connection oriented "reliable transport service" end-to-end handshaking Application services electronic mail file transfer terminal access informations services Weight more and more on applications new tools for finding and using Internet resources Slide 4 Page 2

3 Overview TCP/IP protocols Simplified overview Application Telnet FTP SMTP WWW TFTP NFS SNMP Presentation Session Transport TCP UDP Network IP and ICMP X.25 Data Link Physical Ethernet Token Ring FDDI V.24 HDLC V.35 Slide 5 IPv4 - Internet Protocol Logical addressing for routing at network layer Network routing through 32-bit logical address (IP-address) containing network address and host address Only error control is checksum IP hides differences between different media from higher layer protocols Fragmentation of datagrams ( when two interconnected networks cannot handle datagrams of the same size, e.g. Ethernet and X.25 ) Slide 6 Page 3

4 IPv4 datagram Vers IHL Service Type Total length Identification Flags Fragment Offset Time To Live Protocol Header Checksum IP options (if any) Source IP Address Destination IP Address DATA... Padding VERS: IP protocol version (=4) IHL: Header Length IDENT: Identifies fragments of the same datagram FLAGS: DF MF DF: Don t Fragment MF: More Fragments Slide 7 IP-address IP-address is 32 bits, i.e. 4 bytes Global hierarchical address coordination IANA -> RIPE -> Local-IR for addresses in Sweden IP-address 32 bits can de divided in several ways between network and host address Class A 0 Network Host Class B 1 0 Class C Network Network Host Host Slide 8 Page 4

5 Multicast applications - one-to-many, many-to-many video conference resource discovery stock exchange information... uses Class D addresses Multicast address Slide 9 Subnetting AA BB CC DD Subnetting: a method for an organisation to divide its IP-network into several administratively separated subnetworks Host part of address partitioned in subnet address and host address E.g. Class B address divided in 256 subnets with 254 host addresses each Network Subnet Host Slide 10 Page 5

6 Subnet mask Border between subnet and host defined by subnet mask. Border can be chosen freely. Subnet mask or /24 Network Subnet Host Subnet mask or /26 Network Subnet Host Slide 11 Subnet mask example Network Subnet Subnet mask Outside world Subnet Router Subnet Router Slide 12 Page 6

7 Variable Length Subnet Mask Routing protocol must transfer mask information (not only network number) and aggregate subnets Outside world Subnet Mask Subnet Mask Subnet Mask Router Subnet Mask Router address Mask address Mask Slide 13 Problems with IP-addresses Three main problems: would have run out of B-addresses by start of 1995 if nothing done if C-addresses allocated instead, routing tables in Internet backbone routers will overflow in the long term we will run out of IP-addresses Solutions CIDR, Classless Inter-Domain Routing Geographical allocation of network addresses Stricter rules to get a network address New IP-addresses (IPng / IPv6) Slide 14 Page 7

8 CIDR - Classless Interdomain Routing Internet /17 Swedish Internet operator / / / Company A Organisation B Company X Slide 15 Firewalls packet filters application gateway network address translator (NAT) adds security preserves address space Slide 16 Page 8

9 Private address space Addresses reserved for company internal networks (Private internets) These networks will not be routed in the Internet Slide 17 IPv6 Design goals support billions of hosts reduce size of routing tables simplify header: routers process packets faster better security allow future protocol evolution Type Of Service (support for real-time data) aid multicasting permit old and new protocol coexistence allow host to roam without changing address Goal met 16 byte address address space handling 7 fields in header and extension headers authentication and privacy extension headers flows, priority scope, group type only minor changes needed to ICMP, ARP, RARP, DNS,... not in protocol Slide 18 Page 9

10 IPv6 Header Version Priority Flow label Payload length Next header Hop limit Source Address (16 bytes) Destination Address (16 bytes) Version=6 Prio: 0-7 flow controllable, 8-15 constant send rate Flow label: traffic flow as vitual circuit Next header: IP extension header or layer 4 protocol Slide 19 Comparison IPv4 <-> IPv Vers IHL Service Type Total length Identification Flags Fragment Offset Time To Live Protocol Header Checksum Source IP Address (4 bytes) Destination IP Address (4 bytes) IP options (if any) Padding 0 31 Version Priority Flow label Payload length Next header Hop limit Source Address (16 bytes) Destination Address (16 bytes) Slide 20 Page 10

11 Packet sizes and fragmentation Minimum link MTU = 576 bytes Expectation: end systems perform MTU discovery Fragmentation generally discouraged Routers do not fragment en-route packets Maximum packet payload bytes (16 bit field) Provision for jumbograms (hop-by-hop option) Slide 21 IPv6 addresses Prefix (byte 1) Usage Reserved incl IPv unassigned OSI NSAP addr Novell IPX addr unassigned unassigned 0001 unassigned 001 unassigned 010 Provider-based addresses 011 unassigned Prefix Usage 100 Geographicbased addresses 101 unassigned 110 unassigned 1110 unassigned unassigned unassigned unassigned unassigned Link local use addr Site local use addr Multicast E.g. 8000:0000:0000:0000:0123:4576:89AB:CDEF or 8000::123:4576:89AB:CDEF IPv4 address :: Slide 22 Page 11

12 IPv6 - router packet handling Routers process packets faster fewer fields in header reduction of routing table size no IP checksum calculation introduction of Flow concept (similar to VC) better support for options, easier for routers to skip non-relevant options Slide 23 IPv6 - Extensions Optional linked list of Extension headers Hop-by-hop options (info for routers) e.g. jumbogram Routing (route to follow) strict or loose Fragmentation (hosts only) Authentication (for receiver) Encryption (between sender - receiver) Destination options (future developments) Slide 24 Page 12

