6th International Conference on Corpus Linguistics Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, May 2014 Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

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1 6th International Conference on Corpus Linguistics Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, May 2014 Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Input a word, analyze the world: Corpus Linguistics and society ACCEPTED PAPERS ABSTRACTS 1

2 María Teresa Cáceres-Lorenzo and Rita Navarro Hernández Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Referencias cuantitativas en el Tesoro léxico canario-americano La existencia de un vocabulario común canario-americano es una aseveración que se repite en muchas estudios, pero sin la consiguiente actualización con los corpus dialectales. Nuestra investigación, a través de una metodología cuantitativa y cualitativa, aporta nuevas referencias numéricas acerca de estas coincidencias con un corpus dialectal concreto: Tesoro léxico canario-americano (2010, premio de investigación filológica RAE ). Los datos corroboran las conclusiones sobre el gran número de coincidencias con las áreas caribeñas y matiza la relación con otras regiones americanas. María-Isabel González-Cruz Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Building a corpus of Canarianisms in English XIX-XX-Century Travel books on the Canaries The Canary Islands have always been in close contact with the Anglo-Saxon world, which has had important consequences for the economy but has also meant a significant influence at the socio-cultural, linguistic and literary levels. A review of the extensive English bibliography on the Canaries reveals, among other aspects, a tendency in most authors to use Hispanicisms and even Canarianisms in their texts. In previous works (González-Cruz & González de la Rosa 2006, 2007; González-Cruz 2011a, 2011b, 2013) we have proved and discussed the reasons for the occurrence of this type of vocabulary in various texts. Our claim is that the popularity of the many writings in English on the Islands could have contributed to the penetration and diffusion of many of the Spanish words used in them among their wide readership, which in turn might have helped to a certain degree to their inclusion in English dictionaries. This poster offers a record of all the Canarian words (as registered in Corrales and Corbella s 2009 Diccionario ejemplificado de Canarismos, henceforth, DEC) which appear in a sample taken from that bibliography, namely twelve travel books and two tourist guides published between 1851 and Another important aim here is to highlight the contribution of Canarian Spanish to the enrichment of the vocabulary of the English language by checking which of those Canarianisms used in the books have been included in the lexical repertoire of the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (2007, henceforth, SOEDHP). Thus, among all the Canarianisms registered, we found 18 which are actually included in the SOEDHP. Obviously, the SOEDHP only marks them as words derived from Spanish, without specifying which particular variety or varieties they came from, a task that would doubtless be difficult to carry out. Interestingly, as for the sources used by this dictionary and the type of words collected, the preface of the 1993 edition (also included in the new 2007 version, which we have used) states the following: The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary [ ] sets out the main meanings and semantic developments of words current at any time between 1700 and the present day: those which have been in regular literary or colloquial use at some point in their history; slang or dialect words which are nevertheless likely to be generally encountered through accessible literature or the modern mass media [ ] We believe that the texts that we have used to build up our corpus can be included within that accessible literature referred to by the SOEDHP. In this poster we give illustrative examples of the particular usage of these 18 Canarianisms which appear in the SOEDHP. 2

