Transport Spectrum Tune-Up Aviation Spectrum Issues. Eddy D Amico, RF Spectrum Manager Airservices Australia. November 2009

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1 Transport Spectrum Tune-Up 2009 Aviation Spectrum Issues Eddy D Amico, RF Spectrum Manager Airservices Australia November 2009

2 Overview Background Importance of radio spectrum for aviation Communications Navigation CNS Surveillance Other RF systems Conclusion

3 Background (1)

4 Background (2) Communications Systems HF/VHF/UHF (Air-Ground-Air) Satellite (Remote/Oceanic) Navigational Aids Conventional Navaids GNSS Surveillance Systems Conventional Radar Mode S Applications Other RF Systems Bearers for Comms ARFF Mobile Radio Avionics

5 Importance of Radio Spectrum for Aviation (1) network Microwave Link

6 Importance of Radio Spectrum for Aviation (2) Almost total reliance on radio spectrum to enable CNS systems Speed of aircraft and relative close proximity to each other requires spectrum protected from interference Global operations means global spectrum allocations well in advance of use (international standards and long system life cycles) Not possible to separate safety from efficiency as improved CNS allows more efficient operation at the same level of safety (e.g. reduced separation standards) Improved efficiency reduces greenhouse emissions (flextracks for aircraft movement & reduced separation)

7 Communications (1) Current issues Difficulty resolving interference caused by: High power transmitters having coaxial cable RF breakdowns (arcing) Transmitters in the AM & FM broadcast bands needing RF filters installed TV transmitters causing desensitisation and hence VHF coverage problems Inability to investigate aircraft only reports of interference VHF voice congestion in capital cities UAS operations in non-segregated airspace (C2, avoid & sense, ATM relay) WRC-12 AI 1.3 Res 421 Reliability of satellite communications

8 Communications (2) * : 2.4 < 29 mins * 8 flights = 0.3 < 3.8 flt hours/day 0.3 < 3.8 flt 11 tonne/hr = 3.3 < 41.8 tonne/day 3.3 < 41.8t * 10.8 * 59 * 1.48 = $ 3,112 < $39,420 AUD 3.3 < 41.8t * 3.3 = 10.9 < 138 tonne CO 2 *Courtesy of

9 Communications (3) Future Communications Infrastructure (FCI) 11 th ICAO Air Navigation Conference 2003 (Rec 7/4) SESAR / NextGen (AP17) ICAO ACP (FCS Report) VHF AM(R)S Allocations (WRC-12 AI 1.4 Res 413) Spectrum congestion in Europe migration of services supported by voice communications in the VHF band to data links in L-band L-Band AM(R)S Allocations (WRC-12 AI 1.4 Res 417) Use of data link in L-band for the continental airspace environment (enroute and terminal areas) C-Band AM(R)S Allocations (WRC-12 AI 1.4 Res 420) IEEE e-based system for aeronautical communication services on the airport surface to relieve underground cabling issues & reduce runway incursions L-Band AMS(R)S Allocations (WRC-12 AI 1.7 Res 222) Increased use of satellite services to support operations in oceanic / remote airspace domains HF systems supporting both voice and low data communications will continue to be used in the oceanic environment

10 Navigation (1) Current Environment Conventional Navaids VOR DME NDB ILS GNSS (GPS NPA, GBAS) Current Issues EMR compliance (ARPANSA Standard) Timing to de-commission NDB, VOR & ILS navaids (possible release of spectrum) Sharing ARNS bands with Defence (tactical data links & IFF)

11 Navigation (2) Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) AM(R)S MHz

12 Surveillance (1) Current Environment Radar (end of life > 15 years) 11 Enroute Radars (SSR only) 8 Terminal Area Radars (PSR + SSR) ADS-C (FANS-1/A) SITA SMR Sydney E-Scan PRM (Old) - Sydney ADS-B (16 active sites) World Trends Secondary Radar: Modes A/C, S ** Multilateration ** ADS-B ** Primary radar Terminal, weather radar, SMR, Millimetre radar Digitisation & fusion of sensor data SMR ADS-B E-SCAN PRM RADAR ** USING 1090 MHz

13 Surveillance (2) Automatic Dependant Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) Position data - SatNav Broadcast identity, position, altitude velocity (ADS-B out) Ground stations receive broadcasts displayed on ATC air situation display (like radar) Other aircraft receive broadcasts & display to pilot (ADS-B in) In Australia use MHz extended squitter

14 Surveillance (3) Projects underway AMSTAR (New Terminal Area Radars - transportable, Mode S capable) ASMGCS (Vehicle locators, ADS-B output to ATC) TAS WAM (Surveillance for Tasmania before ADS-B avionics installed) SYD WAM (Multilat system to replace PRM E- Scan PRM) UAP (28 ADS-B ground stations to provide surveillance coverage of Aust. above FL300) Current Issues Degradation of the radar environment (buildings near airports, use of MHz by surface vehicles) Frequency congestion?? Licence costs (e.g. ASMGCS)

15 Other RF Systems Some Current Issues Infrastructure for ATM/Corporate communications TiNR Project Microwave & satellite bearers Analogue to digital conversion Early 2010 ARFF Land Mobile 400 MHz band review Avionics Interoperability with other Govt agencies Implementation timetable Altimeters ( MHz band) Compatibility issues for military trials of new datalinks Managed by CASA

16 Conclusions Radio spectrum is important to aviation A number of Airservices CNS projects are reliant on access to spectrum Poor spectrum access will result in unsafe and inefficient CNS systems Airservices has a responsibility to lead Australian aviation representation on spectrum planning issues support ICAO in preparing for WRCs (including active participation at International, Regional and National meetings) Work closely with the DITRDLG, CASA and industry

17 Questions??

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