13 IPv6 - Multicast Address prefix followed by 4-bit Flag field permanent or transient multicast group 4-bit Scope field link, site, organisation, planet, bit (14 byte) group identifier Slide 25 ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol protocol for error reporting IP-to-IP reports errors back to source/sender Test reachability Non-deliverable datagram Flow control Change routing Ask for subnet mask Routing loops Echo Request, Echo Reply Destination Unreachable Source Quench Redirect Address Mask Request & Reply Time exceeded Slide 26 Page 13

14 Ex: Traceroute traceroute to ( ), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets 1 v1-car-sto-e3.global-ip.net ( ) 4 ms 2 ms 3 ms 2 v100-bar-sto-fe0-1-0.global-ip.net ( ) 3 ms 2 ms 3 ms 3 gip-stkh-bar-2-fe1-0-0.gip.net ( ) 3 ms 2 ms 3 ms 4 gip-arch-3-atm aal5.gip.net ( ) 60 ms 58 ms 60 ms 5 gip-penn-6-pos1-0.gip.net ( ) 128 ms 127 ms 128 ms 6 gip-penn-2-pos8-0-0.gip.net ( ) 128 ms 128 ms 128 ms 7 sprint-nap.iij.net ( ) 148 ms 149 ms 145 ms ( ) 150 ms 150 ms 153 ms 9 Osaka-ibb0.IIJ.Net ( ) 327 ms 325 ms 309 ms ( ) 338 ms 322 ms 315 ms ( ) 335 ms 319 ms * 12 mfeedgw.iij.net ( ) 337 ms 337 ms 382 ms 13 IIJ-a-gate.mfeed.net ( ) 318 ms 337 ms 338 ms 14 * * * 15 * * * > Slide 27 ARP - Address Resolution Protocol ARP maps logical IP-address (network address) to physical Ethernet address. ARP sends BROADCAST containing IPaddress. (Who has IP-address xyz?) Host with IP-address xyz answers with its physical Ethernet address. Hosts build table of IP - Ethernet address mapping (ARP table) Slide 28 Page 14

15 RARP - Reverse ARP RARP uses physical Ethernet address to find logical IP-address Used for example for nework loading of diskless workstations work station and RARP-server must be on the same network ARP and RARP are link layer frame types Slide 29 DNS - Domain Name Service hierarchical domain-based naming structure distributed database system maps names to information IP-address mail host... enables name-based addressing (ASCII strings instead of binary addresses) Function: (name) (name) application resolver name server(s) (info) (info) Slide 30 Page 15

16 DNS Name Space countries (unnamed root) generic us nu... se edu com gov mil net globalone volvo ericsson uu hosts adb docs udac hosts Slide 31 Name server & resolver name space divided into Zones each zone has Name servers, one primary and one or several secondaries Recursive query (name) (name) (name) Resolver Name Server Name Server Name Server (info) (info) (info) Non-recursive query (name) Resolver Name Server (next NS) (name) Resolver (next NS) Resolver (name) (info) Name Server Name Server Slide 32 Page 16

17 DNS - example DNS Name server Outside world (2)" What is IP-address of Router (4) http (3) "www.ftg.se has address " (1) Slide 33 DNS resource records Main DNS resource record types Type Meaning Value SOA Start Of Authority Parameters for zone A IP Address of host IP-address MX Mail exchange Prio, mail accepting host NS Name Server Name server for domain CNAME Canonical Name Alias name PTR Pointer Alias for IP-address HINFO Host info CPU and OS in ASCII TXT Text ASCII text Slide 34 Page 17

18 DNS and DNS Name server Outside world (2)" What is MX-data for xyz.se?" Router (4) smtp (3) "xyz.se has MXaddress mail.xyz.se and is reached with SMTP" (1) mail Slide 35 PPP - Point to Point Protocol PPP standard for communication over serial lines (point-to-point) used e.g. between routers from different vendors transmits layer 3 protocol data and transparent bridging over WAN-link PPP has 16-bit protocol identifier Predecessor: SLIP - Serial LIne IP Slide 36 Page 18

19 Host configuration Alternatively DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Prot. Config file: Name server(s) Mail server News server Modem Received through PPP: IP-address Subnet mask Router IP-addr. DNS server Config file: IP-address Subnet mask Router IP-addr. Name server(s) Mail server News server Phone net PSTN/ISDN Modem pool Access server /24 Router Name / Mail / News Server(s) Authentication Internet Slide 37 Page 19

Internet Protocol. Raj Jain. Washington University in St. Louis.

