SECOND M.B. AND SECOND VETERINARY M.B. EXAMINATIONS INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF MEDICINE EXAMINATION. Friday 14 March


 Shanon White
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 SECOND M.B. AND SECOND VETERINARY M.B. EXAMINATIONS INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF MEDICINE EXAMINATION Friday 14 March am Attempt all ten questions. For each question, choose the single best answer out of the five possible options to. Mark your chosen answer clearly on the separate answer sheet in the appropriate box. Ensure you enter your candidate number and letter on the answer sheet as instructed. Please leave all papers, including question and answer sheets and any rough working paper, in the examination hall when you leave. STATIONERY REQUIREMENTS Answer sheet You may not start to read the questions printed on the subsequent pages of this question paper until instructed that you may do so by the Invigilator
2 2 Q1. A paper is submitted to a clinical journal that describes the use of a new surgical technique on a patient and reports a successful outcome when the technique is used in the treatment of a single patient. Which of the following statements best describes the paper. This paper constitutes good evidence to adopt the new procedure. This paper is an example of qualitative research. This paper is an example of a casecontrol study. This paper is of no value because it describes the result from a single patient and should not be published. All new surgical procedures are first reported in a paper describing the results from the first attempt. Q2. In order to test the hypothesis that the dried food fed to cats is responsible for an increased risk of urolithiasis a study is performed examining the dietary history of a sample of 100 cats diagnosed with urolithiasis. For each case of urolithiasis two healthy cats of the same age, sex and breed were also recruited into the study to provide a comparison group and the type of food fed to these cats was recorded. 80 out of the 100 urolithiasis cats had been fed dried cat food while only 40 out of the 200 healthy cats had been fed this type of food. Which of the following statements best describes the findings of this study with regard to the hypothesis being tested? The prevalence of urolithiasis in cats is 33.3%. Healthy cats are half as likely to be fed dry cat food as compared to cats with a diagnosis of urolithiasis. The odds of a cat with urolithiasis having been fed dry cat food is 8 to 1. The risk ratio of a cat developing urolithiasis having been fed dry cat food is 4. The odds ratio of a cat with urolithiasis having been fed dry cat food as compared to a healthy cat is 16. Q3. A new serological assay has been produced to diagnose early a neoplastic condition. The test is assessed using 1000 healthy individuals and 1000 individuals for which there is already a definite diagnosis for this condition. There are 850 positive results among the individuals who have the condition and 50 positive results among the healthy individuals. 5% 15% 30% 85% 95% The specificity of the serological test for diagnosing this neoplastic condition is:
3 3 Q4. Consumption of alcohol and the smoking of tobacco products are both causal factors in the incidence of oesophageal cancer. These two risk factors are not independent, but operate synergistically. If a study was attempting to quantify the risk of smoking in the aetiology of oesophageal cancer and failed to control for the amount of alcohol consumption which of the following types of bias would influence the result? Confounding bias Design bias Recall bias Recruitment bias Selection bias Q5. In a study of an endemic infectious disease within the UK cattle population it is determined that 2% of the population are infected at any single point in time. In another study it is determined that the average duration of disease is 8 weeks. Using this information what would be your best estimate for the annual incidence of disease in a herd of 100 cows? Q6. In a study attempting to provide evidence on the outcomes following hip replacement surgery a number of data were collected. One variable that was collected was described as Cause of death within 30 days following hip replacement surgery using one of two surgical techniques in a topranked hospital. Which of the following best describes this type of data? Numerical, continuous Categorical, ordinal Categorical, nominal Numerical, discrete Categorical, binary
4 4 Q7. When making inferences, 95% confidence intervals are considered more informative than pvalues for a variety of reasons. Which one of the statements concerning 95% confidence intervals given below is NOT true? They generally indicate whether or not a result is statistically significant at the twosided, 0.05 level of significance. They are less open to post hoc analyses ( datadredging ) than significance tests. They automatically include the true (population) value of the parameter being estimated. They convey the uncertainty or imprecision of an estimate. They incorporate information about the sample size involved. Q8. A onesided pvalue comparing two groups of randomly sampled data in a wellconducted study is correctly computed to be What can be inferred from this study? The study was adequately powered to detect a meaningful difference between the two groups. The null hypothesis of no difference between the population means for the two groups has a 4% chance of being true. A twosided test on the same data is also statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance. The alternative hypothesis must be true. None of the above. Q9. Which of the following is a valid reason for a leading journal s statistical reviewer to recommend rejection of a submitted article describing a randomised controlled trial? Authors failed to consult a statistician at the correct design stage of the study. The study was not blinded (those assessing the health outcomes were aware of treatment group allocation). The abstract failed to mention a 95% confidence interval for the study s primary outcome (the main result). The study was of adequate size but the primary outcome was not statistically significant. The randomisation was done in a manner that allowed the researchers to know each patient s treatment in advance of allocation.
