1 ewis-base Catalysis MacMillan ab. Group eting Anthony Mastracchio ovember
2 ewis Base Catalysis resentation utline Introduction Definitions and basic concepts of ewis base Catalysis n π* interactions Base catalyzed acylation of alcohols Base catalyzed acylation of nucleophiles n σ* interactions olyhalosilanes enoxyenolsilanes Si 4 mediated processes elevant and Comprehensive eviews: Denmark, S. E.; Beutner, G.., "ewis Base Catalysis in rganic Synthesis." Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 1560 Gawronski, J.; Wascinska,.; Gajewry, J. "ecent rogress in ewis Base Activation and control of Stereoselectivity in the Additions of Trimethylsilyl ucleophiles." Chem. ev. ASA endler, S.; estreich, M. "ypervalent Silicon as a eactive in Site Selective Bond-Forming rocesses" Synthesis 2005, 11, 1727 Storer, I. MacMillan Group Seminar " ypervalent Silicon" July 2005
3 ewis Base in rganic Synthesis Strongly ewis basic additive have found important applications as promoters of a variety of diverse chemical processes. 3 C 3 C C 3 dioxolane 3 C C 3 i dioxolane 4 equiv MA 3 C 3 C C 3 3 C C 3 23 ºC t 1/2 = 80 min 3 C S C 3 23 ºC t 1/2 > 1 min 3 C C 3 C 3 C 3 > 100 : 1 10 : 1 SmI 2 SmI equiv MA TF / ir TF / ir 82% yield 4h C 2 C 3 1 min 95% yield
4 ewis Base in rganic Synthesis Strongly ewis basic additive have found important applications as promoters of a variety of diverse chemical processes. Et "good yield" Ti(ir) 4 (1.2 equiv) 23 ºC, 12 h ZnEt 2 C Ti(ir) 4 (1.2 equiv) Tf Tf 2 mol % 98 % yield e.r. 99:1 Et 20 ºC, 1.5 h When compared to the influence of ewis acids, ewis bases are seen to effect a much more diverse array of reactivity patterns. ewis bases can enhance the chemical reactivity from increasing nucleophilicity or electrophilicity to modulation of electrochemical properties.
5 Some Definitions of ewis Base Catalysis A ewis base catalyzed reaction is defined as one that is accelerated by the action of an electron-pair donor (as the catalyst) on an electron-pair acceptor (as the substrate or reagent) D ewis base X A X X ewis acid X D A X X reactive intermediate In terms of reactivity, this increase in electron density normally translates to enhanced nucleophilicity of the acceptor subunit. owever, this represent only one possible effect of the binding of a ewis base. A much less appreciated and indeed, even counterintuitive consequence of the binding of a ewis base is the ability to enhence the electrophilic character of the acceptor.
6 Some Definitions of ewis Base Catalysis Electronic redistribution resulting from ewis acid base complexation D ewis base X X A X ewis acid δ + D increased negative charged δ δ + δ X A X X increased positive charged Although the acceptor will possese an increased electron density relative to the parent ewis acid, it is the distribution of the electron density among the constituent atoms that must be considered to rationalize the effect of adduct formation on reactivity To visualize this concept clearly, it is useful to examine the nature of the newly formed dative bond Jensen proposed that all ewis acid base interactions could be classified in terms of the identities of the interacting orbitals
7 Some Definitions of ewis Base Catalysis Jensen's orbital analysis of molecular interactions. Donor Acceptor n* σ* π* n n n* n σ* n π* σ σ n* σ σ* σ π* π π n* π σ* π π* Although each of these combinations could represent a productive interaction, in practice, only three of these are significant in terms of catalysis. These are: 1) interactions between nonbonding electron pairs and antibonding orbitals with π character (n π* interaction) 2) interactions between nonbonding electron pairs and antibonding orbitals with σ character (n σ* interaction) 3) interactions between nonbonding electron pairs and vacant nonbonding orbitals with n character (n n* interaction)
8 ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions Generally termed "nucleophilic catalysis", n π* interactions represents the largest and most commonly recognized form of ewis base catalysis. u u X X B X B X = G X u B u u u X X B X = G B X B X u B u These processes are the first clearly identified examples of ewis base catalysis. In both cases the attack by the ewis base leads to the formation zwitterionic intermediate with enhanced nucleophilic character at the oxygen atom. If a leaving group is present, this intermediate collapse to a new ionic species with enhanced electrophilic character.