Internet Protocol. Raj Jain. Washington University in St. Louis. Internet Protocol Raj Jain Washington University Saint Louis, MO 63131 Jain@cse.wustl.edu These slides are available on-line at: http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse473-05/ 13-1 Overview! Internetworking

More information

9025- TCP/IP Networking. History and Standards. Review of Numbering Systems. Local Signaling. IP Addressing

9025- TCP/IP Networking. History and Standards. Review of Numbering Systems. Local Signaling. IP Addressing 9025- TCP/IP Networking History and Standards ARPA NCP TCP, IP, ARPANET PARC Collaborative Network Requirements One Protocol? Peer-to-Peer Protocols Documentation and RFCs RFC Categories Where to Find

More information

8.2 The Internet Protocol

8.2 The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Protocol Suite HTTP SMTP DNS RTP Distributed applications Reliable stream service TCP UDP User datagram service Best-effort connectionless packet transfer Network Interface 1 IP Network Interface

More information

Computer Networks. Lecture 3: IP Protocol. Marcin Bieńkowski. Institute of Computer Science University of Wrocław

Computer Networks. Lecture 3: IP Protocol. Marcin Bieńkowski. Institute of Computer Science University of Wrocław Computer Networks Lecture 3: IP Protocol Marcin Bieńkowski Institute of Computer Science University of Wrocław Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 3 1 / 24 In previous lectures We learned about layer 1

More information

Computer Networks 1 (Mạng Máy Tính 1) Lectured by: Dr. Phạm Trần Vũ

Computer Networks 1 (Mạng Máy Tính 1) Lectured by: Dr. Phạm Trần Vũ Computer Networks 1 (Mạng Máy Tính 1) Lectured by: Dr. Phạm Trần Vũ 1 Lecture 7: Network Layer in the Internet Reference: Chapter 5 - Computer Networks, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall,

More information

Internetworking With TCP/IP

Internetworking With TCP/IP Internetworking With TCP/IP Application Layer Telnet Gopher NFS FTP X Win TFTP SMTP SNMP REXEC DNS RPC Transport Layer TCP UDP Network Layer ICMP IP IGMP ARP RARP Link Interface Ethernet, IEEE 802.3, Token

More information

Module 6. Internetworking. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 6. Internetworking. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur Module 6 Internetworking Lesson 2 Internet Protocol (IP) Specific Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to: Explain the relationship between TCP/IP and OSI model

More information

Lecture Computer Networks

Lecture Computer Networks Prof. Dr. H. P. Großmann mit M. Rabel sowie H. Hutschenreiter und T. Nau Sommersemester 2012 Institut für Organisation und Management von Informationssystemen Thomas Nau, kiz Lecture Computer Networks

More information

William Stallings Data and Computer Communications. Chapter 15 Internetwork Protocols

William Stallings Data and Computer Communications. Chapter 15 Internetwork Protocols William Stallings Data and Computer Communications Chapter 15 Internetwork Protocols Internetworking Terms (1) Communications Network Facility that provides data transfer service An internet Collection

More information

Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures Third Edition. Chapter 2 TCP/IP

Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures Third Edition. Chapter 2 TCP/IP Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures Third Edition Chapter 2 TCP/IP Objectives Explain the fundamentals of TCP/IP networking Describe IPv4 packet structure and explain packet fragmentation Describe

More information

IP - The Internet Protocol

IP - The Internet Protocol Orientation IP - The Internet Protocol IP (Internet Protocol) is a Network Layer Protocol. IP s current version is Version 4 (IPv4). It is specified in RFC 891. TCP UDP Transport Layer ICMP IP IGMP Network

More information

Lecture 17 Overview. Last Lecture. Wide Area Networking (2) This Lecture. Internet Protocol (1) Source: chapters 2.2, 2.3,18.4, 19.1, 9.

Lecture 17 Overview. Last Lecture. Wide Area Networking (2) This Lecture. Internet Protocol (1) Source: chapters 2.2, 2.3,18.4, 19.1, 9. Lecture 17 Overview Last Lecture Wide Area Networking (2) This Lecture Internet Protocol (1) Source: chapters 2.2, 2.3,18.4, 19.1, 9.2 Next Lecture Internet Protocol (2) Source: chapters 19.1, 19.2, 22,1

More information

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse ARP, Internet Protocol (IP)

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse ARP, Internet Protocol (IP) Tik-110.350 Computer Networks (3 cr) Spring 2000 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse ARP, Internet Protocol (IP) Professor Arto Karila Helsinki University of Technology E-mail: Arto.Karila@hut.fi

More information

IP (Internet Protocol) -Offered Services -Packet Format -ICMP

IP (Internet Protocol) -Offered Services -Packet Format -ICMP IP (Internet Protocol) -Offered Services -Packet Format -ICMP IP Communication Service Connectionless packet-oriented (or datagram) paradigm Two packets meant for the same destination may be handled in

More information

Future Internet Technologies

Future Internet Technologies Future Internet Technologies Traditional Internet Dr. Dennis Pfisterer Institut für Telematik, Universität zu Lübeck http://www.itm.uni-luebeck.de/people/pfisterer Internet Protocol v4 (IPv4) IPv4 Model

More information

IP - The Internet Protocol. Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine

IP - The Internet Protocol. Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine 1 IP - The Internet Protocol Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine Email: elzarki@uci.edu http://www.ics.uci.edu/~magda 2 Overview IP (Internet Protocol) is a Network Layer Protocol. Several versions most

More information

Chapter 9. IP Secure

Chapter 9. IP Secure Chapter 9 IP Secure 1 Network architecture is usually explained as a stack of different layers. Figure 1 explains the OSI (Open System Interconnect) model stack and IP (Internet Protocol) model stack.

More information

Chapter 6 Network Communications and Protocols

Chapter 6 Network Communications and Protocols Chapter 6 Network Communications and Protocols Objectives Explain the function of protocols in a network Describe common protocol suites Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 2 Protocols Strictly

More information

Course Overview: Learn the essential skills needed to set up, configure, support, and troubleshoot your TCP/IP-based network.

