EFSN Training i Module Minutes

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1 Introduction to Sprinklers EFSN Training i Module 1 90 Minutes

2 Topics How sprinklers work Performance of sprinkler systems Types of Sprinkler Introduction to sprinkler systems Introduction ti to sprinkler system design

3 How Sprinklers Work

4 How do Sprinklers Work? Glass bulb contains a liquid id with a vapour bubble bbl Liquid expands as the temperature rises, compressing the vapour bubble At a set temperature (usually 68 C) the bubble has p ( y ) gone and the bulb breaks, releasing the water seal

5 What happens then? In most sprinkler systems the pipe array to which the sprinkler is connected contains water under pressure, so water comes out of the sprinkler Pipe array water pressure drops and a switch sends a signal to start the pump if there is one Water flowing in the pipe array operates another switch which causes the fire alarm to ring Signals such as these can be used to send an automatic alarm to a monitoring station

6 Some More Details Hot gases rise from a fire and spread across the ceiling to meet the sprinkler bulb or fusible link It is important that the hot gases can freely reach the sprinkler and design rules make clear what obstructions are unacceptable Usually 1-2 sprinklers operate but if the fire is equally between 4 sprinklers they all may operate For most fire risks, the sprinkler system is designed for six sprinklers to operate four plus two reserve

7 Sprinklers do not: React to smoke from toast or a cigarette Open all at once (usually 1 or 2 sprinklers operate) Cause major water damage (system sprays less water than a single fire hose) Operate without reason (this is very rare) 1 in 1.6 million sprinklers for all reasons including end user or contractor damage (FM Global in 1977) 1 in 16 million sprinklers due to a manufacturing error (FM Global in 1977)

8 Performance of Sprinkler Systems

9 Reliability i i of fs Sprinklers Sprinklers release water when they get hot and control or extinguish fire Statistics show properly designed and maintained sprinkler systems control/extinguish ti i 98% of fires Swiss Cantonal Insurance Federation 100% in 2000 LPC 99% in 2000 Danish Institute of Fire Technology 98% in 2003 German Property Insurers 97.9% in APSAD of France 97% in 2000

10 Reliability i i of fs Sprinklers In >60% of cases only 1 or 2 sprinklers operate to release much hless water than a single fire hose Swiss Cantonal Insurance Federation: 87% of fires controlled by 1-2 sprinklers in 2000 APSAD: 61% of fires controlled by 1-2 sprinklers in 2000 VdS: 50% of fires controlled by 1-2 sprinklers in 2000 LPC: 44% of fires controlled by 1-2 sprinklers in 2000 E h h d l i l l f lif i Europe has never had a multiple loss of life in a building protected by a fire sprinkler system

11 Benefits of Sprinklers in Room of Origin Sprinklers sensitive to heat and respond quickly before conditions become life-threatening Prevent fire growth and so reduce evolution of toxic gases Keep temperature at survivable level Often extinguish fire 2004 report for UK Government showed sprinklers usually maintain tenable conditions in room of fire origin => Sprinklers offer the only hope to those who do not leave the room where the fire starts

12 Sprinklers Aid Escape Prevent growth of fire and evolution of smoke People can then more easily follow escape routes Sprinkler system can send an alarm to fire brigade

13 Sprinklers Prevent Flashover In a fire flammable vapours reach auto-ignition Ingress of oxygen => spontaneous combustion with fireball and shockwave Sprinklers cool vapours so they do not ignite when oxygen enters room Important contribution to safety of occupants and Important contribution to safety of occupants and fire-fighters specific aim of NFPA 13R and 13D

14 Sprinklers Reduce Fire Damage Respond before arrival of fire brigade Fire is still small and is not allowed to grow Less water is needed to deal with a small fire Average fire damage is reduced by over 85% Scottsdale (88% commercial buildings; 96% residential) Vancouver (92% residential) NFPA (42% residential; 67% manufacturing) NIST (32% in houses)