5 5 Q10. Mesothelioma is incurable, with a median mortality of only eight months after discovery as quoted by Stephen Jay Gould in an article entitled The median isn t the message. Which one of the following comments about newlydiagnosed mesothelioma patients is false? Their mean survival time is greater than the median due to the skewed nature of survival time distribution. They may die from a cancer different from mesothelioma. Half will live for at least 8 months. Fewer than 75% will have died within 8 months. None will live for twenty years postdiagnosis. [END OF PAPER]
Basic research methods. Basic research methods. Question: BRM.2. Question: BRM.1
BRM.1 The proportion of individuals with a particular disease who die from that condition is called... BRM.2 This study design examines factors that may contribute to a condition by comparing subjects
More informationBasic Biostatistics for Clinical Research. Ramses F Sadek, PhD GRU Cancer Center
Basic Biostatistics for Clinical Research Ramses F Sadek, PhD GRU Cancer Center 1 1. Basic Concepts 2. Data & Their Presentation Part One 2 1. Basic Concepts Statistics Biostatistics Populations and samples
More informationBasic of Epidemiology in Ophthalmology Rajiv Khandekar. Presented in the 2nd Series of the MEACO Live Scientific Lectures 11 August 2014 Riyadh, KSA
Basic of Epidemiology in Ophthalmology Rajiv Khandekar Presented in the 2nd Series of the MEACO Live Scientific Lectures 11 August 2014 Riyadh, KSA Basics of Epidemiology in Ophthalmology Dr Rajiv Khandekar
More informationGuide to Biostatistics
MedPage Tools Guide to Biostatistics Study Designs Here is a compilation of important epidemiologic and common biostatistical terms used in medical research. You can use it as a reference guide when reading
More informationBA 275 Review Problems  Week 6 (10/30/0611/3/06) CD Lessons: 53, 54, 55, 56 Textbook: pp. 394398, 404408, 410420
BA 275 Review Problems  Week 6 (10/30/0611/3/06) CD Lessons: 53, 54, 55, 56 Textbook: pp. 394398, 404408, 410420 1. Which of the following will increase the value of the power in a statistical test
More informationEBM Cheat Sheet Measurements Card
EBM Cheat Sheet Measurements Card Basic terms: Prevalence = Number of existing cases of disease at a point in time / Total population. Notes: Numerator includes old and new cases Prevalence is crosssectional
More informationWhat is critical appraisal?
...? series Second edition Evidencebased medicine Supported by sanofiaventis What is critical appraisal? Amanda Burls MBBS BA MSc FFPH Director of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, Director of
More informationSize of a study. Chapter 15
Size of a study 15.1 Introduction It is important to ensure at the design stage that the proposed number of subjects to be recruited into any study will be appropriate to answer the main objective(s) of
More informationClinical Study Design and Methods Terminology
Home College of Veterinary Medicine Washington State University WSU Faculty &Staff Page Page 1 of 5 John Gay, DVM PhD DACVPM AAHP FDIU VCS Clinical Epidemiology & EvidenceBased Medicine Glossary: Clinical
More informationChisquare test Fisher s Exact test
Lesson 1 Chisquare test Fisher s Exact test McNemar s Test Lesson 1 Overview Lesson 11 covered two inference methods for categorical data from groups Confidence Intervals for the difference of two proportions
More informationWhat are observational studies and how do they differ from clinical trials?