Course Overview: Learn the essential skills needed to set up, configure, support, and troubleshoot your TCP/IP-based network. Course Name: TCP/IP Networking Course Overview: Learn the essential skills needed to set up, configure, support, and troubleshoot your TCP/IP-based network. TCP/IP is the globally accepted group of protocols

More information

Ethernet. Ethernet. Network Devices

Ethernet. Ethernet. Network Devices Ethernet Babak Kia Adjunct Professor Boston University College of Engineering ENG SC757 - Advanced Microprocessor Design Ethernet Ethernet is a term used to refer to a diverse set of frame based networking

More information

CSCI-1680 Network Layer: IP & Forwarding Rodrigo Fonseca

CSCI-1680 Network Layer: IP & Forwarding Rodrigo Fonseca CSCI-1680 Network Layer: IP & Forwarding Rodrigo Fonseca Based partly on lecture notes by David Mazières, Phil Levis, John Janno< Administrivia IP out today. Your job: Find partners and tell us Implement

More information

How do I get to www.randomsite.com?

How do I get to www.randomsite.com? Networking Primer* *caveat: this is just a brief and incomplete introduction to networking to help students without a networking background learn Network Security. How do I get to www.randomsite.com? Local

More information

Introduction to TCP/IP

Introduction to TCP/IP Introduction to TCP/IP Raj Jain The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 Nayna Networks Milpitas, CA 95035 Email: Jain@ACM.Org http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ 1 Overview! Internetworking Protocol

More information

Network layer: Overview. Network layer functions IP Routing and forwarding

Network layer: Overview. Network layer functions IP Routing and forwarding Network layer: Overview Network layer functions IP Routing and forwarding 1 Network layer functions Transport packet from sending to receiving hosts Network layer protocols in every host, router application

More information

Router Architecture Overview. Input Port Functions. Switching Via Memory. Three types of switching fabrics. Switching Via a Bus

Router Architecture Overview. Input Port Functions. Switching Via Memory. Three types of switching fabrics. Switching Via a Bus Router Architecture Overview Two key router functions: run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) forwarding grams from incoming to outgoing link Input Port Functions Physical layer: bit-level reception

More information

Overview of TCP/IP. TCP/IP and Internet

Overview of TCP/IP. TCP/IP and Internet Overview of TCP/IP System Administrators and network administrators Why networking - communication Why TCP/IP Provides interoperable communications between all types of hardware and all kinds of operating

More information

Chapter 2 NETWORK LAYER

Chapter 2 NETWORK LAYER Chapter 2 NETWORK LAYER This chapter provides an overview of the most important and common protocols associated with the TCP/IP network layer. These include: Internet Protocol (IP), Routing protocols Routing

More information

IP Network Layer. Datagram ID FLAG Fragment Offset. IP Datagrams. IP Addresses. IP Addresses. CSCE 515: Computer Network Programming TCP/IP

IP Network Layer. Datagram ID FLAG Fragment Offset. IP Datagrams. IP Addresses. IP Addresses. CSCE 515: Computer Network Programming TCP/IP CSCE 515: Computer Network Programming TCP/IP IP Network Layer Wenyuan Xu Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of South Carolina IP Datagrams IP is the network layer packet delivery

More information

Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition. Chapter 3: Data Link and Network Layer TCP/IP Protocols

Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition. Chapter 3: Data Link and Network Layer TCP/IP Protocols Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition Chapter 3: Data Link and Network Layer TCP/IP Protocols Objectives Understand the role that data link protocols, such as SLIP and PPP, play for TCP/IP Distinguish among various

More information

TCP/IP and OSI model. TCP/IP Protocol (2) B.2

TCP/IP and OSI model. TCP/IP Protocol (2) B.2 TCP/IP Protocol TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internetworking Protocol (TCP/IP) standard for the Internet five layers = physical = data link = network = transport = application B.1 TCP/IP and OSI

More information

Autumn Oct 21, Oct 21, 2004 CS573: Network Protocols and Standards 1 Oct 21, 2004 CS573: Network Protocols and Standards 2

Autumn Oct 21, Oct 21, 2004 CS573: Network Protocols and Standards 1 Oct 21, 2004 CS573: Network Protocols and Standards 2 IPv4 IP: Addressing, ARP, Routing Protocols and Standards Autumn 2004-2005 IP Datagram Format IPv4 Addressing ARP and RARP IP Routing Basics Subnetting and Supernetting ICMP Address Translation (NAT) Dynamic

More information

IP addressing and forwarding Network layer

IP addressing and forwarding Network layer The Internet Network layer Host, router network layer functions: IP addressing and forwarding Network layer Routing protocols path selection RIP, OSPF, BGP Transport layer: TCP, UDP forwarding table IP

More information

TCP/IP Fundamentals. OSI Seven Layer Model & Seminar Outline

TCP/IP Fundamentals. OSI Seven Layer Model & Seminar Outline OSI Seven Layer Model & Seminar Outline TCP/IP Fundamentals This seminar will present TCP/IP communications starting from Layer 2 up to Layer 4 (TCP/IP applications cover Layers 5-7) IP Addresses Data

More information

Internetworking and IP Address

Internetworking and IP Address Lecture 8 Internetworking and IP Address Motivation of Internetworking Internet Architecture and Router Internet TCP/IP Reference Model and Protocols IP Addresses - Binary and Dotted Decimal IP Address

More information

Internet Protocol: IP packet headers. vendredi 18 octobre 13

Internet Protocol: IP packet headers. vendredi 18 octobre 13 Internet Protocol: IP packet headers 1 IPv4 header V L TOS Total Length Identification F Frag TTL Proto Checksum Options Source address Destination address Data (payload) Padding V: Version (IPv4 ; IPv6)

More information

IP Next Generation (IPv6)

IP Next Generation (IPv6) IP Next Generation (IPv6) Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@cse.ohio-State.Edu http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ 18-1 Overview q Limitations of current Internet Protocol (IP) q How many addresses do we need?