15 Warehouse Fires Extinguished by Sprinklers Birmingham 2004 ICI Paints 15 Feb sprinklers put out fire

16 A Warehouse without Sprinklers Matalan, Birmingham i 2 March 2006

17 Proof fth that ts Sprinklers Save Lives Scottsdale Zero deaths in sprinklered buildings (first death in 2007) Vancouver Zero deaths in sprinklered buildings from 1990 Fire death rate was worst, now best in Canada NFPA: 86% reduction overall; 78% residential ( ); 100% in houses ( ) NIST: 100% fire death reduction in houses

18 Scottsdale Sprinkler Legislation 1974 All buildings higher than 3 storeys or larger than 700m 2 must be sprinklered 1982 Ran residential sprinkler tests 1985 Approved ordnance requiring sprinklers in all new buildings from 1986

19 Scottsdale Sprinkler Ordinance Design Freedoms Increased hydrant spacing Reduced water main sizes No requirement for 360 access Reduced street widths Increased cul-de-sac lengths => Development density increased 4%

20 Costs to Install Sprinklers in Houses in Scottsdale February m 2 house 8.50/m 2 June 1989 Production home 5.87/m 2 Custom home 6.62/m 2 January 2001 Production home 4.38/m 2 Custom home 5.20/m 2

21 45 Fire Deaths in Vancouver Sprinklers retrofitted in 800 high h risk buildings Sprinklers in all new housing, hospitals and care facilities % of all housing has 37% of all housing has sprinklers

22 Sprinklers Make Economic Sense Allow architectural freedoms so buildings are more attractive and cost less to build Prevent loss of life and reduce injuries by 85% Reduce fire damage to property by over 85% Low maintenance costs through life of building NIST found an economic benefit

23 Types of Sprinkler

24 Deflector Compression Screw Frame Glass Bulb Btt Button Belleville Spring Sprinkler Parts

25 Sprinkler Variables Type Operating Opeat Temperature peatue K Factor Response Index Finish

26 Types of Sprinkler Pendant and Upright

27 Types of Sprinkler Vertical Sidewall, Horizontal Sidewall

28 Types of Sprinkler Recessed, Concealed, Flush

29 Types of Sprinkler Dry Pendant and Dry Upright

30

31 Types of Sprinkler Extended Coverage Sprinklers

32 Types of Sprinkler ESFR Pendant and Upright

33 Types of Storage Sprinkler Control Mode or Suppression Mode Control mode sprinklers allow the fire to burn out over a limited area Suppression mode sprinklers reduce the size of the fire Suppression mode sprinklers must be sensitive ii (fast response element and close spacing) and release a lot of water

34 Types of Storage Sprinkler In-Rack Sprinklers In general, above 7.6m control mode sprinklers must be supplemented by in-rack sprinklers These are protected from damage and from water from sprinklers above them

35 Control Mode Sprinklers

36 Ceiling control mode sprinklers In-rack sprinklers

37 ESFR suppression mode sprinklers In most cases ESFR sprinklers eliminate i the need for in rack sprinklers

38 Operating Temperatures Orange 57º C 135 o F Red 68 o C 155 o F Yellow 79 o C 175 o F Green 93 o C 200 o F Blue 141 o C 286 o F Mauve 182 o C 360 o F

39 The larger the bulb the higher the Operating Temperature Maximum Operating Temperature is 343 C

40 K Factor K Factor (Imperial) K Factor (Metric) % of 5.6/80 25% 33% 50% 75% % % % % % % % Reference Flowrate in l/min = K* Pressure (in bar) e.g. K80, 1 bar: flowrate = 80* 1 = 80 l/min

41 Response Time Index Plunge test in a heated wind tunnel

42 Response Time Index Standard Response RTI <200 Special ilresponse RTI <80 Quick Response RTI <50 Residential i Fire test

43 Introduction to Sprinkler Systems

44 Sprinkler System Pipe array Alarm valve station Water supply

45 Introduction ti to Sprinkler Systems

46 Introduction ti to Sprinkler Systems Riser

47 Introduction ti to Sprinkler Systems Main distribution pipe Riser

48 Introduction ti to Sprinkler Systems Distribution pipe Main distribution pipe Riser

49 Introduction ti to Sprinkler Systems Range pipes Distribution pipe Main distribution pipe Riser

50 Introduction ti to Sprinkler Systems Range pipes Distribution pipe Main distribution pipe Arm pipe Riser

51 Introduction ti to Sprinkler Systems Range pipes Upright Sprinkler Arm pipe Distribution pipe Riser Main distribution pipe

