# Basic research methods. Basic research methods. Question: BRM.2. Question: BRM.1

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1 BRM.1 The proportion of individuals with a particular disease who die from that condition is called... BRM.2 This study design examines factors that may contribute to a condition by comparing subjects who have a specific condition, with subjects who don't have that condition, but are otherwise similar. This type of study design is called BRM.3 An observational analytical study design that is appropriate to study a rare disease is... BRM.4 A study design useful to study a rare exposure to probable risk factor(s) of a certain disease condition is BRM.5 In order to diagnose a rare and serious disease, the test needs to have a high sensitivity or high specificity? BRM.6 The attack rate among susceptible people who are exposed to a primary case is called... BRM.7 When a large proportion of a population is resistant to an infection, this can result in protection for the non-resistant part of the same population. How is this called? BRM.8 An infected person without symptoms but capable of spreading the disease is a

2 BRM.2 Case control study BRM.1 Case-fatality BRM.4 Cohort study BRM.3 Case control study BRM.6 Secondary attack rate BRM.5 Sensitivity BRM.8 Carrier BRM.7 Herd immunity

3 BRM.9 A disease occurring constantly, though at low frequency within a certain region is called an BRM.10 From a cross-sectional study, which of the following can be calculated? A: Incidence B: Prevalence C: Odds ratio D: Relative risk BRM.11 The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when in reality it is false is called BRM.12 If you increase the sample size, the power of the test changes. What happens to the power of the test: does it increase or decrease? BRM.13 A statistical test used to check the difference between means of 2 groups is BRM.14 The value of a correlation coefficient (Pearson s coefficient) lies between which two numbers? BRM.15 A dimensionless number between 0.0 and 1.0 is a... A: Proportion B: Rate C: Ratio BRM.16 Name a study design where a group of healthy children from 2 villages were followed up for a period of 1 year.

4 BRM.10 B: Prevalence BRM.9 Endemic disease BRM.12 Increases BRM.11 Power of a test BRM.14-1 and 1 BRM.13 A t-test BRM.16 Cohort study BRM.15 A: Proportion

5 BRM.17 What happens to the 95% confidence interval when the size of the study population is increased? BRM.18 The parameters to assess the external validity of a randomised controlled trial are BRM.19 The parameter of the study to assess the internal validity of a randomised controlled trial is BRM.20 The type of bias encountered by a non-random assignment to the study group is called BRM.21 If the sensitivity of a diagnostic test is low, it leads to a higher number of: False negative or False positive cases? BRM.22 Regarding a diagnostic test, the number of true positive cases divided by the number of all people with the disease is called BRM.23 Regarding a diagnostic test, the number of true positive cases divided by the number of people who tested positive for the disease, is called BRM.24 The consistency and reproducibility of a test is called

6 BRM.18 A large sample size and diverse population groups BRM.17 Decreases or narrows down BRM.20 Selection bias BRM.19 The randomisation procedure BRM.22 Sensitivity BRM.21 False negative cases BRM.24 Reliability BRM.23 Positive predictive value

7 BRM.25 How does a random error influence the precision of a test? BRM.26 What are the 2 components of precision of a test? BRM.27 The prevalence of a disease influences the... A: Sensitivity B: Specificity C: Predictive value of a test? BRM.28 The diagnostic power of a test to correctly exclude a disease is reflected by its... A: Positive predictive value B: Negative predictive value C: Sensitivity BRM.29 Odds ratios are usually calculated in... A: Case control B: Cohort C: Cross-sectional studies BRM.30 Tests aimed to diagnose conditions with potentially risky treatments need to have: higher sensitivity or higher specificity? BRM.31 In 10 % of healthy people, X rays show images (artefacts) compatible with tuberculosis. In this case, X rays have 90%... A: Senstivity B: Specifity C: Positive predictive value D: Negative predictive value BRM.32 What is the lowest possible value for a relative Risk? A: 0 B: 1 C: variable value from case to case

8 BRM.26 Reliability and Validity BRM.25 Reduces the accuracy BRM.28 B: Negative predictive Value BRM.27 C: Predictive value BRM.30 Higher specificity BRM.29 A: Case Control BRM.32 A: 0 BRM.31 B: Specificity