More information

Interconnection of Heterogeneous Networks. Internetworking. Service model. Addressing Address mapping Automatic host configuration

Interconnection of Heterogeneous Networks. Internetworking. Service model. Addressing Address mapping Automatic host configuration Interconnection of Heterogeneous Networks Internetworking Service model Addressing Address mapping Automatic host configuration Wireless LAN network@home outer Ethernet PPS Internet-Praktikum Internetworking

More information

CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND OF INTERNET PROTOCOL

CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND OF INTERNET PROTOCOL CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND OF INTERNET PROTOCOL This chapter presents the background and the using of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). The IPv4 addresses have some problems and limitations. Several solutions

More information

IPv6 Fundamentals Ch t ap 1 er I : ntroducti ti t on I o P IPv6 Copyright Cisco Academy Yannis Xydas

IPv6 Fundamentals Ch t ap 1 er I : ntroducti ti t on I o P IPv6 Copyright Cisco Academy Yannis Xydas IPv6 Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction ti to IPv6 Copyright Cisco Academy Yannis Xydas The Network Today The Internet of today is much different that it was 30, 15 or 5 years ago. 2 Technology Tomorrow

More information

Basic Operation & Management of TCP/IP Networks

Basic Operation & Management of TCP/IP Networks Basic Operation & Management of TCP/IP Networks SYSTEMS, Inc. For the MU-SPIN Coordination Office Slide 1 Presentation Contents Introduction to the Internet, Protocols and TCP/IP IP addressing, Name Resolution

More information

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. TCP/IP Part I. Prof Indranil Sengupta Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. TCP/IP Part I. Prof Indranil Sengupta Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur TCP/IP Part I Prof Indranil Sengupta Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Lecture 3: TCP/IP Part I On completion, the student

More information

Internet Protocols. Supporting Protocols and Framing. Updated: 9/30/14

Internet Protocols. Supporting Protocols and Framing. Updated: 9/30/14 Internet Protocols Supporting Protocols and Framing Updated: 9/30/14 Supporting Protocols ARP / RARP BOOTP ICMP DHCP NAT IP Supporting Protocols IP protocol only deals with the data transfer (best-effort)

More information

2057-15. First Workshop on Open Source and Internet Technology for Scientific Environment: with case studies from Environmental Monitoring

2057-15. First Workshop on Open Source and Internet Technology for Scientific Environment: with case studies from Environmental Monitoring 2057-15 First Workshop on Open Source and Internet Technology for Scientific Environment: with case studies from Environmental Monitoring 7-25 September 2009 TCP/IP Networking Abhaya S. Induruwa Department

More information

Internetworking and Internet-1. Global Addresses

Internetworking and Internet-1. Global Addresses Internetworking and Internet Global Addresses IP servcie model has two parts Datagram (connectionless) packet delivery model Global addressing scheme awaytoidentifyall H in the internetwork Properties

More information

Subnetting,Supernetting, VLSM & CIDR

Subnetting,Supernetting, VLSM & CIDR Subnetting,Supernetting, VLSM & CIDR WHAT - IP Address Unique 32 or 128 bit Binary, used to identify a system on a Network or Internet. Network Portion Host Portion CLASSFULL ADDRESSING IP address space

More information

Technical Support Information Belkin internal use only

Technical Support Information Belkin internal use only The fundamentals of TCP/IP networking TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocols) is a set of networking protocols that is used for communication on the Internet and on many other networks.

More information

Internetworking. Problem: There is more than one network (heterogeneity & scale)

Internetworking. Problem: There is more than one network (heterogeneity & scale) Internetworking Problem: There is more than one network (heterogeneity & scale) Hongwei Zhang http://www.cs.wayne.edu/~hzhang Internetworking: Internet Protocol (IP) Routing and scalability Group Communication

More information

Name of Course : E1-E2 CFA. Chapter 4. Topic : Introduction to IPv6. Date of Creation : 19.03.2011

Name of Course : E1-E2 CFA. Chapter 4. Topic : Introduction to IPv6. Date of Creation : 19.03.2011 Name of Course : E1-E2 CFA Chapter 4 Topic : Introduction to IPv6 Date of Creation : 19.03.2011 Page: 1 INTRODUCTION TO IPV6 The current version of IP (known as Version 4 or IPv4) has proven to be robust,

More information

Networking Theory. Jeffrey Miller, Ph.D. CSCI 201L USC CSCI 201L

Networking Theory. Jeffrey Miller, Ph.D. CSCI 201L  USC CSCI 201L Networking Theory CSCI 201L Jeffrey Miller, Ph.D. HTTP://WWW-SCF.USC.EDU/~CSCI201 USC CSCI 201L Outline Networking Overview DNS IP Addressing Subnets DHCP Ports NAT Test Yourself USC CSCI 201L 2/24 Networking

More information

CS 348: Computer Networks. - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012. Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay

CS 348: Computer Networks. - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012. Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay CS 348: Computer Networks - IP addressing; 21 st Aug 2012 Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay Think-Pair-Share: IP addressing What is the need for IP addresses? Why not have only MAC addresses? Given that

More information

The OSI Model and the TCP/IP Protocol Suite. Pritee Parwekar ANITS 1

The OSI Model and the TCP/IP Protocol Suite. Pritee Parwekar ANITS 1 The OSI Model and the TCP/IP Protocol Suite Pritee Parwekar ANITS 1 To study To discuss the idea of multiple layering in data communication and networking and the interrelationship between layers. To discuss

More information

IP Addressing Introductory material.