What are observational studies and how do they differ from clinical trials? Caroline A. Sabin Dept. Infection and Population Health UCL, Royal Free Campus London, UK Experimental/observational studies
More informationWhen Does it Make Sense to Perform a MetaAnalysis?
CHAPTER 40 When Does it Make Sense to Perform a MetaAnalysis? Introduction Are the studies similar enough to combine? Can I combine studies with different designs? How many studies are enough to carry
More informationBIOSTATISTICS QUIZ ANSWERS
BIOSTATISTICS QUIZ ANSWERS 1. When you read scientific literature, do you know whether the statistical tests that were used were appropriate and why they were used? a. Always b. Mostly c. Rarely d. Never
More informationBiostatistics: Types of Data Analysis
Biostatistics: Types of Data Analysis Theresa A Scott, MS Vanderbilt University Department of Biostatistics theresa.scott@vanderbilt.edu http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/theresascott Theresa A Scott, MS
More informationChi Squared and Fisher's Exact Tests. Observed vs Expected Distributions
BMS 617 Statistical Techniques for the Biomedical Sciences Lecture 11: ChiSquared and Fisher's Exact Tests Chi Squared and Fisher's Exact Tests This lecture presents two similarly structured tests, Chisquared
More informationWhat is meant by "randomization"? (Select the one best answer.)
Preview: Postclass quiz 5  Clinical Trials Question 1 What is meant by "randomization"? (Select the one best answer.) Question 2 A. Selection of subjects at random. B. Randomization is a method of allocating
More informationAnswer keys for Assignment 10: Measurement of study variables
Answer keys for Assignment 10: Measurement of study variables (The correct answer is underlined in bold text) 1. In a study, participants are asked to indicate the type of pet they have at home (ex: dog,
More informationMaster of Public Health (MPH) SC 542
Master of Public Health (MPH) SC 542 1. Objectives This proposed Master of Public Health (MPH) programme aims to provide an in depth knowledge of public health. It is designed for students who intend to
More informationIntroduction to Statistics and Quantitative Research Methods
Introduction to Statistics and Quantitative Research Methods Purpose of Presentation To aid in the understanding of basic statistics, including terminology, common terms, and common statistical methods.
More informationSample Size Planning, Calculation, and Justification
Sample Size Planning, Calculation, and Justification Theresa A Scott, MS Vanderbilt University Department of Biostatistics theresa.scott@vanderbilt.edu http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/theresascott Theresa
More informationBasic Study Designs in Analytical Epidemiology For Observational Studies
Basic Study Designs in Analytical Epidemiology For Observational Studies Cohort Case Control Hybrid design (casecohort, nested case control) CrossSectional Ecologic OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES (NonExperimental)
More informationTips for surviving the analysis of survival data. Philip TwumasiAnkrah, PhD
Tips for surviving the analysis of survival data Philip TwumasiAnkrah, PhD Big picture In medical research and many other areas of research, we often confront continuous, ordinal or dichotomous outcomes
More information7.1 Inference for comparing means of two populations
Objectives 7.1 Inference for comparing means of two populations Matched pair t confidence interval Matched pair t hypothesis test http://onlinestatbook.com/2/tests_of_means/correlated.html Overview of
More informationIntroduction to Observational studies Dr. Javaria Gulzar Clinical Research Associate SCRC.
Introduction to Observational studies Dr. Javaria Gulzar Clinical Research Associate SCRC. Observational Study A study in which a researcher simply observes behavior in a systemic manner with out any active
More informationSession 5: How to critically appraise a paper an example
Session 5: How to critically appraise a paper an example Appraising research broad questions l What is the research question? l Is the study ethical? l Is the study design valid and appropriate? l What
More informationA Guide to Clinical Trials
A Guide to Clinical Trials For young people with cancer and their parents Children s Cancer and Leukaemia Group www.cclg.org.uk Original booklet produced in conjunction with the CCLG Patient Advocacy Committee.
More informationAppendix G STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS STATISTICAL ROADMAP. Prepared in Support of: CDC/NCEH Cross Sectional Assessment Study.