9 ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions First study case of ewis base catalysis: Base promoted acylation of alcohols Et 3 2 Studies for the development of more active catalyst showed that donor substituent greatly enhanced the rates for acylation. These investigations led to the discovery of DMA (entry 7) Entry k B [ 2 mol 2 s 1 ] pk a ( 2 ) σ k 6 B σ inear relationship were found between reaction rate, ammett σ values, and pk a values. Both relationships broke down with 2-substituted pyridines despite small change in σ and pk a values. This dramatic change in reaction rate between 4- and 2-methylpyridine is inconsistent with simple Brønsted base catalysis. ew "consensus" mechanism involving ewis base catalysis was formulated itvinenko,.m.; Kirichenko, A.I.; Dokl. Akad. auk. SSS Ser. Chem. 1967, 176, 197
10 ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions Consensus mechanism for pyridine-catalyzed acylations. Ac 2 ' Et 3 ' ' Ac Ac 2 II ' Ac I Ac ' ecent calculations suggest that II is the rate determining structure Support for the formation of the acylpyridinium intermediate has been found by I and UV spectroscopy as well as crystallographic studies For maximum conjugation between the pyridine and the acyl group a fully planar conformation must be obtained. The presence of a flanking 2-substituent creates unfavorable steric interactions and twist the acyl group out of the plane destabizing the molecule. This explains low reactivity for 2-substituted pyridine. Can catalytic enantioselective processes be developed?
11 ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions Fu's kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols 3 C C 3 tbu Ac 2, Et 3 tert-amyl alcohol, 0 ºC catalyst 1 mol % tbu 92.2 % ee at 51% conv. Fe 3 C C 3 3 C C 3 Fe Fe pro-s pro- The ability of a given complex to exist as a single conformer of this acylated intermediate is directly tied to its success as a chiral catalyst igh levels of selectivity was obtained for the kinetic resolution of alkyl aryl and alkenyl secondary alcohols uble, J. C.; atham,. A.; Fu, G. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 1492.
12 ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions Fu's kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols 3 C C 3 tbu Ac 2, Et 3 tert-amyl alcohol, 0 ºC catalyst 1 mol % tbu 92.2 % ee at 51% conv. Fe tbu 3 C C 3 3 C C 3 Fe Fe pro-s pro- The ability of a given complex to exist as a single conformer of this acylated intermediate is directly tied to its success as a chiral catalyst igh levels of selectivity was obtained for the kinetic resolution of alkyl aryl and alkenyl secondary alcohols uble, J. C.; atham,. A.; Fu, G. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 1492.
13 ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions Chiral catalysts for the kinetic resolution of alcohols. rac tbu catalyst conditions () tbu S Bu 2 4 mol %, C 3, 0 ºC a 2 S 4, ir2et, (EtC) 2 e.r. 99:1 at 51 % conv. s = mol %, toluene, 95 ºC Et 3, (irc) 2 e.r. 95.5:4.5 at 16 % conv. s = 26 Boc tbu Trt ir But 0.5 mol %, toluene, 65 ºC ir 2 Et, Ac 2 e.r. >75:25 at 35 % conv. s > 50 Kawabata, T.; Stragies,.; Fukaya, T.; Fuji, K. Chirality 2003, 15, 71 Birman, V.B.; Jiang, X.; i, X.; Guo,.; Uffman, E.W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 6536 Miller, S.J.; Acc. Chem. es. 2004, 37, 601
14 ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions Consensus mechanism for pyridine-catalyzed acylations. Ac 2 ' Et 3 ' ' Ac Ac 2 II ' Ac I Ac ' Can we utilize the nucleophile produced in asymmetric transformation?
