Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures

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1 Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures Filipe Amarante dos Santos Processing, characterization and applications of shape memory alloys June 14, 2013

2 Generic stress-strain response of a SMA above A f Stress Plastic deformation (Slipped martensite) d Failure e Elastic deformation of detwinned martensite c Forward transformation b Unloading a Elastic deformation of austenite c Elastic deformation of detwinned martensite o d Inverse transformation e Strain Residual strain Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 2 / 78

3 Generic stress-strain response of a SMA below M f Stress Plastic deformation (Slipped martensite) e Failure e a Elastic deformation of detwinned martensite Detwinning of martensite b c d Unloading Elastic deformation of twinned martensite o c Elastic deformation of detwinned martensite f Strain Residual strain (recoverable trough heating) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 3 / 78

4 Shape-memory and superelastic sequence. Three dimensional stress, strain and temperature diagram SUPERELASTIC Stress Forward transformation Temperature unloading with no residual strain Inverse transformation T > A f T = A f Stress Strain Detwinning SHAPE MEMORY T = A s unloading with residual strain T<M f Strain Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 4 / 78

5 Definition of energy dissipated E D in a superelastic loading cycle and maximum strain energy E S0 Stress E S0 Strain E D Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 5 / 78

6 Small-scale steel framed prototype with SMA braces (adapted from Boroscheck) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 6 / 78

7 SMA-based energy dissipating and re-centering brace (adapted from Dolce) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 7 / 78

8 Adaptive vibration control device for bracing systems (adapted from Zhang and Zu) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 8 / 78

9 Configuration of elastomeric bearings, friction-pendulum bearings, SE austenitic wires and MR dampers. Low-friction wheels for SMA wire installation (adapted from Shook) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 9 / 78

10 Unseating of bridge at in-span hinge during an earthquake In-span hinge y(t) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 10 / 78

11 Colapso de ponte durante o sismo de Northridge (1994)(Johnson et al.) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 11 / 78

12 Colapso de ponte reforçada com elementos tradicionais de retenção, em aço, durante o sismo de Northridge (1994) (Johnson et al.) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 12 / 78

13 Restraining solution with SMA elements in a multi-span simply supported bridge SMA restrainers Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 13 / 78

14 Schematic of the test setup and SMA restrainer cable (adapted from Johnson) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 14 / 78

15 SMA restrainer test setup (adapted from Johnson) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 15 / 78

16 Schematic of the test setup and SMA restrainer cable (adapted from Padgett) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 16 / 78

17 SMA restrainer test setup (adapted from Johnson) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 17 / 78

18 Reinforcement details of beam-column element with coupler (dimensions in mm) (adapted from Alam) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 18 / 78

19 Schematic of the SMA-based connection test setup (adapted from Ocel) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 19 / 78

20 SMA-based full-scale connection test setup (adapted from Ocel) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 20 / 78

21 Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi in Italy (a) General view. (b) Anchorage detail of SMAD. (c) SMAD application. (d) SMADs arrangement. Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 21 / 78

22 St. Feliciano Cathedral in Italy (a) General view (b) SMADs arrangement (c) SMAD (F = 27 kn, u = ±20 mm) (d) Anchorage detail of SMAD Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 22 / 78

23 S. Giorgio Church Bell-Tower in Italy (a) General view (b) SMAD application Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 23 / 78

24 Bridge carrying Sherman Road over US-31, USA (a) General view (b) Shear cracks on beam stem (c) SMA rods (d) Heating of SMA rods Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 24 / 78

25 Experimental equipment: (a-b) testing machine and temperature controlled chamber; (c) gripping jaws (a) (b) (c) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 25 / 78

26 CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Ensaios de tracção σ[mpa] σ AM s σ MA s Loading plateau Eurof lex Unloading plateau σ AM f σ MA s ε[%] σ[mpa] ε[%] σ u Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 26 / 78

27 CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Ensaio DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) Heat flow Cooling Austenite (parent) M f M s A s A f Martensite Heating T [ C] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 27 / 78

28 CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Ensaios de tracção com temperatura variável (CCC) σ[mpa] T = 75 C σ[mpa] Tensile tests T DSC test slope = 6.5 MPaK T = 30 C ε[%] T [ C] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 28 / 78

29 CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Influência da temperatura ambiente no amortecimento 10 ζ eq [%] T[ C] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 29 / 78

30 CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Ensaios de tracção com ciclos parciais ε 6.3% 4.2% 2.1% ε 6.3% 5.8% 5.8% t 3.1% 3.1% t σ [MPa] ε [%] ε [%] σ [MPa] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 30 / 78

31 CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Influência da amplitude da extensão no amortecimento ζ eq [%] M emorym etalle 12 Eurof lex ε[%] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 31 / 78