Appendix G STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS STATISTICAL ROADMAP Prepared in Support of: CDC/NCEH Cross Sectional Assessment Study Prepared by: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National
More informationToday s lecture. Lecture 6: Dichotomous Variables & Chisquare tests. Proportions and 2 2 tables. How do we compare these proportions
Today s lecture Lecture 6: Dichotomous Variables & Chisquare tests Sandy Eckel seckel@jhsph.edu Dichotomous Variables Comparing two proportions using 2 2 tables Study Designs Relative risks, odds ratios
More informationOutline of Topics. Statistical Methods I. Types of Data. Descriptive Statistics
Statistical Methods I Tamekia L. Jones, Ph.D. (tjones@cog.ufl.edu) Research Assistant Professor Children s Oncology Group Statistics & Data Center Department of Biostatistics Colleges of Medicine and Public
More informationMeasures of disease frequency
Measures of disease frequency Madhukar Pai, MD, PhD McGill University, Montreal Email: madhukar.pai@mcgill.ca 1 Overview Big picture Measures of Disease frequency Measures of Association (i.e. Effect)
More informationCompetency 1 Describe the role of epidemiology in public health
The Northwest Center for Public Health Practice (NWCPHP) has developed competencybased epidemiology training materials for public health professionals in practice. Epidemiology is broadly accepted as
More informationC. The null hypothesis is not rejected when the alternative hypothesis is true. A. population parameters.
Sample Multiple Choice Questions for the material since Midterm 2. Sample questions from Midterms and 2 are also representative of questions that may appear on the final exam.. A randomly selected sample
More informationINTERPRETATION OF REGRESSION OUTPUT: DIAGNOSTICS, GRAPHS AND THE BOTTOM LINE. Wesley Johnson and Mitchell Watnik University of California USA
INTERPRETATION OF REGRESSION OUTPUT: DIAGNOSTICS, GRAPHS AND THE BOTTOM LINE Wesley Johnson and Mitchell Watnik University of California USA A standard approach in presenting the results of a statistical
More informationNo. prev. doc.: 8770/08 SAN 64 Subject: EMPLOYMENT, SOCIAL POLICY, HEALTH AND CONSUMER AFFAIRS COUNCIL MEETING ON 9 AND 10 JUNE 2008
COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Brussels, 22 May 2008 9636/08 SAN 87 NOTE from: Committee of Permanent Representatives (Part 1) to: Council No. prev. doc.: 8770/08 SAN 64 Subject: EMPLOYMENT, SOCIAL POLICY,
More informationThe alternative hypothesis,, is the statement that the parameter value somehow differs from that claimed by the null hypothesis. : 0.5 :>0.5 :<0.
Section 8.28.5 Null and Alternative Hypotheses... The null hypothesis,, is a statement that the value of a population parameter is equal to some claimed value. :=0.5 The alternative hypothesis,, is the
More informationAnalysis and Interpretation of Clinical Trials. How to conclude?