15 Extension to acylation of nucleophiles ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions Bn 3 C Ar 1 mol % catalyst tert-amyl alcohol 0 ºC Bn Y* Ar Bn 3 C uble, J.C.; Fu, G.C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, e.r : % yield Ar Fe Y* This method has been further expanded to furanones, benzofuranones, and oxindoles. 5 % catalyst C 2 2, 35 ºC ills, I.D.; Fu, G.C. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42, % ee 81 % yield
16 ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions Fu's C-acylation of silyl ketene acetals Si 3 5 mol % catalyst Y* Et Y* ir toluene / C 2 2 Ac 2, 23 ºC Et Si 3 Si 3 ir Et ir Y* Y* e.r : % yield Et ir Fe Si 3 SbF 6 ir Et It is believed that the reaction involves activation of both the anhydride (formation of an acylpyridinium ion) and the silyl ketene acetal (generation of an enolate). This was concluded in part because the acylpyridinium SbF 6 salt was unreactive towards the silyl ketene acetal. no reaction Fu's C-acylation of silyl ketene imines Et C TBS 5 mol % catalyst C 2 C 2 (EtC) 2, 23 ºC Et Et C e.r : % yield Y* = Fe
17 ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions ewis base catalyzed reactions of ketenes: Wynberg and Staring formal [2+2] cycloadditions C 2 C 1 2 1mol % catalyst 25 ºC, toluene 3 CC 3 C quinidine >99 % yield / e.r. 99:1 quinine >99% yield / e.r. 12:88 C 3 quinidine quinine The ewis base catalyst enhances the nucleophilicity at C2 to enable the C C formation but also enhances the electrophilicity at C1 to facilitate the final cyclization step. Wynberg,.; Staring, A.G.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982, 104, 166 Can the ewis Base be use to both form the ketene an to perform the asymmetric transformation?
18 ewis Base Catalysis: n π* Interactions ewis base catalyzed [2+2] cycloadditions with in situ generated ketenes. C 2 I 5 mol % cat. Et 3, C 3 C 23 ºC % yield % ee It was observed that blocking the hydroxyl group with different carbonyl derivatives did not affect enantioselectivity very much, and thus the following stereochemical rationale was proposed nce the acylammonium enolate is formed, the aldehyde approaches the enolate from the si face, away from the quinoline Ac Cortez, G. S.; Tennyson,..; omo, D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 7945 ewis base catalyzed [2+2] cycloadditions with in situ generated ketenes. Ts C 2 Et 5 mol% cat proton sponge toluene, -78 ºC Ts Et 2 C 65 % yield d.r. 99:1 e.r. 99:1 Bn Calter, M.A.; rr,.k.; Song, W. rg. ett. 2003, 5, 4745
19 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions ewis acids, such as transitionmetal and electron deficient main-group organometallic reagents, is representative of a fundamentally different class of catalysis: the n σ* interaction enhanced electrophilic character D ewis base Y Y Si X Y Group 14 ewis acid D Y Y Si X δ + δ Y enhanced nucleophilic character δ + D δ δ + δ X Si X X hyperactive electrophile X hyperactive nucleophile hypervalency to ionization As in the n π* ewis base catalysis, the binding of the ewis base to the ewis acid induces a re-distribution of electron density in the newly formed adduct. In the proposed model of n σ* interaction, this binding leads to a polarization of the adjacent bonds, thereby increasing the electron density at the peripheral atoms. Silicon has shown great success in this type of process. Increase electrophilicity of the tal center is supported by computational studies. series Si 4 Si 5 Si 6 2 Mulliken charge What causes the enhanced electrophilicity of the metal and what makes silicon prone for hypervalency?