IP Addressing Introductory material. IP Addressing Introductory material. A module devoted to IP addresses. Addresses & Names Hardware (Layer 2) Lowest level Ethernet (MAC), Serial point-to-point,.. Network (Layer 3) IP IPX, SNA, others Transport

More information

Networking IP and Convergence: Advanced TCP

Networking IP and Convergence: Advanced TCP coursemonster.com/me Networking IP and Convergence: Advanced TCP View training dates» Overview This is an in depth technical course that covers the TCPIP protocols in more detail than the Introduction

More information

Application Protocols in the TCP/IP Reference Model. Application Protocols in the TCP/IP Reference Model. DNS - Concept. DNS - Domain Name System

Application Protocols in the TCP/IP Reference Model. Application Protocols in the TCP/IP Reference Model. DNS - Concept. DNS - Domain Name System Application Protocols in the TCP/IP Reference Model Application Protocols in the TCP/IP Reference Model File Transfer E-Mail Network Management Protocols of the application layer are common communication

More information

Motivation. Domain Name System (DNS) Flat Namespace. Hierarchical Namespace

Motivation. Domain Name System (DNS) Flat Namespace. Hierarchical Namespace Motivation Domain Name System (DNS) IP addresses hard to remember Meaningful names easier to use Assign names to IP addresses Name resolution map names to IP addresses when needed Namespace set of all

More information

Basic Networking Concepts. 1. Introduction 2. Protocols 3. Protocol Layers 4. Network Interconnection/Internet

Basic Networking Concepts. 1. Introduction 2. Protocols 3. Protocol Layers 4. Network Interconnection/Internet Basic Networking Concepts 1. Introduction 2. Protocols 3. Protocol Layers 4. Network Interconnection/Internet 1 1. Introduction -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected

More information

Chapter 7. Local Area Network Communications Protocols

Chapter 7. Local Area Network Communications Protocols Chapter 7 Local Area Network Communications Protocols IP Version 4 The most commonly used network layer protocol is IP, or the Internet Protocol. As its name would indicate, IP is the protocol used on

More information

Internet Protocols Fall Lectures 7-8 Network Layer Andreas Terzis

Internet Protocols Fall Lectures 7-8 Network Layer Andreas Terzis Internet Protocols Fall 2006 Lectures 7-8 Network Layer Andreas Terzis Outline Internet Protocol Service Model Addressing Original addressing scheme Subnetting CIDR Forwarding Router Designs Fragmentation

More information

Lecture 9. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

Lecture 9. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Lecture 9. Direct Datagram Forwarding: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Problem statement Routing decision for packet X has two possible outcomes: You are arrived to the final network: go to host X You

More information

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) / Internet Protocol (IP)

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) / Internet Protocol (IP) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) / Internet Protocol (IP) Overview of TCP/IP Oldest networking standard developed for US department s ARPANET Most popular network protocol Allows reasonably efficient

More information

IP Next Generation (IPv6)

IP Next Generation (IPv6) IP Next Generation (IPv6) Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@cse.ohio-State.Edu http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~jain/cis677-98/ 1 Overview q Limitations of current Internet Protocol (IP) q How many addresses do we

More information

Application Protocols in the TCP/IP Reference Model

Application Protocols in the TCP/IP Reference Model Application Protocols in the TCP/IP Reference Model File Transfer E-Mail Network Management WWW Virtual Terminal Name Service File Transfer HTTP FTP Telnet SMTP DNS SNMP TFTP Internet protocols TCP UDP

More information

Network Models and Protocols

Network Models and Protocols 669-5ch01.fm Page 1 Friday, April 12, 2002 2:01 PM C H A P T E R Network Models and Protocols 1 EXAM OBJECTIVES 1.1 Layered Network Models 1.2 The Layers of the TCP/IP 5-Layer Model 1.3 Network Protocols

More information

Internet Protocol version 4

Internet Protocol version 4 Internet Protocol version 4 Claudio Cicconetti International Master on Communication Networks Engineering 2006/2007 Table of Contents IP Addressing Class-based IP addresses

More information

Institute of Computer Technology - Vienna University of Technology. L30 - IP Technology Basics

Institute of Computer Technology - Vienna University of Technology. L30 - IP Technology Basics IP Technology Basics TCP/IP Protocol Suite, RFC, IP Addresses, IP Forwarding Agenda Introduction IP Address Address Classes Subnetting IP Forwarding Routing Basics Forwarding and ARP Forwarding and ICMP

More information

OSI Reference Model. Application Layer. Presentation Layer. Session Layer. Transport Layer. Chapter 4: Application Protocols.