www.eurordis.org Analysis and Interpretation of Clinical Trials How to conclude? Statistical Issues Dr Ferran Torres Unitat de Suport en Estadística i Metodología  USEM Statistics and Methodology Support
More informationThe point estimate you choose depends on the nature of the outcome of interest odds ratio hazard ratio
Point Estimation Definition: A point estimate is a onenumber summary of data. If you had just one number to summarize the inference from your study.. Examples: Dose finding trials: MTD (maximum tolerable
More informationErrors in epidemiological studies
Errors in epidemiological studies What can go wrong?? sampled from the target population? sample large enough? measured precisely? measured accurately? disease correctly diagnosed? absence of disease correctly
More informationHomework 6 Solutions
Math 17, Section 2 Spring 2011 Assignment Chapter 20: 12, 14, 20, 24, 34 Chapter 21: 2, 8, 14, 16, 18 Chapter 20 20.12] Got Milk? The student made a number of mistakes here: Homework 6 Solutions 1. Null
More informationAn Introduction to the Critical Appraisal Section (including example questions)
An Introduction to the Critical Appraisal Section (including example questions) Introduction This section is common to the specialties of Dental Public Health, Oral Medicine, Oral Surgery, Orthodontics,
More informationCritical Appraisal of a Research Paper
Critical Appraisal of a Research Paper Andrew MacInnes, BDS (Hons.) MFDS, RCPS (Glasgow), Senior House Officer 1 Thomas Lamont, BDS, MFDS, RCPS (Glasgow), Clinical Research Fellow/Honorary Restorative
More informationSTATISTICS 8, FINAL EXAM. Last six digits of Student ID#: Circle your Discussion Section: 1 2 3 4
STATISTICS 8, FINAL EXAM NAME: KEY Seat Number: Last six digits of Student ID#: Circle your Discussion Section: 1 2 3 4 Make sure you have 8 pages. You will be provided with a table as well, as a separate
More informationWhat are Data? The Research Question (Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs)) The Research Question (Non RCTs)
What are Data? Quantitative Data o Sets of measurements of objective descriptions of physical and behavioural events; susceptible to statistical analysis Qualitative data o Descriptive, views, actions
More informationBig data size isn t enough! Irene Petersen, PhD Primary Care & Population Health
Big data size isn t enough! Irene Petersen, PhD Primary Care & Population Health Introduction Reader (Statistics and Epidemiology) Research team epidemiologists/statisticians/phd students Primary care
More informationStatistical Methodology for a Clinical Trial Protocol.
Statistical Methodology for a Clinical Trial Protocol. McMaster University Anesthesia Research Interest Group Dinner Meeting December, 3 rd 2015. Objectives : Talk about some key concepts for writing
More informationChapter 15 Multiple myeloma
Chapter 15 Multiple myeloma Peter Adamson Summary In the UK and in the 199s, multiple myeloma accounted for around 1 in 8 diagnosed cases of cancer and 1 in 7 deaths from cancer. There was relatively little
More informationMeasures of Prognosis. Sukon Kanchanaraksa, PhD Johns Hopkins University
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this
More informationHYPOTHESIS TESTING (ONE SAMPLE)  CHAPTER 7 1. used confidence intervals to answer questions such as...
HYPOTHESIS TESTING (ONE SAMPLE)  CHAPTER 7 1 PREVIOUSLY used confidence intervals to answer questions such as... You know that 0.25% of women have red/green color blindness. You conduct a study of men
More informationReasoning with Uncertainty More about Hypothesis Testing. Pvalues, types of errors, power of a test
Reasoning with Uncertainty More about Hypothesis Testing Pvalues, types of errors, power of a test PValues and Decisions Your conclusion about any null hypothesis should be accompanied by the Pvalue
More informationSection 12 Part 2. Chisquare test
Section 12 Part 2 Chisquare test McNemar s Test Section 12 Part 2 Overview Section 12, Part 1 covered two inference methods for categorical data from 2 groups Confidence Intervals for the difference of
More informationIf several different trials are mentioned in one publication, the data of each should be extracted in a separate data extraction form.
General Remarks This template of a data extraction form is intended to help you to start developing your own data extraction form, it certainly has to be adapted to your specific question. Delete unnecessary
More informationRegression. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Class: Date: Regression Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Given the least squares regression line y8 = 5 2x: a. the relationship between
More informationNational Cancer Institute
National Cancer Institute Taking Part in Cancer Treatment Research Studies U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Taking Part in Cancer Treatment Research Studies If
More informationAlways Start with PECO
Goals of This Course Be able to understand a study design (very basic concept) Be able to understand statistical concepts in a medical paper Be able to perform a data analysis Understanding: PECO study
More informationCHAPTER 14 NONPARAMETRIC TESTS
CHAPTER 14 NONPARAMETRIC TESTS Everything that we have done up until now in statistics has relied heavily on one major fact: that our data is normally distributed. We have been able to make inferences
More informationInference on p, Comparisons on p, and ChiSquare for Contingency Tables and GOF
Inference on p, Comparisons on p, and ChiSquare for Contingency Tables and GOF 1. In a study of human blood types in nonhuman primates, a sample of 71 orangutans were tested and 14 were found to be blood
More informationData Types. 1. Continuous 2. Discrete quantitative 3. Ordinal 4. Nominal. Figure 1
Data Types By Tanya Hoskin, a statistician in the Mayo Clinic Department of Health Sciences Research who provides consultations through the Mayo Clinic CTSA BERD Resource. Don t let the title scare you.