32 Temperature patterns within the SE wire specimen, during the loading-unloading tensile test at a strain rate of 0.250%/s σ[mpa] σ[mpa] σ[mpa] ε[%] ε[%] ε[%] T[ C] T[ C] T[ C] t[s] t[s] t[s] 1 (a) t 1 = 6s 2 (b) t 2 = 16s 3 (c) t 3 = 28s σ[mpa] σ[mpa] σ[mpa] T[ C] ε[%] T[ C] ε[%] T[ C] ε[%] t[s] t[s] t[s] 4 (d) t 4 = 34s 5 (e) t 5 = 39s 6 (f) t 6 = 44s Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 32 / 78

33 Dynamic tensile tests: strain-rate influence on temperature time-history T[ C] ε = 0.033%/s T[ C] ε = 0.120%/s T[ C] ε = 0.600%/s t[s] t[s] t[s] T[ C] ε = 1.20%/s T[ C] ε = 6.00%/s T[ C] ε = 12.0%/s t[s] t[s] t[s] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 33 / 78

34 Dynamic tensile tests: strain-rate influence on temperature time-history σ[mp a] ε = 0.033%/s σ[mp a] ε = 0.120%/s σ[mp a] ε = 0.600%/s ε[%] ε[%] ε[%] σ[mp a] ε = 1.20%/s σ[mp a] ε = 6.00%/s σ[mp a] ε = 12.0%/s ε[%] ε[%] ε[%] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 34 / 78

35 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Influência da velocidade no amortecimento) 14 ζ eq [%] ε[%/s] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 35 / 78

36 CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Ensaios de tracção cíclicos Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 36 / 78

37 CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Ensaios de tracção cíclicos Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 37 / 78

38 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Lei mecânica: σ(ε,t,ξ) A M A M A Transformed phase Transformed phase Transformed phase A M A M A Simplified serial model Voight model Reuss model Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 38 / 78

39 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Lei cinética: ξ(σ,t) σ AM f σ AM s σ MA s σ MA f σ = C M (T M f ) σ = C M (T M s ) C M 1 1 C M ξ = 1 ξ = 0 ξ = 1 ξ = 0 C A 1 σ = C A (T A s ) 1 C A σ = C A (T A f ) σ AM f σ AM s σ MA s σ MA f A M ξ = 0 A M ξ = 1 M f M s A s A f T ε A ε A +ε L Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 39 / 78

40 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Lei de balanço energético: q gen (ξ,w) z r Air surrounding wire att f z Nitinol wire L r φ L Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 40 / 78

41 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Validação do modelo numérico Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 41 / 78

42 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Validação do modelo numérico Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 42 / 78

43 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Validação do modelo numérico Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 43 / 78

44 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Validação do modelo numérico Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 44 / 78

45 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Estudo paramétrico: ζ eq (f) 6 ζ eq [%] T = 10 C T = 20 C T = 30 C T = 40 C f [Hz] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 45 / 78

46 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Sistema dinâmico superelástico com 1 grau de liberdade: método de Newmark p(t) u(t) SE m p(t) u(t) m SE 1 SE 2 p(t) u(t) SE 2 m SE 1 SE 3 Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 46 / 78

47 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Pré-esforço em aplicações superelásticas σ σ Pre-strained ε p ε p ε Non-pre-strained ε ε ε Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 47 / 78

48 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Sistema com um elemento SE (T = 20 C, f = 2 Hz) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 48 / 78

49 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Sistema com dois elementos SE (T = 20 C, f = 2 Hz) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 49 / 78

50 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Sistema com três elementos SE (T = 20 C, f = 2 Hz) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 50 / 78

51 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Sistema de retenção para pontes baseado em elementos superelásticos Superelastic restrainer cables Superelastic restrainer cables Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 51 / 78

52 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Viaduto de São Martinho Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 52 / 78

53 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Histograma da acção sísmica Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 53 / 78

54 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Seismic response of a viaduct with f = 1.0 Hz and A = 5% A max u[m] free controlled t[s] ü[ms 2 ] (a) Displacement time-history free controlled t[s] (c) Acceleration time-history u[ms 1 ] free controlled t[s] F[MN] (b) Velocity time-history u[m] (d) Force-displacement diagram Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 54 / 78

55 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Parametric curves in function of the SE restraining area: displacement u[m] f = 0.5 Hz f = 1.0 Hz f = 1.5 Hz f = 2.0 Hz A[%A max ] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 55 / 78

56 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Parametric curves in function of the SE restraining area: velocity u[ms 1 ] f = 0.5 Hz f = 1.0 Hz f = 1.5 Hz f = 2.0 Hz A[%A max ] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 56 / 78

57 MODELAÇÃO DA SUPERELASTICIDADE Parametric curves in function of the SE restraining area: acceleration ü[ms 2 ] f = 0.5 Hz f = 1.0 Hz f = 1.5 Hz f = 2.0 Hz A[%A max ] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 57 / 78

