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1 CS787: Advanced Algorithms Topic: Online Learning Presenters: David He, Chris Hopman Follow the Perturbed Leader Prediction Problem Recall the prediction problem that we discussed in class. In that problem, there are n experts and on day t expert i makes prediction p i,t { 1, 1}. Based upon the experts predictions, we decide to predict -1 or 1. We then observe the state of the day, s t. The cost of the algorithm is the total number of mistakes that it makes. Our goal is to bound the number of mistakes against those of the best expert. Weighted Majority Algorithm In class we analyzed the weighted majority algorithm. This algorithm runs as follows: 1. Initialize w i,0 = 1 for each expert i. 2. On day t, do: (a) If i w i,tp i,t 0 predict 1, otherwise predict -1. { w i,t if expert i made a correct prediction. (b) For each i, w i,t+1 = (1 ε)w i,t otherwise. Let m be the total number of mistakes that our algorithm makes and L be the number of mistakes that the best expert makes. We analysed this algorithm with ε = 0.5 and found that Also, we noted that, in general, m 2.41(L + log 2 n). m (1 ε)l + O( 1 ε log n). Follow the Perturbed Leader Let s consider another algorithm. On each day we will add a random perturbation to the total cost so far of each expert i, and then choose the prediction of the expert of minimum cost. That is: 1. Initialize c i,0 = 0 for each expert i. 1

2 2. On day t, do: (a) For each i, select p i,t 0 from exp. distribution dµ(x) = εe εx. (b) Make the same prediction as the expert with minimal c i,t p i,t. { c i,t if expert i made a correct prediction. (c) For each i, c i,t+1 = c i,t + 1 otherwise. We will show that this algorithm gives E[m] (1 ε)l + O( 1 ε log n) Linear Generalization Consider a generalization of the prediction problem. We must make a series of decisions d 1, d 2,... each from a set D R n. After making the tth decision, we observe the the state s t S R n. The total cost of our decisions is d t s t. In the prediction problem, n is the number of experts, choosing expert i corresponds to the decision vector d with a 1 in position i and 0 everywhere else, and the state of each period is the vector of experts costs (that is, a 1 in position i if expert i predicted wrong, and 0 otherwise). Our goal is then to have a total cost d t s t close to min d D d st, the cost of the best single decision in hindsight. Let M be a function that computes the best single decision in hindsight, arg min d D d st. Since costs are additive, we can consider M as a function, FPL and FPL M(s) = arg min d D d s. We present two versions of the generalized Follow the Perturbed Leader algorithm. FPL(ε): On each period t, 1. Choose p t uniformly at random from the cube [ 0, 1 ε] n. 2. Make decision M(s 1 + s s t 1 + p t ). FPL (ε): On each period t, 1. Choose p t as follows: Independently for each coordinate, choose ±(r/ε) for r from a standard exponential distribution. 2. Make decision M(s 1 + s s t 1 + p t ). 2

3 Theorem Let x 1 denote the L 1 norm. Let Then, (a) FPL with parameter ε 1 gives, (b) for nonnegative D, S R n +, F P L gives, D d d 1, for all d, d D, R d s, for all d D, s S, A s 1, for all s S. E[costofF P L(ε)] min-cost T + εrat + D ε, E[costofF P L (ε/2a)] (1 + ε)min-cost T + 4AD(1 + ln n). ε Our proof of follows that given in [3]. Definition For convenience, we define: s 1:t = s 1 + s s t. Lemma M(s 1:t ) s t M(s 1:t ) s 1:t Proof: By induction on T. T = 1 is trivial, for the induction step from T to T + 1, T +1 M(s 1:t ) s t M(s 1:T ) s 1:T + M(s 1:T +1 ) s T +1 M(s 1:T +1 ) s 1:T + M(s 1:T +1 ) s T +1 = M(s 1:T +1 ) s 1:T +1 This lemma says that if at each step t we could make the decision that is the optimum single decision in hindsight up to step t then we would have no regret. Next, we show that adding perturbations does not add too much cost. Lemma For any state sequence s 1, s 2,..., any T > 0, and any vectors p 0 = 0, p 1, p 2,..., p T R n, Ms 1:t + p t s t M(s 1:T ) s 1:T + D p t p t 1 3