20 Bonding to Silicon - ow are 5 or 6 Bonds Accommodated? Valence Shell Electron air epulsion Theory (VSE) Theory to account for molecular bond geometries redicted hybrid orbitals for 2 6 coordinate compounds linear sp trigonal planar sp 2 tetrahedral sp 3 trigonal bipyramid sp 3d octahedral sp 3 d 2 Tetrahedral coordination sp 3 rehybridization Trigonal bipyramidal sp 3 d rehybridization? p hybridize sp 3 d hybridize dp s p sp 2 s C sp 3 tetrahedral M sp 2 dp trigonal bipyramid Gillespie,. J. Chem. Soc. ev., 1992, 21, 59. Storer, I. MacMillan Group Seminar: ypervalent Silicon, 2005.
21 The ole of d rbitals in Main-Group Compounds pentavalent compounds ow do 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals really hybridize to permit pentavalency? d d dp >200 kcal/mol p sp 2 hybridize p hybridize sp 2 sp 2 p The d-orbitals must be close enough in energy to the s and p orbitals to mix favourably s sp 2 dp The 3sp 2 dp hybridization would come at a massive energetic cost of >200 kcal/mol rendering this unlikely to ever occur sp 2 p hybridization is likely to occur preferentially 3d orbitals are still involved to a limited extent The d-orbitals have been essential for complete computation of all main group compounds Their role appears to be confined to that of polarization of the p-orbitals d-orbital occupation of <0.3e + = p d 'polarized p-orbital' Storer, I. MacMillan Group Seminar: ypervalent Silicon, 2005.
22 ypervalent Main Group Complexes The Existence of 3c 4e Bonds ow do 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals really hybridize to permit pentavalency? d 5-coordinate p hybridize p sp 2 sp 2 p sp 2 sp 2 s sp 2 p 3 x sp 2 1 x 3c 4e with p The 3c 4e bond M consideration Mixing of the filled σ orbital of the acceptor with the filled n orbital of the donor generates a pair of hybrid orbitals The M of this hybrid orbital (Ψ 2 ) contains a node at the central atom and localizes the electron density at the peripheral atoms antibonding Ψ 3 nonbonding Ψ 2 UM M This explains the enhances electrophilicity of the metal center while increasing the nucleophilicity of the ligands. This also explains why virtually all hypervalent compounds bond with electronegative F, and. bonding Ψ 1 Si
23 Chemical eactivity of ypervalent Silicon ybridization scheme and orbital picture of silicon complexes 4-coordinate 5-coordinate 6-coordinate Si Si poor ewis acid poor nucleophile sp 3 sp 3 sp 3 sp good ewis acid good nucleophile sp 2 p sp 2 sp 2 Si not ewis acidic v good nucleophile p p sp sp sp 3 p p sp 2 sp 2 Increasing δ + at silicon Increasing δ at ligands and 6-coordinate species not ewis acidic because it has no room for binding Electron density at Si decreases with increased coordination, causing the electropositive character (ewis acidity) of the Silicon centre to be increased.
24 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Corriu first introduced fluoride ions to promote formation of hypervalent silicate in the mid-1970s. owever, it was the introduction of soluble fluoride sources that later captivated the chemical community First example of the use of homogeneous fluoride ions in C C bond formation by. Sakurai Si 3 5 mol % TBAF TF, 4 h Si 3 acid workup 86 % yield The process involves the formation of an alkoxide TBA In the critical turnover step, the alkoxide must be to release fluorides and regenerate the catalyst. In view of the strenght of the Si F bond (135 kcalmol -1 ), many have disputed the role of TMSF as the active silylating agent Most generally accepted pathway was first suggested by Kuwajima osomi, A.; Shirahata, A.; Sakurai,. Tett. ett. 1978, 19, 3043
25 Fluoride ion initiated versus catalyzed processes ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Si 3 Si 3 2 C 2 Si 3 2 C TBAF 2 C 2 Si 3 fluoride catalysis 2 TBA auto catalysis 3 Si TBAF FSi 3 2 Si 3 This kind of autocatalytic behavior is supported by the observation of an induction period in the reaction-rate profile. Thus, a slower initial phase of the reaction is promoted by fluoride ions while the faster, later phase is promoted by some other in situ generated anion.