More informationStudy Design & Methodology
UNIVERSITY of LIMERICK OLLSCOIL LUIMNIGH STATISTICAL CONSULTING UNIT Research in Health Sciences Study Design & Methodology Study Design & Methodology Dr Jean Saunders C.Stat Inc extra Declan slides Lyons
More informationKomorbide brystkræftpatienter kan de tåle behandling? Et registerstudie baseret på Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group
Komorbide brystkræftpatienter kan de tåle behandling? Et registerstudie baseret på Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Lotte Holm Land MD, ph.d. Onkologisk Afd. R. OUH Kræft og komorbiditet  alle skal
More informationGlossary of Methodologic Terms
Glossary of Methodologic Terms BeforeAfter Trial: Investigation of therapeutic alternatives in which individuals of 1 period and under a single treatment are compared with individuals at a subsequent
More informationScreening of asymptomatic women using Mammograms Bayes Law and a cost/benefit analysis
Screening of asymptomatic women using Mammograms Bayes Law and a cost/benefit analysis There are many misconceptions about the usefulness of mammograms, as well as a considerable amount of misleading information
More informationAnalysing research on cancer prevention and survival. Diet, nutrition, physical activity and breast cancer survivors. In partnership with
Analysing research on cancer prevention and survival Diet, nutrition, physical activity and breast cancer survivors 2014 In partnership with Contents About World Cancer Research Fund International 1 Our
More informationMath 1070 Exam 2B 22 March, 2013
Math 1070 Exam 2B 22 March, 2013 This exam will last 50 minutes and consists of 13 multiple choice and 6 free response problems. Write your answers in the space provided. All solutions must be sufficiently
More informationStatistics in Medicine Research Lecture Series CSMC Fall 2014
Catherine Bresee, MS Senior Biostatistician Biostatistics & Bioinformatics Research Institute Statistics in Medicine Research Lecture Series CSMC Fall 2014 Overview Review concept of statistical power
More informationTests for Two Survival Curves Using Cox s Proportional Hazards Model
Chapter 730 Tests for Two Survival Curves Using Cox s Proportional Hazards Model Introduction A clinical trial is often employed to test the equality of survival distributions of two treatment groups.
More informationWhat are confidence intervals and pvalues?
What is...? series Second edition Statistics Supported by sanofiaventis What are confidence intervals and pvalues? Huw TO Davies PhD Professor of Health Care Policy and Management, University of St Andrews
More information1. Rejecting a true null hypothesis is classified as a error. 2. Failing to reject a false null hypothesis is classified as a error.
1. Rejecting a true null hypothesis is classified as a error. 2. Failing to reject a false null hypothesis is classified as a error. 8.5 Goodness of Fit Test Suppose we want to make an inference about
More informationCritical appraisal form
Assessing scientific admissibility and merit of published articles Critical appraisal form Section A: Reference of Article Author(s) and Affiliation(s): Title of Article: Journal: Volume and Page Numbers:
More informationUNDERSTANDING CLINICAL TRIAL STATISTICS. Prepared by Urania Dafni, Xanthi Pedeli, Zoi Tsourti
UNDERSTANDING CLINICAL TRIAL STATISTICS Prepared by Urania Dafni, Xanthi Pedeli, Zoi Tsourti DISCLOSURES Urania Dafni has reported no conflict of interest Xanthi Pedeli has reported no conflict of interest
More informationLEVEL ONE MODULE EXAM PART ONE [Clinical Questions Literature Searching Types of Research Levels of Evidence Appraisal Scales Statistic Terminology]
1. What does the letter I correspond to in the PICO format? A. Interdisciplinary B. Interference C. Intersession D. Intervention 2. Which step of the evidencebased practice process incorporates clinical
More information2 Precisionbased sample size calculations
Statistics: An introduction to sample size calculations Rosie Cornish. 2006. 1 Introduction One crucial aspect of study design is deciding how big your sample should be. If you increase your sample size
More informationCancer research in the Midland Region the prostate and bowel cancer projects