4 Proof: By , we have [rl] M(s 1:t + p t ) (s t + p t p t 1 ) M(s 1:T + p T ) (s 1:T + p T ) ( ) M(s 1:T ) (s 1:T + p T ) ( ) = M(s 1:T ) s 1:T + M(s 1:T ) (p t p t 1 ). ( ) M(s 1:t + p t ) s t M(s 1:T ) s 1:T + (M(s 1:T ) M(s 1:t + p t )) (p t p t 1 ). Recall that D d d 1 for any d, d. Also, note that u v u 1 v. ( ) Note that the distributions over s 1:t +p t and s 1:t 1 +p t where p t is chosen as in F P L(ε), are similar. That is, they are both cubes. We now prove a bound on the overlap of the two distributions. Lemma For any v R n, the cubes [0, 1 ε ]n and v + [0, 1 ε ]n overlap in at least a (1 ε v 1 ) fraction. Proof: Take a random point x [0, 1 ε ]n. If x / v + [0, 1 ε ]n, then for some i, x i / v i + [0, 1 ε ], which happens with probability at most ε v i. By the union bound, we are done. Proof of (a): In terms of expected performance, it does not matter if we choose a new p t each day or if p t = p 1 for all t. So, assume that is the case. Then, by M(s t + p 1 ) s t M(s 1:T ) s 1:T + D p 1 M(s 1:T ) s 1:T + D ε. Assume that the distributions over s 1:t + p 1 and s 1:t 1 + p 1 overlap on a fraction f of their volumes. Then, E[M(s 1:t 1) + p t ) s t ] E[M(s 1:t + p t ) s t ] + (1 f)r This is because on the fraction that they overlap, the expectation is identical, and on the fraction that they don t, the difference can be at most R. By , 1 f ε s t 1 εa. And so, E[costofF P L(ε)] min-cost T + εrat + D ε, 4

5 A proof of (b) can be found in [3] Application of FPL and FPL* Prediction problem For the prediction problem it would seem that D = 1 and A = n, but, in fact, the worst case for the algorithm is when each period only one expert incurs cost. Thus, we may as well imagine that A = 1, and we get the bound: E[m] (1 ε)l + O( 1 ε log n). Online shortest paths In the online shortest paths problem, we have a directed graph and a fixed pair of nodes (s, t). Each period we pick a path from s to t, and then the length of each edge are revealed. The cost of each period is the length of the chosen path. Follow the perturbed leading path On each period t, 1. For each edge e, pick p e,t randomly from an exponential distribution. 2. Use the shortest path in the graph with lengths c e,t + p e,t on edge e, where c e,t = sum of the lengths of edge e so far. If all edge lengths are in [0, 1] we have D 2n, since any shortest path will have at most n - 1 edges, A 2m and so by (b) we have E[cost] (1 + ε)(best-time in hindsight) + O(mn log n) ε Online Convex Programming In convex programming, we are asked the following: Given a convex set F R n and a convex cost function c : F R, find an x F at which c(x) is minimal. In this formulation, F is the feasible region, and x is the optimal solution. Convex programming is a generalization of linear programming where the feasible region is allowed to be any convex subset of R n (not necessarily polytopal) and the cost function is allowed to be any convex function (not necessarily linear). Convex programming also generalizes semi-definite 5

6 programming: semidefinite programming is convex programming with the additional constraint that the Hessian of the cost function is constant over F. Convex programming is appealing because it is able to encode significantly more problems than linear and semi-definite programming, while being sufficiently similar so that techniques for solving linear and semi-definite programming (gradient descent, interior point, ellipsoid methods, etc) more or less apply to convex programming. The online version of convex programming occurs over an infinite number of time steps, consisting of a convex feasible set F R n and a infinite sequence of cost functions {c 1, c 2,... }, where c t is the cost function at time t. At each time step t, we are asked to select solution x t F without knowing the cost function c t in advance; c t is only revealed after we select x t. If the cost functions {c i } have any regularity, then we can attempt to learn from the already known cost functions c 1, c 2,..., c t 1. Hopefully, this allows us to to select solutions which are not far from optimal. In the following sections, we show that the Greedy-Projection algorithm, a variation of gradient descent, achieves O( T ) competitiveness, where T is the number of time steps Definitions The benchmark for an online convex programming algorithm is the offline convex programming algorithm. This offline algorithm is given the first T cost functions in advance but can only select a static solution that is fixed over all time steps. The offline algorithm selects x F as to minimize the cost function γ(x) = 1 i T ci (x). Definition Given an online algorithm A and an online convex programming problem (F, {c i }), let x 1, x 2,... be the solutions selected by an online algorithm A. The cost of algorithm A at time T is C A (T ) = c t (x t ). Definition Given an online algorithm A and an online convex programming problem (F, {c i }), the competitive difference of algorithm A up to time T is R A (T ) = C A (T ) γ(x ), where x = min x F γ(x) is the optimal static solution selected by the offline algorithm. Algorithm (Greedy-Projection) Let (F, {c i }) be an online convex programming problem. Let η t = t 1/2 for t 1 be a sequence of learning rates. Select x 1 F arbitrarily. After receiving cost function c i in time step i, select x i+1 according to x i+1 = Proj ( x i η i c t (x t ) ), where Proj(x) = arg min x F d(x, y) is the projection of x onto the point in F closest to x. Greedy-Projection performs gradient descent weighted by learning rates η t = t 1/2, and projects out of bounds solutions back into the feasible set if necessary. 6