26 Fluoride ion initiated versus catalyzed processes ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Si 3 Si 3 Si 3 2 C 2 2 C TBAF 2 C 2 Si 3 fluoride catalysis 2 TBA auto catalysis 3 Si TBAF FSi 3 2 Si 3 ou has shown that the ammonium alkoxides generated are active catalysts for subsequent allylations nbu 4 Et 3 SiF TF, 1 day no reaction Si 3 C nbu 4 TF 76 % Yield Wang, D.-K.; Zhou, Y.-G.; Tang, Y.; ou,. -X. J. rg. Chem. 1999, 64, 4233
27 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions olyhalosilanes ucleophilicity of allylic silanes on the Mayr scale B 4 C 2 2 Si n 3-n In light of the analysis by Mayr et al., allyltrifluorosilane and allyltrichlorosilane should be completely unreactive towards aldehydes. This provides adramatic illustration of the power of ewis base activation Si 3 Si 2 Si 3 k = 1.87 x 10 2 mol -1 s -1 k = 2.76 x 10-1 mol -1 s -1 no reaction Fluoride ion catalyzed allylations with fluorosilanes 3 C 3 C SiF 3 C CsF TF, 0 ºC SiF 3 C CsF TF, 0 ºC C 3 F F Si F F C 3 The strict correlation of the silane geometry with the product configuration (E -->anti, Z -->syn) indicates the reaction proceeds through a cyclic chair like transition structure, with dual activation of both nucleophile and electrophile Kira, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sakurai,. Tett. ett. 1987, 28,4081
28 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions olyhalosilanes ewis basic solvent can promote aldehyde allylation (Kobayashi and ishio) 2 Si solvent, 0 C Solvent C 2 2 Et 2 benzene TF DMF C equiv DMF Yield trace trace trace trace 90% 68% Important discovery: eutral ewis bases such as DMF can activate trichlorosilanes!! Strict correlation of the silane geometry with the product configuration also obtained Si 3 97:3 E:Z DMF Si 3 Solvent Si M CD CD 3 C +8.6 C 6 D TF-d DMF-d MA 22 igh diastereoselectivity indicative of a rigid closed transition state Dual activation of both electrophile and nucleophile via a 6-membered closed TS. Kobayashi, S.; ishio, K. Tetrahedron ett. 1993, 34, Kobayashi, S.; ishio, K. J. rg. Chem. 1994, 59,
29 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions olyhalosilanes Denmark Si 3 ewis Base examethyl phosphoramide MA 1 equiv. MA, CD 3 86 % yield Can chiral MA derivatives be developed to catalyze the enantioselective variant? 2 2 r r 6h, 78 ºC, C equiv e.r. 66.5:33.5 6h, 78 ºC, C equiv e.r. 70.5:29.5 6h, 78 ºC, C equiv 40% yield e.r. 76.5: h, 78 ºC, TF 0.1 equiv 67 % yield e.r. 92.5:7.5 Weak loading dependence was observed in which lower loadings led to lower selectivities. Denmark, S.E.; Su, X.; ishigaishi, Y.; Coe, D.M.; Wong, K.-T.; Winter, S. B. D.; Choi, J.-Y, J. rg. Chem. 1999, 64, 1958
30 oading dependence on the enantioselectivity ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Ar Si 3 23 C, 1M Ar % ee product % ee catalyst These results represented the first suggestion that they were two distinct pathways involving the chiral phosphoramide with different levels of enantioselectivity Subsequent kinetic studies showed a non-integral order dependence of This is due to competing mechanisms involving 1 or 2 prosphoramides on silicon
31 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions olyhalosilanes Divergent mechanistic pathways in reactions of allyltrichlorosilane Si ( 2 ) 3 low selectivity Si 3 ( 2 ) 3 Si ( 2 ) 3 high selectivity It is believed that that the monophosphoramide complex would be less enantioselective than a diphosphoramide pathway due to the diminished influence of the singular chiral promoter in the former In the transition state with only one phosphoramide, there is no experimental support for either a hexacoordinate octahedral neutral transition structure or a cationic, trigonal bipyramindal transition structure Would a bidentate phosphoramide avoid the problem of mono-coordination on allylations? Denmark, S.E.; Fu, J.; Coe, D.M.; Su, X.; ratt,.m.; Griedel, B.D. J. rg. Chem. 2006, 71, 1513 Denmark, S. E.; Fu, J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 12021
32 Dimeric phosphoramide catalyzed allylations. ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Dimeric phosphoramide Si 3 catalyst C 2 2, 78 ºC 1 equiv. 73% yield; 51% ee 0.1 equiv 54% yield; 72% ee 0.05 equiv 56% yield; 56% ee (C 2 )n n equiv yield 54% 85% 58% ee 18% 87% 67% Advantages of dimeric phosphoramides Disfavors the less selective one-phosphoramide pathway elp overcoming the entropic disadvantage for the formation of the structure containing two ewis bases.