3 Sardar Jaf and Allan Ramsay Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus A stemmer and A Part-of-Speech Tagger for Sorani Kurdish In this paper, we demonstrate an approach for developing a part-of-speech tagger for a lessresourced language, Kurdish, where the only available resource is raw texts and a few descriptive grammar text books. We present a rule-based approach, which we believe -to the best of our knowledge- is the first attempt for developing a POS tagger for Kurdish. We will also briefly describe Sorani Kurdish morphology features, the system design, the preliminary results, and our evaluation strategy. María Teresa Cáceres-Lorenzo Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Desarrollo de la competencia científica a través de corpus dialectales En los corpus dialectales se recogen multitud de muestras reales de las variedades lingüística del español. Nuestro objetivo es mostrar una indagación realizada con la modalidad organizativa de un taller para alumnos de posgrados de Humanidades (curso ), en el que se busca como fin último, la redacción de un artículo científico. La investigación aplicada se ha fundamentado en la observación directa y en la evaluación de los textos que los alumnos generaron. El resultado exitoso indica una mejora en la alfabetización científica por la creación de actividades de adquisición y organización del conocimiento (observación, análisis y síntesis). María-Isabel González-Cruz, Goretti García-Morales, Carmen Luján-García and María- Jesús Rodríguez-Medina Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Hacia un corpus de anglicismos en la publicidad televisiva española: Work in Progress En este póster presentamos los objetivos, la metodología y un esbozo de los primeros resultados del proyecto de investigación financiado por la ULPGC (ULPGC ) Globalización e impacto de la lengua inglesa y la cultura angloamericana en la publicidad televisiva española. Este proyecto, que está en plena fase de desarrollo desde el 10 de junio 2013 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2014, pretende aportar datos fiables sobre el impacto de la cultura angloamericana que la sociedad española está recibiendo a través de los medios de comunicación, centrándose en el análisis de la publicidad emitida por televisión en horario de máxima audiencia en diferentes canales. Tras diversos trabajos previos sobre anglicismos (Bolaños-Medina y Luján-García, 2010; García-Morales, 2009; García-Morales y Socorro-Trujillo, 2008, 2009; González-Cruz, 2003; González-Cruz y Luján-García, 2003; González Cruz et al. 2009; González-Cruz y Rodríguez-Medina, 2011a, 2011b; Luján- García, 2010a, 2010b, 2011, 2012, 2013; Rodríguez-Medina, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004; entre otros), el corpus que estamos recopilando ahora conjuntamente se centra en el campo de la publicidad comercial. Dentro de éste se distinguirán variadas categorías tales como publicidad de vehículos (coches, motos, etc.), publicidad de cosméticos y productos de belleza (desodorantes, perfumes, champús, etc.), anuncios de móviles e informática; tabaco, bebidas, relojes, etc. En todos ellos se aprecia la utilización de textos escritos y orales en lengua inglesa para promocionar productos dirigidos a un público cuya lengua de uso común es el español. Este uso de anglicismos y el impacto general de la cultura angloamericana en la sociedad española es un hecho actual que afecta a la mayoría de los ciudadanos, especialmente a las generaciones más jóvenes, en nuestra vida cotidiana. De ahí que diversos estudios se hayan ocupado de analizar dicha presencia e impacto en nuestra cultura en numerosos ámbitos como el del deporte (Balteiro, 2011); el entorno de la informática (Pérez-Ruiz y Vivancos-Machimbarrena, 1997; Pano, 2007), el campo de la 3

4 economía y las finanzas (Berglund 2008; Solís, 2005); el lenguaje legal (Sánchez-Reyes y Durán, 2002); el terreno de la música (Olivares, 2009), e incluso el campo de los folletos de juguetes infantiles (Luján-García, 2011) etc. Existen también diferentes trabajos que han abordado la presencia de anglicismos en el lenguaje de la publicidad española, pero lo han hecho principalmente centrándose en el lenguaje escrito; parece existir, por tanto, un vacío de investigación exhaustiva en el terreno de la publicidad televisiva. Nuestro trabajo pretende cubrir ese vacío aportando datos concretos y fiables. Uno de los objetivos es realizar un análisis comparativo de cuál es el ámbito de nuestra vida cotidiana que está más expuesto a la presencia de anglicismos y cuáles son las motivaciones para tales usos, así como si existen o no equivalentes en español para definir o describir tales productos. En este sentido, el trabajo adopta un enfoque pragmático con el que intentamos determinar qué función(es) cumplen estos anuncios en la lengua de recepción. Por otro lado, pretendemos aunar dos fenómenos de gran importancia en la actual sociedad globalizada en la que nos movemos: (a) la incidencia de la cultura angloamericana y la lengua inglesa sobre nuestra lengua y cultura, y (b) la influencia de la publicidad, que constituye una de las armas con más poder de persuasión en la actual era de las nuevas tecnologías y los medios de comunicación. Con este estudio pretendemos concienciar y dar datos rigurosos sobre un fenómeno de gran actualidad en España, como es la presencia cada vez más frecuente de anglicismos en el terreno de la publicidad televisiva. Aline Bazenga Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus The Corpus of Funchal s Speech Variety and the Study of Concordance Patterns in African, Brazilian and European Varieties of Portuguese The aim of this talk is to present the Corpus of Funchal s Speech Variety, a corpus of spoken dialectal European Portuguese, gathering oral interviews (spontaneous and semi-directed speech) made in Funchal, the capital of Madeira Island, within the scope of the ongoing research project Study of Concordance Patterns in African, Brazilian and European Varieties of Portuguese developed by the Linguistic Centre of the University of Lisbon (CLUL- Portugal), the University of Madeira (Portugal) and the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (URFJ Brazil). My presentation will focus on the making of the corpus, which started in 2010, and on an overall view of the works (both published and ongoing) that have been carried out since the beginning of this project. This will demonstrate that this corpus is a useful resource for the study of the syntactic variation of the Portuguese language, and contributes to a better knowledge of the insular variety of Portuguese. Saud Alotaibi and Charles Anderson Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Towards Enriched Sentiment Analysis in Arabic The goal of sentiment analysis is to capture the intended feeling from a text. The most important part of this task is having an annotated sentiment corpora. Several free corpora are available for the English language, but these resource are still limited in other languages such as Arabic. This paper describes a work to enrich sentiment analysis in Arabic by building a new sentiment Arabic corpus. This corpus is created for predicting subjective and polarity on documented and sentence level for 5 different domains. There are around 6268 documents in different domains (837 objective and 5431 subjective). The data is not only labeled with two polarities (positive and negation) but also the neutral sentiment is used during annotation process. Some basic experiments were conducted on this corpus showing promising findings. 4