58 NOVO DISPOSITIVO DE CONTROLO Sistema passivo sem pré-esforço e com pré-esforço 4 ε [%] SE u [cm] 3 SE ε Ms -1.0 t [s] -2.0 t [s] ε [%] SE 1 SE u [cm] 2 Pre-strain ε Ms -1.0 t [s] -2.0 t [s] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 58 / 78

59 NOVO DISPOSITIVO DE CONTROLO Esquema funcional do novo dispositivo S 2 M 2 fixed supports SE1 SE2 m u u SE1 SE2 m lock/unlock supports M 1 S 1 passive system semi-active system Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 59 / 78

60 NOVO DISPOSITIVO DE CONTROLO Funcionamento do controlador on-off ε(t) Upper differential gap Upper limit[r u (t)] Lower limit[r l (t)] Lower differential gap t Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 60 / 78

61 NOVO DISPOSITIVO DE CONTROLO Novo dispositivo submetido a solicitações harmónicas 4 3 ε [%] Upper bound limit SE 1 SE u [cm] 2 1 Cumulative strain t [s] -2.0 t [s] ε [%] SE 1 u [cm] 4.0 Upper bound limit SE Cumulative strain t [s] t [s] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 61 / 78

62 NOVO DISPOSITIVO DE CONTROLO Estudo comparativo: sismo kobe Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 62 / 78

63 NOVO DISPOSITIVO DE CONTROLO Estudo comparativo: sismo kobe Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 63 / 78

64 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Ponte simplesmente apoiada com sistema de retenção superelástico Deck Abutment Abutment Superelastic restrainer cables Superelastic restrainer cables Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 64 / 78

65 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Fase de projecto: conceito geral do dispositivo Linear actuator 2 Moving mass module Bar Rail Clamp End plate Bracket Linear actuator 1 Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 65 / 78

66 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Fase de projecto: módulo com massa móvel Pin Bevel shaped wheel Force sensor Rail Wheel Wedge shaped rail Detail of the wheel rail interface Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 66 / 78

67 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Fase de projecto: sensor de força Thin aluminum plate Plate support fixture SE wire clamp Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 67 / 78

68 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Fase de projecto: actuador linear Detail of the clamp Servomotor Mounting plate Timing pulleys Electromechanical cylinder Timing belt Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 68 / 78

69 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Sensor de força Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 69 / 78

70 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Protótipo completo Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 70 / 78

71 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Ensaio do protótipo completo Linear actuator 1 Accelerometer u(t) Linear actuator 2 SE wire 1 SE wire 2 MMM Force sensor 1 Force sensor 2 Shake-table Displacement sensor ÿ(t) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 71 / 78

72 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Diagrama de blocos do protótipo ON-OFF Controller (SE1) (Upper ref. stress) B 1(s) R1 u(s) + Upper stress limit controller for SE1 E U1 1 u(s) U1 u(s) (Error) (Stress feedback) U2 (Force-sensor 1) H 1(s) R l 1 (s) + E l 1 (s) (Error) U1 U2 U l 1 (s) + + U 1(s) (Ref. speed Servodrive 1) (Lower ref. stress) B 1(s) Lower stress limit controller for SE1 (Stress feedback) (Force-sensor 1) H 1(s) U1: PID-ON (Stress PID controller: Kp + K i s +Kd s) U2: PID-OFF + + U(s) G cp(s) + + C(s) ON-OFF Controller (SE2) (Upper ref. stress) B 2(s) R2 u(s) + (Stress feedback) Upper stress limit controller forse2 E U1 2 u(s) U2 u(s) (Error) U2 (Force-sensor 2) H 2(s) (Disturbance: Shake-table) R l 2 (s) (Lower ref. stress) + B 2(s) E l 2 (s) (Error) U1 U2 Lower stress limit controller forse2 (Stress feedback) U l 2 (s) + + U 2(s) (Ref. speed Servodrive 2) (Force-sensor 2) H 2(s) U1: PID-ON (Stress PID controller: Kp + K i s + Kd s) U2: PID-OFF Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 72 / 78

73 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Estudo paramétrico: pré-esforço no protótipo (ζ eq = 10% ζ eq = 23%) Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 73 / 78

74 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Resultados: histograma da força em SE1 CONTROL-OFF CONTROL-ON F[%F max ] Setpoint high PID threshold high PID threshold low Setpoint low Force PID-ON 20 PID-OFF Accumulated force PID-ON t[s] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 74 / 78

75 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Resultados: evolução do diagrama força-deslocamento F[%F max ] Initial cycle Final cycle u[mm] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 75 / 78

76 MODELO EXPERIMENTAL Resultados: histograma da aceleração CONTROL-OFF CONTROL-ON ü[ms 2 ] t[s] Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 76 / 78

77 SUPERB Seismic Unseating Prevention. Elements for Retrofitting of Bridges: PTDC/ECM/117618/2010 Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 77 / 78

78 Obrigado pela atenção. Vibration control with shape memory alloys in civil engineering strutctures 78 / 78

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