33 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Addition to hydrazones Allylation and crotylation of benzoylhydrazones - Kobayashi E Z Si 3 1 Bz catalyst C 2 2, 78 ºC Bz 1 E Z S (4-Tol) 2 (4-Tol) 2 A B 1 C 2 C 2 ir C 2 C 2 E Z Catalyst (equiv) A (3.0) A (3.0) A (3.0) Yield [%] d.r. (syn/anti) < 1:99 ee [%] * Si C 2 C 2 A (3.0) 58 > 99:1 89 Z-Crotyltrichlorosilane Et 2 C B (2.0) Et 2 C B (2.0) 92 98:2 99 Et 2 C B (2.0) 96 < 1:99 96 Bz The E-geometry of hydrazone put the group at an axial direction; consequently, syn- and anti- homoallylic hydrazines are stereospecifically obtained from (E)- and (Z)- crotyltrichlorosilanes, respectively 1 anti-adducts irabayashi,.; gawa, C.; Sugiura, M.; Kobayashi, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9493 gawa, C.; Sugiura, M.; Kobayashi, S. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 6491
34 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions ropargylation and Allenylation ewis base catalyzed allenylation and propargylation - Kobayashi Si 3 Cu, ir 2 Et Et 2 Si 3 Si 3 C C C C 2 C 2 99:1 > 1:99 92 % yield Si 3 [i(acac) 2 ], ir 2 Et Et 2 Si 3 1:99 C C 2 Si 3 C C C 2 > 99:1 92 % yield Assumed transition state: SixDMFy C SixDMFy Schneider, U.; Sugiura, M.; Kobayashi, S. Tetrahedron. 2006, 62, 496 Schneider, U.; Sugiura, M.; Kobayashi, S. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2006, 348, 323
35 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Enoxytrichlorosilane osphoramide-catalyzed asymmetric aldol reactions of trichlorosilyl enol ethers Si 3 C22 Catalyst Temp [ºC] d.r. % ee none 0 98:2 = 78 < 1:99 93 = 78 99:1 53 In analogy to catalyzed reactions with allylic trichlorosilanes a rate enhancement is observed using a ewis base. This support the formation of a cationic hypervalent siliconium ion as reactive intermediate. Dramatic difference between the observed diastereoselectivities indicates that the two catalysts must participate in different manners Denmark, S. E.; Su, X.; ishigaishi, Y. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 12990
36 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Enoxytrichlorosilane athway to anti aldol - double coordination Si 3 E-enolsilane Si exacoordinate Si proposed (ctahedral) Good Enantioselectivity + anti aldol (92% ee) 1 athway to syn aldol mono coordination Si 3 E-enolsilane 1 Si entacoordinate Si proposed (Trigonal bipyramidal) oor Enantioselectivity + syn aldol (50% ee) 1 igand binding forces dissociation. Experimental evidence: Bu 4 retards the reaction rate - common ion effect Bu 4 Tf and Bu 4 I accelerate the rate by increasing ionic strength Denmark J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120,
37 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Enoxytrichlorosilane Dimeric phosphoramide catalyzed asymmetric aldol reactions between aldehydes Si 3 C mol % cat. C 3 / C 2 2 Si C 5 9 C bisphosphoramide catalyst C 5 9 (Z) enolsilane 92 % yield ; syn/anti 99:1; 90% ee (E) enolsilane 92 % yield ; syn/anti 3:97; 82% ee In situ formation of an inactive chlorohydrin prevents oligomerization The aldehyde is bound trans to one of the of the phosphoramides at the less sterically encumbered position The exposure of the e face of the aldehyde is determined by two factors: Interaction with the - methyl group and one of the naphtyl group Denmark, S. E.; Ghosh, S. K. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 4759