Cancer research in the Midland Region the prostate and bowel cancer projects Ross Lawrenson Waikato Clinical School University of Auckland MoH/HRC Cancer Research agenda Lung cancer Palliative care Prostate
More informationMETHODOLOGY 101 Training For Patients and Stakeholders Training Booklet & Resource Guide
METHODOLOGY 101 Training For Patients and Stakeholders Training Booklet & Resource Guide V2 December, 2014 PCORI METHODOLOGY 101 TRAINING BOOKLET AND RESOURCE GUIDE 1 Methodology 101 Training Booklet and
More informationHow to Use the Research Design Algorithm
How to Use the Research Design Algorithm Below is a diamond by diamond guide for using the Research Design Algorithm developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2010. Included are Tips on what
More informationCHAPTERS 46: Hypothesis Tests Read sections 4.3, 4.5, 5.1.5, Confidence Interval vs. Hypothesis Test (4.3):
CHAPTERS 46: Hypothesis Tests Read sections 4.3, 4.5, 5.1.5, 6.1.3 Confidence Interval vs. Hypothesis Test (4.3): The purpose of a confidence interval is to estimate the value of a parameter. The purpose
More informationTesting Hypotheses About Proportions
Chapter 11 Testing Hypotheses About Proportions Hypothesis testing method: uses data from a sample to judge whether or not a statement about a population may be true. Steps in Any Hypothesis Test 1. Determine
More informationNONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS 1. depend on assumptions about the underlying distribution of the data (or on the Central Limit Theorem)
NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS 1 PREVIOUSLY parametric statistics in estimation and hypothesis testing... construction of confidence intervals computing of pvalues classical significance testing depend on assumptions
More informationEvidencebased practice tutorial Critical Appraisal Skills
Evidencebased practice tutorial Critical Appraisal Skills Earlier evidence based practice tutorials have focussed on skills to search various useful sites on the internet for evidence. Anyone who has
More informationName: Date: Use the following to answer questions 34:
Name: Date: 1. Determine whether each of the following statements is true or false. A) The margin of error for a 95% confidence interval for the mean increases as the sample size increases. B) The margin
More informationClinical Trials and Screening: What You Need to Know
Scan for mobile link. Clinical Trials and Screening: What You Need to Know What is a Clinical Trial? At A Glance A clinical trial is a research study that tests how well new medical techniques work in
More informationRandomized trials versus observational studies
Randomized trials versus observational studies The case of postmenopausal hormone therapy and heart disease Miguel Hernán Harvard School of Public Health www.hsph.harvard.edu/causal Joint work with James
More informationButler Memorial Hospital Community Health Needs Assessment 2013
Butler Memorial Hospital Community Health Needs Assessment 2013 Butler County best represents the community that Butler Memorial Hospital serves. Butler Memorial Hospital (BMH) has conducted community
More informationBivariate Analysis. Comparisons of proportions: Chi Square Test (X 2 test) Variable 1. Variable 2 2 LEVELS >2 LEVELS CONTINUOUS
Bivariate Analysis Variable 1 2 LEVELS >2 LEVELS CONTINUOUS Variable 2 2 LEVELS X 2 chi square test >2 LEVELS X 2 chi square test CONTINUOUS ttest X 2 chi square test X 2 chi square test ANOVA (Ftest)
More informationTAKING PART IN CANCER TREATMENT RESEARCH STUDIES
For more infomation about Cancer Clinical Trials at Upstate Cancer Center please call Upstate Connect 1.800.464.8668 TAKING PART IN CANCER TREATMENT RESEARCH STUDIES Information provided by: National Cancer
More informationSTT 430/630/ES 760 Lecture Notes: Chapter 6: Hypothesis Testing 1. February 23, 2009 Chapter 6: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
STT 430/630/ES 760 Lecture Notes: Chapter 6: Hypothesis Testing 1 February 23, 2009 Chapter 6: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing One of the primary uses of statistics is to use data to infer something
More informationMath 140, Fa 13 Final Exam Pt II Name
Math 140, Fa 13 Final Exam Pt II Name Show ALL work for full credit. Each problem, or part therein, is 5 pts unless otherwise noted. The SPCA collect data on breed, age, weight, number of days housed,