9 BRM.33 What is the type of error caused due to imperfect calibration of an instrument? BRM.34 Repeated measurements increase the validity of an instrument/test. This endeavour leads to reduction of: random error or systemic error? BRM.35 What does PRA stand for in qualitative research? BRM.36 What is the value of the odds ratio if exposure occurs equally in both the cases and control groups? BRM.37 The upper limit of normal BP is increased from 140 to 160 mm Hg. How does it influence the specificity of the diagnosis of hypertension? BRM.38 When the sample size is increased, the 95% confidence interval becomes: A: Smaller B: Wider C: No effect BRM.39 What forms the denominator while calculating an odds ratio? BRM.40 A study design in which the same study population is followed both as cases for a certain duration and as controls, is a

10 BRM.34 Random error BRM.33 Systematic error BRM.36 The odds ratio is 1. BRM.35 Participatory Rural Appraisal BRM.38 A: Smaller BRM.37 Increase of specificity BRM.40 Cross over study design BRM.39 Odds of exposure in the controls

11 BRM.41 A continuous variable can be made categorical by grouping values into BRM.42 Compared to a normal distribution, a curve that has a longer tail on the left side is called BRM.43 A hypothesis stating that there is no relation between a risk factor and a disease in the population, is called BRM.44 A study design that is relatively cheap, little time consuming, a one time transectional event, is called a... BRM.45 In order to launch a campaign against risk factors, you rely mostly on: A: Population attribution ratio B: Attribution ratio C: Relative risk BRM.46 After ethical clearance of a study protocol, in which case should the Research Ethical Committee generally be notified during the implementation? BRM.47 True or false? Spousal authorisation is considered a good substitute for informed consent for a woman study subject. BRM.48 What is the objective of informed consent of study subjects?

12 BRM.42 Negative skew BRM.41 Classes / intervals BRM.44 Cross sectional study BRM.43 Null hypothesis BRM.46 Deviations from protocol and/or serious adverse effects BRM.45 A: Population attribution ratio BRM.48 Protection of and respect for the person BRM.47 False

13 BRM.49 True or false? A consent form should state that personal data is subject to absolute confidentiality. BRM.50 What can be a problem when a doctor recruits his/her own patients for research and gets paid per recruited patient? BRM.51 True or false? Oral consent is permissible if subject understanding is not adequate AND the subject is illiterate. BRM.52 When is a verbal consent legal? BRM.53 What is the difference between privacy and confidentiality? BRM.54 Non-parametric tests are used when we can not be sure that the data is BRM.55 In a court trial, a judge making a Type II error would be: let free a criminal OR sentence an innocent person? BRM.56 Risk can be used as a synonym of... A: Prevalence B: Cumulative incidence C: Exposure

14 BRM.50 Undue pressure to participate on the patients BRM.49 False, this can never be guaranteed. BRM.52 When there is at least one witness BRM.51 False, subject should always understand. BRM.54 Normally distributed BRM.53 Privacy: between 2 parties Confidentiality: 3rd party BRM.56 B: Cumulative incidence BRM.55 Let free a criminal

15 BRM.57 The positive and negative predictive values of a diagnostic test are affected by the: Incidence or Prevalence of the disease? BRM.58 In a two-by-two table used to analyse data from a diagnostic test, the title on the columns will always make reference to: the result of the diagnostic test (+ or -), or to the condition of the subject (ill or healthy)? BRM.59 While summarizing data, outliers distort the value of the... A: Mean B: Median C: Mode BRM.60 Regarding the evaluation of causality, which study design is able to demonstrate the factor of temporality? A: Cross sectional B: Case Control C: Cohort BRM.61 In a stable population, incidence multiplied by the duration of the disease gives an idea of the BRM.62 True or false? The confidence interval of an odds ratio can include negative values. BRM.63 The change of the behaviour of research participants as a consequence of being observed is called... A: Framingham effect B: Hawthorne effect C: John Snow s effect BRM.64 The time between the initial infection and the onset of clinical symptoms is called

16 BRM.58 The condition of the subject (ill or healthy) BRM.57 Prevalence BRM.60 C: Cohort BRM.59 A: Mean BRM.62 False BRM.61 Prevalence BRM.64 Incubation period BRM.63 B: Hawthorne s effect

17 BRM.65 The time between the initial infection and the onset of infectiousness is called BRM.66 While the horizontal axis of an epidemic curve generally shows the variable time, the vertical axis usually shows BRM.67 Regarding hypothesis testing, with a p-value of 0.05 our chances to be wrongly rejecting the null hypothesis are... A: 1/5 B: 1/20 C: 1/95 z z z

18 BRM.66 Number of cases BRM.65 Latent period BRM.67 B: 1/20

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