38 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions imitations with trichlorosilanes Trichlorosilanes are difficult to prepare and handle 1) DA, 78 C 2) Bu 3 Sn Bu 3 Sn 1) Si 4 (6 equiv) 2) distill 20 C 60% 65% Si 3 Denmark, S. E.; Winter, S. B. D.; Su, X.; Wong, K.-T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, TMS g(ac) 2 (1 mol%) Si 4, C 2 2 Xg = ir, nbu, ibu, tbu, TBSC 2,, C 2 C ~60% Si 3 Denmark, S. E.; Winter, S. B. D.; Su, X.; Wong, K.-T. J. rg. Chem. 1998, 63, ossible solution to this problem? ewis Base Si 4 oor ewis acid Si Qu: Is this a useful ewis Acid?
39 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Si 4 mediated reactions Si 4 mediated / phosphoramide-catalyzed allylatiions with stannanes SnBu mol % cat. Si 4 C 2 2, 78 ºC 6 h ( 2 ) 3 ( 2 ) 3 Si Good yields and enantioselectivities obtained, but only aromatic and olefinic aldehydes were reactive 91 % yield 94 % ee 91 % yield 66 % ee no reaction 5 bisphosphoramide catalyst Denmark, S. E.; Wynn, T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 6199
40 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Si 4 mediated reactions Catalytic cycle for Si 4 -mediated / phosphoramide-catalyzed reactions The lack of reaction with aliphatic aldehydes is explained through the unproductive equilibrium between the hexacoordinated cationic intermediate and the unreactive chlorohydrin. pen transition state leads to the opposite sense of diastereoselection when compared to trichlorosilyl enol ethers, making this method complementary to the existing one. This allows access to both diastereomers starting from the same synthetic precursor. Denmark, S. E.; Wynn, T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 6199
41 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Si 4 mediated reactions Silyl ketene acetal TBS + 5 mol % cat. Si 4 C 2 2, 78 ºC 6 h 5 bisphosphoramide catalyst 97 % yield 93 % ee 95 % yield 94 % ee 72 % yield 81 % ee ropionate-derived silyl ketene acetal TBS + 5 mol % cat. Si 4 C 2 2, 78 ºC 6 h 97 % yield d.r. 99:1 ; 93 % ee 98 % yield d.r. >99:1 ; 94 % ee 71 % yield d.r. 91:9 ; 81 % ee Denmark, S. E.; Wynn, T.; Beutner, G.. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 13405
42 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Si 4 mediated reactions Addition of vinylogous enol ether 3 TBS + 1 mol % cat. Si 4 2 C 2 2, 78 ºC bisphosphoramide catalyst 3 C C 3 Et C 3 tbu 89 % yield γ/α >99:1 ; 98 % ee Addition of --ketene acetals 92 % yield γ/α >99:1 ; 74 % ee 92 % yield d.r. 99:1 ; 89 % ee Denmark, S. E.; Beutner, G.. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, TBS + 5 mol % cat. Si 4 C 2 2, 78 ºC 6 h 3 2 C % yield γ/α >99:1 ; 98 % ee 79 % yield γ/α >99:1 ; 87 % ee 71 % yield γ/α >99:1 ;94 % ee Denmark, S. E.; Beutner, G..; Wynn, T.; Eastgate, M.D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 3774