More informationMultivariate Logistic Regression
1 Multivariate Logistic Regression As in univariate logistic regression, let π(x) represent the probability of an event that depends on p covariates or independent variables. Then, using an inv.logit formulation
More informationII. DISTRIBUTIONS distribution normal distribution. standard scores
Appendix D Basic Measurement And Statistics The following information was developed by Steven Rothke, PhD, Department of Psychology, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) and expanded by Mary F. Schmidt,
More informationDiet and Lifestyle and Survival from Breast Cancer
Cornell University Program on Breast Cancer and Environmental Risk Factors in New York State (BCERF) May 2002 Diet and Lifestyle and Survival from Breast Cancer While diet and lifestyle have been associated
More informationStatistics I for QBIC. Contents and Objectives. Chapters 1 7. Revised: August 2013
Statistics I for QBIC Text Book: Biostatistics, 10 th edition, by Daniel & Cross Contents and Objectives Chapters 1 7 Revised: August 2013 Chapter 1: Nature of Statistics (sections 1.11.6) Objectives
More informationPSA Testing for Prostate Cancer An information sheet for men considering a PSA Test
PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer An information sheet for men considering a PSA Test What is the aim of this leaflet? Prostate cancer is a serious condition. The PSA test, which can give an early indication
More informationEasy Read. How can we make sure everyone gets the right health care? How can we make NHS care better?
Easy Read How can we make NHS care better? How can we make sure everyone gets the right health care? What can we do to make the NHS good now and in the future? How can we afford to keep the NHS going?
More informationHypothesis Testing and Confidence Interval Estimation
Biostatistics for Health Care Researchers: A Short Course Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Interval Estimation Presented ed by: Susan M. Perkins, Ph.D. Division of Biostatistics Indiana University School
More informationCasecontrol studies. Alfredo Morabia
Casecontrol studies Alfredo Morabia Division d épidémiologie Clinique, Département de médecine communautaire, HUG Alfredo.Morabia@hcuge.ch www.epidemiologie.ch Outline Casecontrol study Relation to cohort
More information11. Analysis of Casecontrol Studies Logistic Regression
Research methods II 113 11. Analysis of Casecontrol Studies Logistic Regression This chapter builds upon and further develops the concepts and strategies described in Ch.6 of Mother and Child Health:
More informationExamination Orientation Practice Items
Examination Orientation Practice Items 1 Contents TEST QUESTION FORMATS... 3 A. MULTLPLE CHOICE FORMAT SINGLE ONE BEST ANSWER... 3 STRATEGIES FOR ANSWERING SINGLE ONE BEST ANSWER TEST QUESTIONS... 3 EXAMPLES
More informationExercise Answers. Exercise 3.1 1. B 2. C 3. A 4. B 5. A
Exercise Answers Exercise 3.1 1. B 2. C 3. A 4. B 5. A Exercise 3.2 1. A; denominator is size of population at start of study, numerator is number of deaths among that population. 2. B; denominator is
More informationRefugees with diabetes mellitus have higher prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection
Refugees with diabetes mellitus have higher prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection Matthew Magee Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics School of Public Health, Georgia State University Saturday,
More informationEXAMINATIONS OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY (formerly the Examinations of the Institute of Statisticians) HIGHER CERTIFICATE IN STATISTICS, 2007
EXAMINATIONS OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY (formerly the Examinations of the Institute of Statisticians) HIGHER CERTIFICATE IN STATISTICS, 2007 Paper II : Statistical Methods Time Allowed: Three Hours
More informationWorkrelated Ill Health in Railway Operatives
Health and Safety Executive Workrelated Ill Health in Railway Operatives Contents Background 2 Key facts 2 Supporting Data 3 Background notes and Caveats 5 This document is available from www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/
More information