OSI Reference Model. Application Layer. Presentation Layer. Session Layer. Transport Layer. Chapter 4: Application Protocols. Chapter 3: Protocols and Services 3.1: The Internet Protocol: IP 3.2: Routing 3.3: Auxiliary Protocols 3.4: Quality of Service 3.5: Transport Layer: TCP and UDP OSI Reference Model Application Layer Presentation

More information

2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports

2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports 1. Introduction to IP... 1 2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports... 1 3. IP Packet Structure... 2 4. IP Address Structure... 2 Network Portion... 2 Host Portion... 3 Global vs. Private IP Addresses...3

More information

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Raj Jain Washington University Saint Louis, MO 63131 Jain@cse.wustl.edu These slides are available on-line at: http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse473-05/ 14-1 Overview

More information

Internet Protocols. Background CHAPTER

Internet Protocols. Background CHAPTER CHAPTER 3 Internet Protocols Background The Internet protocols are the world s most popular open-system (nonproprietary) protocol suite because they can be used to communicate across any set of interconnected

More information

CS 43: Computer Networks IP. Kevin Webb Swarthmore College November 5, 2013

CS 43: Computer Networks IP. Kevin Webb Swarthmore College November 5, 2013 CS 43: Computer Networks IP Kevin Webb Swarthmore College November 5, 2013 Reading Quiz IP datagram format IP protocol version number header length (bytes) type of data max number remaining hops (decremented

More information

Virtual Networks and Tunnels

Virtual Networks and Tunnels Virtual Networks and Tunnels Virtual private networks via internet Use leased lines Establish VCs on an ATM network Controlled connectivity Using IP IP Tunnels: No VC Concept of encapsulation router Example

More information

Introduction to IP v6

Introduction to IP v6 IP v 1-3: defined and replaced Introduction to IP v6 IP v4 - current version; 20 years old IP v5 - streams protocol IP v6 - replacement for IP v4 During developments it was called IPng - Next Generation

More information

Raritan Valley Community College Academic Course Outline. CISY 253 - Advanced Computer Networking

Raritan Valley Community College Academic Course Outline. CISY 253 - Advanced Computer Networking Raritan Valley Community College Academic Course Outline CISY 253 - Advanced Computer Networking I. Basic Course Information A. Course number and Title: CISY 253- Advanced Computer Networking (TCP/IP)

More information

Savera Tanwir. Internet Protocol

Savera Tanwir. Internet Protocol Savera Tanwir Internet Protocol The IP Protocol The IPv4 (Internet Protocol) header. IP Packet Details Header and payload Header itself has a fixed part and variable part Version IPv4, IPv5 or IPv6 IHL,

More information

TCP/IP Concepts Review. Ed Crowley

TCP/IP Concepts Review. Ed Crowley TCP/IP Concepts Review Ed Crowley 1 Objectives At the end of this unit, you will be able to: Describe the TCP/IP protocol stack For each level, explain roles and vulnerabilities Explain basic IP addressing

More information

A DNS Tutorial. Copyright

A DNS Tutorial.  Copyright http://ntrg.cs.tcd.ie/undergrad/4ba2/multicast/ Copyright Table of Contents What is a DNS?... 3 Why do we need a DNS?... 3 Why do computers prefer addresses based on numbers?... 3 What is a Domain Name,

More information

- IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting -

- IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting - 1 Hardware Addressing - IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting - A hardware address is used to uniquely identify a host within a local network. Hardware addressing is a function of the Data-Link layer of the OSI

More information

UPPER LAYER SWITCHING

UPPER LAYER SWITCHING 52-20-40 DATA COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT UPPER LAYER SWITCHING Gilbert Held INSIDE Upper Layer Operations; Address Translation; Layer 3 Switching; Layer 4 Switching OVERVIEW The first series of LAN switches

More information

IP address format: Dotted decimal notation: 10000000 00001011 00000011 00011111 128.11.3.31

IP address format: Dotted decimal notation: 10000000 00001011 00000011 00011111 128.11.3.31 IP address format: 7 24 Class A 0 Network ID Host ID 14 16 Class B 1 0 Network ID Host ID 21 8 Class C 1 1 0 Network ID Host ID 28 Class D 1 1 1 0 Multicast Address Dotted decimal notation: 10000000 00001011

More information

Introduction to IP networking

Introduction to IP networking DD2395 p2 2011 Introduction to IP networking Olof Hagsand KTH CSC 1 Example: Packet transfer www.server.org An end host requests a web-page from a server via a local-area network The aim of this lecture

More information

Lecture 15. IP address space managed by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)

Lecture 15. IP address space managed by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Lecture 15 IP Address Each host and router on the Internet has an IP address, which consist of a combination of network number and host number. The combination is unique; no two machines have the same

More information

IP Addressing. -Internetworking (with TCP/IP) -Classful addressing -Subnetting and Supernetting -Classless addressing

IP Addressing. -Internetworking (with TCP/IP) -Classful addressing -Subnetting and Supernetting -Classless addressing IP Addressing -Internetworking (with TCP/IP) -Classful addressing -Subnetting and Supernetting -Classless addressing Internetworking The concept of internetworking: we need to make different networks communicate

More information

RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol SFWR 4C03: Computer Networks and Computer Security January 19-22 2004 Lecturer: Kartik Krishnan Lectures 7-9 RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol When a system with a local disk is bootstrapped it

More information

Ethernet and IP A slightly less introductory networking class. Drew Saunders Networking Systems Stanford University

Ethernet and IP A slightly less introductory networking class. Drew Saunders Networking Systems Stanford University Ethernet and IP A slightly less introductory networking class Drew Saunders Networking Systems Stanford University Goals of Class Slightly more in-depth knowledge of Ethernet. Internet Protocol, TCP, UDP,

More information

Network-Oriented Software Development. Course: CSc4360/CSc6360 Instructor: Dr. Beyah Sessions: M-W, 3:00 4:40pm Lecture 2