43 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions Si 4 mediated reactions Addition of isocyanide tbu C + 1 mol % cat. Si 4 C 2 2, 78 ºC Si 3 tbu / ac 3 or ac 3 or tbu Quench Yield [%] ee [%] (E)-C=C (E)-C=C C 2 C 2 C 2 C 2 ac 3 ac 3 ac > 98 > bisphosphoramide catalyst Under standard reaction conditions developed for the Si 4 -mediated reactions, of enoxysilanes, an isocyanide can add to aromatic, olefinic, and aliphatic aldehydes in high yields and enantioselectivities After hydrolysis either the amide or the ester product can be obtained selectively After formation of the carbon carbon bond, a nitrilium ion is generated. This highly electrophilic species can serve as a competitive trap for the ionized chloride ion, thereby forming a chloroimine and disfavoring the formation of inactive chlorohydrins Denmark, S. E.; Fan, Y. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 7825
44 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions eduction of carbonyls and imines ydrosilation Corriu (1981) Si(Et) 3 (1.0 equiv.) CsF (1.0 equiv.) 80% neat, 0 C robable mechanism Et ewis base Si Et Et Si Et activation F F Et Et 5-coordinate good.a. Cs Et Et F Si Et Cs Et Et Si Et F Cs work-up 6-coordinate good donor Boyer, J.; Corriu,. J..; erz,.; eye, C. Tetrahedron, 1981, 37, Corriu,. J..; erz,.; eye, C. Tetrahedron, 1983, 39, 999.
45 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions eduction of carbonyls and imines osomi (1988) Si() 3 (1.5 equiv.) cat. (0.4 mol%) TF, T 89% 52% ee Kohra, S; ayashida,.; Tominaga, Y.; osomi, A. Tetrahedron ett., 1988, 29, 89. i i osomi discovered that lithium alkoxides can act as reversible binding ewis bases Development of highly catalytic processes (0.4 mol%) roblem: roduct alkoxide can also act as a ewis base catalyst alternative low ee reaction catalyst Iwasaki (1999) Si 3 (1.5 equiv.) cat. (10 mol%) C 2 2, 0 C Iwasaka et al. Tett. ett., 1999, 40, % 29% ee catalyst
46 eduction of ketones with trimethylsiloxane ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions eduction of carbonyls and imines Si() 3 catalyst Ar roblem: roduct alkoxide can also act as a ewis base catalyst alternative low ee reaction i i i i i i 4 mol % Ar = 62 % yield 77 % ee 10 mol % Ar = 80 % yield 61 % ee 4 mol % Ar = 4-anisyl 89 % yield 70 % ee Schiffers,.; Kagan,. B. Synett., 1997, 1175.
47 ewis Base Catalysis: n σ* Interactions eduction of carbonyls and imines eduction of imines with trichlorosilane S 2 (4-tBuC 6 4 ) Ar 3 Si activator Ar Ac Ac 10 mol % Ar = 4-anisyl 95 % yield 93 % ee 10 mol % Ar = 4-2 C % yield 90 % 10 mol % Ar = 4-2 C % yield 90 % ee (S) My proposed TS: 3 C 3 C C 3 Si sense of asymmetric induction hydrogen bonding or size, or docking? Ar arene-arene interactions with substrate arene-arene interactions with catalyst (S)-major chiral relay coordination of Si 1 2 size Malkov, A.V.; Stoncius, S.; MacDougall, K..; Mariani, A.; McGeoch, G.D.; Kocovski,. Tetrahedron, 2006, 62, 264. Wang, Z.; Ye, X.; Wei, S.; Wu,.; Zhang, A.; Sun, J. rg. ett, 2006, 8, 999. Wang, Z.; Cheng,.; Wei, S.; Wu,.; Sun, J. rg. ett, 2006, 8, 3045.
48 Conclusion ewis base catalysis has seen tremendous growth over the past 10 years due in part to the efforts of Scott. E. Denmark Considering the different ways in which electron-pair donors can enhance chemical reactivity through various mechanis, the opportunities for invention are important. roblem: It is difficult to accurately assess the precise nature, coordination and conformation of the active catalyst and transition state orientation.
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