5 Francesca Parisi and Roberto Trunfio Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus A statistical method for predicting the relation between corpus size and lexical representativeness A linguistic corpus is a collection of texts (e.g. articles, novels, legal documents, blog posts, oral transcriptions, etc.) compiled in order to reach specific goals. Nowadays, an increasing number of researchers are benefiting from the use of corpora, especially in the field of computer science (Wynne 2005). Therefore, it is not surprising to discover that the research community focusing on the problem of determining corpus representativeness is growing more and more (Gries and Newman 2014). Thus, in order to build a representative sample of texts, it is necessary to transfer the representativeness from the specific domain language to the corpus. This concept corresponds to the statistical inferential procedure of adapting the values of a sample to the values of a population (Akritas and Politis 2003). Therefore, a corpus must include the same characteristics of the whole population of texts in terms of lexical variance and specific statistical linguistic indicators. In particular, a representative corpus should include as much lexical richness from the specific domain vocabulary as possible (Biber 1993; Biber and Jones 2009). To this extent, the number of texts to be selected for compiling the corpus must be carefully evaluated. In fact, sometimes the tendency during the compilation of a corpus is to collect all the possible/available texts, but often only a little part of them is really useful. Therefore, determining the minimum size of the sample is one of the crucial questions both for a qualitative and quantitative perspective. In this paper, we present a statistical methodology aimed at determining the minimum size of a corpus. The methodology has been applied to a comparable bilingual corpus developed for the construction of a domain specific thesaurus. The corpus is based on both the English and Italian language. The domain of interest is represented by all the linguistic resources which focus on tourism. This specific domain has a wide vocabulary and a large variety and lexical richness. In order to construct a well-formed thesaurus it is necessary to select specific texts containing terms which ensure that the richness and variety of the vocabulary is represented. Thus, in this paper we tackle with some practical issues such as, how many texts must be selected in order to create a representative linguistic corpus? and how many texts must be bought?, and which we try to answer by using the proposed methodology. In particular, the proposed statistical methodology is derived from the Rinott Procedure (Rinott, 1978; Chen, 2011): it is applied to a corpus by i) sampling an initial set of texts from the reference population, ii) analyzing the selected texts by applying a measure of lexical richness, iii) evaluating the number of additional texts to be collected in order to guarantee the desired level of representativeness. Thus, the proposed method is not a posteriori, as many other methods known in the literature (De Haan 1992; Yang et al. 2000; Yang et al. 2002), but quasi-a priori. Clearly, this feature provides many benefits, e.g. speeding-up the activity of corpus compilation. In this paper we show the results obtained by applying the proposed methodology to the comparable bilingual corpus for the domain of tourism. A result of practical interest is related to differences in terms of corpus representativeness of the two languages at hand in the domain of interest. Geoffrey Koby Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Developing a Specialized Corpus for ATA Translator Certification Examinations A university computer science class is working with the presenter to build a specialized database for a multilingual corpus of translator certification examinations. It will be completed by April Its special features are that each source text in a language is matched to 5