Network-Oriented Software Development. Course: CSc4360/CSc6360 Instructor: Dr. Beyah Sessions: M-W, 3:00 4:40pm Lecture 2 Network-Oriented Software Development Course: CSc4360/CSc6360 Instructor: Dr. Beyah Sessions: M-W, 3:00 4:40pm Lecture 2 Topics Layering TCP/IP Layering Internet addresses and port numbers Encapsulation

More information

Lehrstuhl für Informatik 4 Kommunikation und verteilte Systeme. Auxiliary Protocols

Lehrstuhl für Informatik 4 Kommunikation und verteilte Systeme. Auxiliary Protocols Auxiliary Protocols IP serves only for sending packets with well-known addresses. Some questions however remain open, which are handled by auxiliary protocols: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse

More information

Transport and Network Layer

Transport and Network Layer Transport and Network Layer 1 Introduction Responsible for moving messages from end-to-end in a network Closely tied together TCP/IP: most commonly used protocol o Used in Internet o Compatible with a

More information

Internet Protocol Suite. Srinidhi Varadarajan

Internet Protocol Suite. Srinidhi Varadarajan Internet Protocol Suite Srinidhi Varadarajan Internet Protocol Suite: Transport TCP: Transmission Control Protocol Byte stream transfer Reliable, connection-oriented service Point-to-point (one-to-one)

More information

Communication Systems Internetworking (Bridges & Co)

Communication Systems Internetworking (Bridges & Co) Communication Systems Internetworking (Bridges & Co) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Lars Wolf TU Braunschweig Institut für Betriebssysteme und Rechnerverbund Mühlenpfordtstraße 23, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany Email: wolf@ibr.cs.tu-bs.de

More information

INTERNET ENABLED SYSTEMS NETWORK PROTOCOLS

INTERNET ENABLED SYSTEMS NETWORK PROTOCOLS DEVICES AND COMMUNICATION BUSES FOR DEVICES NETWORK Lesson-24: INTERNET ENABLED SYSTEMS NETWORK PROTOCOLS 1 Internet enabled embedded system Communication to other on the Internet. Use html (hyper text

More information

Figure 5.1: Issues addressed by network layer protocols. (Figure by Forouzan)

Figure 5.1: Issues addressed by network layer protocols. (Figure by Forouzan) Chapter 5 Network Layer The main responsibility of a network layer protocol is host-to-host data delivery. In doing this, the network layer has to deal with network layer addressing, packetization and

More information

Network Security TCP/IP Refresher

Network Security TCP/IP Refresher Network Security TCP/IP Refresher What you (at least) need to know about networking! Dr. David Barrera Network Security HS 2014 Outline Network Reference Models Local Area Networks Internet Protocol (IP)

More information

Subnetting and Network Management Omer F. Rana. Networks and Data Communications 1

Subnetting and Network Management Omer F. Rana. Networks and Data Communications 1 Subnetting and Network Management Omer F. Rana Networks and Data Communications 1 Subnetting Subnetting is an important concept in establishing TCP/IP based networks important in integrating small Local

More information

IP Basics Unix/IP Preparation Course July 19, 2009 Eugene, Oregon, USA

IP Basics Unix/IP Preparation Course July 19, 2009 Eugene, Oregon, USA IP Basics Unix/IP Preparation Course July 19, 2009 Eugene, Oregon, USA hervey@nsrc.org Layers Complex problems can be solved using the common divide and conquer principle. In this case the internals of

More information

Tutorial Questions EG/ES The tutorial questions illustrate the style of examination questions for EG/ES 3567.

Tutorial Questions EG/ES The tutorial questions illustrate the style of examination questions for EG/ES 3567. The tutorial questions illustrate the style of examination questions for EG/ES 3567. The paper will be of 3 hours duration, and each student should attempt four questions during this time. You should aim

More information

CS 520: Network Architecture I Winter Lecture 12: The Internet Control Message Protocol and Layering.

CS 520: Network Architecture I Winter Lecture 12: The Internet Control Message Protocol and Layering. CS 520: Network Architecture I Winter 2007 Lecture 12: The Internet Control Message Protocol and Layering. The previous lecture completed a discussion of the IP address space and the latest attempts to

More information

TCP/IP Network Essentials. Linux System Administration and IP Services

TCP/IP Network Essentials. Linux System Administration and IP Services TCP/IP Network Essentials Linux System Administration and IP Services Layers Complex problems can be solved using the common divide and conquer principle. In this case the internals of the Internet are

More information

Network Layer IPv4. Dr. Sanjay P. Ahuja, Ph.D. Fidelity National Financial Distinguished Professor of CIS. School of Computing, UNF

Network Layer IPv4. Dr. Sanjay P. Ahuja, Ph.D. Fidelity National Financial Distinguished Professor of CIS. School of Computing, UNF Network Layer IPv4 Dr. Sanjay P. Ahuja, Ph.D. Fidelity National Financial Distinguished Professor of CIS School of Computing, UNF IPv4 Internet Protocol (IP) is the glue that holds the Internet together.

More information

Lecture 8. IP Fundamentals

Lecture 8. IP Fundamentals Lecture 8. Internet Network Layer: IP Fundamentals Outline Layer 3 functionalities Internet Protocol (IP) characteristics IP packet (first look) IP addresses Routing tables: how to use ARP Layer 3 functionalities

More information

Gary Hecht Computer Networking (IP Addressing, Subnet Masks, and Packets)

Gary Hecht Computer Networking (IP Addressing, Subnet Masks, and Packets) Gary Hecht Computer Networking (IP Addressing, Subnet Masks, and Packets) The diagram below illustrates four routers on the Internet backbone along with two companies that have gateways for their internal

More information