7 Theorem Let (F, {c i }) be an online convex programming problem. Assume F is nonempty, bounded, and closed; c t is differentiable for all t; c t (x) is bounded above over all t, x F, for all t, there exists an algorithm which produces c t (x) given x F ; and for all x R n, there exists an algorithm which produces Proj(x). Let G = sup t 1,x F c t be an upper bound to c t, and let D be the diameter of F. Then the competitive difference of Greedy-Projectionat time T is bounded above: R GP (T ) (D 2 + G 2 ) T. In particular, the average competitive difference approaches 0: R GP (T )/T Proof of competitive difference bound Proof: Define y t+1 = x t η t c t (x t ) so that x t+1 = Proj(y t+1 ). Let x = min x F γ(x) be the optimal static solution selected by the offline algorithm. Then Note that y t+1 x = (x t x ) η t c t (x t ) (y t+1 x ) 2 = (x t x ) 2 2η t (x t x ) c t (x t ) + η t 2 ct (x t ) 2. (x t+1 x ) 2 = (Proj(y t+1 ) x ) 2 (y t+1 x ) 2 because otherwise we can find z = x + (y t+1 x ) (x t+1 x )/ x t+1 x which resides in F and is strictly closer to y t+1 than x t+1 is, which violates the fact that Proj chooses the point in F closest to y t+1. Then, we have (x t+1 x ) 2 (x t x ) 2 2η t (x t x ) c t (x t ) + c t (x t ) 2. Next, because c t is convex, we use the first order Taylor approximation at x c t (x ) c t (x t ) (x x t ) + c t (x t ), 7

8 obtaining c t (x t ) c t (x ) c t (x t ) ( c t (x t ) (x x t ) + c t (x t ) ) = (x t x ) c t (x t ) 1 2η t ( (x t x ) 2 (x t+1 x ) 2) + η t 2 ct (x t ) 2. Note that c t (x t ) c t (x ) is the contribution to cost of the algorithm from time interval t. We find the competitive difference by summing this differential cost over all time steps: R GP (T ) = C GP (T ) γ(x ) = ( c t (x t ) c t (x ) ) [ 1 ( (x t x ) 2 (x t+1 x ) 2) + η ] t 2η t 2 ct (x t ) 2. Expanding the telescoping sum and using the gradient upper bound c t (x t ) G and diameter D gives R GP (T ) 1 (x 1 x ) 2 1 (x T +1 x ) ( 1 1 ) (x t x ) 2 + G2 η t 2η 1 2η T 2 η t η t t T D 1 2η 1 1 2η T + D G2 2η T 2 2 t T η t ( 1 1 ) + G2 η t η t 1 2 η t Because η t = t 1/2, and thus η t = 1 t T 1 t T T, dt t ] T [ 2 t R GP (T ) D2 + G2 2η T 2 1 D2 T + G 2 T 2 (D 2 + G 2 ) T. η t 8

9 References [1] M. Zinkevich. Online Convex Programming and Generalized Gradient Ascent. In ICML, 2003 [2] E. Hazan, A. Kalai, S. Kale, A. Agarwal. Logarithmic Regret Algorithms for Online Convex Optimization. [3] A. Kalai, S. Vempala Efficient algorithms for online decision problems. In Journal of Computer and System Sciences,

Adaptive Online Gradient Descent Peter L Bartlett Division of Computer Science Department of Statistics UC Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94709 bartlett@csberkeleyedu Elad Hazan IBM Almaden Research Center 650

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