52 Introduction ti to Sprinkler Systems Range pipes Upright Sprinkler Distribution pipe Main distribution pipe Arm pipe Riser Pendant Sprinkler

53 Introduction ti to Sprinkler Systems Range pipes Upright Sprinkler Distribution pipe Main distribution pipe Arm pipe Pendant Sprinkler Riser Water motor alarm

54 Introduction ti to Sprinkler Systems Range pipes Inspector test valve Upright Sprinkler Distribution pipe Main distribution pipe Arm pipe Pendant Sprinkler Riser Water motor alarm

55 Wet Pipe Sprinkler Systems Most common type of sprinkler system All pipes filled with water under pressure When a sprinkler opens the alarm valve releases water to the gong Pressure gauges Pressure switch Retard chamber Drain valve

56 Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems Pipe array filled with compressed air Used where there is a risk of water freezing When a sprinkler opens the air pressure falls and the valve opens to release water into the pipe pp array Valve held closed by differential clapper area

57 Deluge Sprinkler Systems Open sprinklers or nozzles Used in high hazard areas where all sprinklers must operate together Fire detection system sends signal to solenoid valve in deluge trim Pneumatic or hydraulic Pneumatic or hydraulic release also possible

58 Deluge Sprinkler Systems Open sprinklers or nozzles

59 Pre-Action Sprinkler Systems Pipe array filled with compressed air or N 2 Deluge valve opened by detection system No water flows until sprinkler also operates Used dif there is concern about false activation Configurable to require sprinkler and detection to operate to open valve

60 Pre-Action Sprinkler System

61 Pre-Action Sprinkler System

62 Pre-Action Sprinkler System

63 Pre-Action Sprinkler System

64 Pre-Action Sprinkler System

65 Introduction to Sprinkler System Design

66 Sprinkler System Design Based on the fire load, the type of occupancy and the type of system Design standards specify the: Design density in mm/min (like rainfall) Area of operation to be supplied with this density Duration of water supply Area coverage per sprinkler Sprinkler type, temperature and thermal sensitivity Hydraulic calculation methods

67 Sprinkler System Design Standards EN European standard written by representatives of national standards bodies within CEN (about 30 countries) CEA 4001 European insurance standard NFPA 13 US standard, widely used where other standards are silent Many similarities but some differences

68 Hazard Classes EN Nine classes Light Hazard Ordinary Hazard 1 Ordinary Hazard 2 Ordinary Hazard 3 Ordinary Hazard 4 High Hazard Production 1 High Hazard Production 2 High Hazard Production 3 High Hazard Production 4 Example - Annex A Prison Hospital Car park Woodworking factory Tobacco factory Paint manufacture Fire lighter manufacture Cellulose nitrate manufacture Firework manufacture High Hazard Storage

69 Design Criteria EN Table 3 Hazard Class Design Density mm/min Wet or pre-action Area of Operation m 2 Dry LH OH1 OH OH OH OH HHP1 HHP HHP HHP HHP4 Deluge not covered by EN 12845

70 Duration of fw Water Supply EN Light Hazard 30 minutes Odi Ordinary Hazard 60 minutes High Hazard Production 90 minutes High Hazard Storage 90 minutes

71 Max. Sprinkler Coverage/Spacing EN Table 19 Hazard Class Maximum area per sprinkler Maximum distances as shown in Figure 8 m Standard Staggered layout layout m 2 S and D S D LH OH HHP and HHS For sidewall sprinklers use Table NFPA13 includes extended coverage sprinklers

72 Example Shopping Centre 3,000m 2 OH 3 from Annex A 5mm/min on 216m 2 = 1,080 l/min Water supply 60 min = 65m 3 12m 2 per sprinkler = 250 sprinklers 60 l/min per sprinkler = K80 at 0.6 bar Numbers slightly higher after design

73 Thank you!

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