6 multiple translations of varying quality marked with errors by two graders. Thus it will allow analysis of higher/lower-quality translation solutions explicitly marked by graders. Original handwritten American Translators Association (ATA) certification documents have become available starting with the Their unique features dictate the database design. For each language pair, three source texts of about 250 words are used each year. Candidates must to translate two passages: a mandatory general passage (labeled A ), and either a semi-technical passage ( B ) or a commercial/legal passage ( C ). (Koby/Champe 2013) In 2006, 535 candidates took the examination in 23 language pairs (Spanish>English/English>Spanish examinations together are about 55%). Thus 1070 passages were produced, each graded by two graders, resulting in 2140 marked passages, with an estimated volume of 535,000 words. A total of 7,585 examinations were administered in the eleven-year period (Koby 2012), for an average of 690 examinations per year, so corpus growth will be 690,000 words per year. The handwritten passages are marked by graders with error codes indicating category and severity of each error. The target text produced by candidates thus contains explicit indications of the type and scope of the various errors as marked by the graders, as well as an assignment of quality points for elegant solutions. Once finally designed and populated, the database will permit linguistic analysis of translation strategies, translation errors, and successful solutions, as well as analysis of grader markings. Since the students are currently developing the database, its input, analysis, and output features are not yet fixed. However, the system is expected to allow display and analysis of at least the following: Keyword in Context (KWIC) display for each language pair, source text above/multiple target texts below The KWIC display should permit sorting and analysis of translation errors as marked by the graders. Selection features will display by error type, error severity, language pair, etc. Ability to analyze patterns of errors, types of errors, etc. Ability to analyze terms by Part of Speech Ability to search for, view, analyze by various tags Pass/fail rates and score ranges for each language pair and for the corpus as a whole Investigation of clustering of score ranges above and below the pass/fail boundary, by language pair and for the corpus as a whole Investigation of inter-grader and intra-grader consistency and variability in discovering and assessing errors for each exam and for each grader Investigation of congruity in discovery of translation errors (i.e., the ratio of errors marked by both graders to those marked by only one of the two) Investigation of congruity in the marking of severity and category of translation errors Concordancing - searching for/sorting by linguistic forms One-to-many (source text-target text) alignment by any linguistic criterion or by tag Budi Irmawati, Mamoru Komachi and Yuji Matsumoto Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Towards Construction of an Error-Corrected Corpus of Indonesian Second Language Learners Recently, Natural Language Processing (NLP) research use learner corpora as a resource [Chodorow et al., 2012, Dahlmeier et al., 2013, Izumi et al., 2005, rae Han et al., 2010] because learner tends to make errors that are uncommon in native speaker s writings. However, such corpora are unavailable for some under resource languages such as Indonesian. Hence, developing Indonesian second lan- guage learning resource is useful, specially for the language learning support system development to give a feedback to the 6

7 learners. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first work in creating learner corpus for Indonesian. This corpus can also be extracted to help language teachers in designing course materials; focusing on specific errors such as word choice, inflection, and derivation. Manual work on developing a learner corpus is laborious and error-prone [Andersen, 2011], while a rule-based machine annotation is too coarse and inaccurate. As an initial effort to develop an error- annotated learner corpus of Indonesian language, we combine automatic and manual-based tech- niques. We extracted learner s sentences from a language learning Social Networking Service (SNS), Lang-81, crawled in as raw data. Lang-8 is a website, where a learner writes a journal and native speakers manually highlight and correct the errors, sentence by sentence. After some cleaning preprocessing, we align the words in the learner s sentence with the words in the native s correction to identify error positions. First, we align 600 sentences with some heuristic rules, then asked a native speaker to correct the result and annotate error types exhaustively based on Sneddon et al. [2010]. Next, we align the remaining sentence pairs automatically and assign error tags based on candidate set extracted from the re-corrected heuristic rules result. We called these as Rule-Based and Automatic procedures respectively. Our current work focuses on one-word-to-one- word error alignment, because we do not have a gold standard phrase-based alignment of manually annotated data. To guarantee that the error position is not biased, we carry out an experiment with two native speakers and compute the annotator agreement [Chodorow et al., 2012] on identifying error position resulting κ = This error annotation covers word choices (preposition, verb, noun, pronoun); derivations and inflections both on verbs and nouns; spelling errors; unnecessary words; missing words; and replacement errors. However, we only evaluate 200 sentence pairs from the Automatic procedure for cost reason. The precision of error alignment increases from 70.39% in Rule-Based to 89.41% in Automatic process. We also perform a preliminary experiment to identify the error types using SVM classifier [Chang and Lin, 2011], notice that they show low precision with high recall. To improve the precision, we do a simple filtering to eliminate false candidates. The results show that difficult error identification happens on the morphologically rich word as noun and verb. For the next work, we will develop an interactive system for error detection and correction, in which the system ask the user to provide syntactic dependency relation in their original sentences. We believe that syntactic information will help error type identification such as word order error as well as inflection and derivation that are specific error types in Indonesian learner s writing. Alfiya M. Galieva, Ayrat R. Gatiatullin, Bulat E. Khakimov, Olga A. Nevzorova and Dzhavdet Sh. Suleymanov Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Tatar Corpus: Problems of Relevance of Grammatical Annotation Model to the Language System In the process of designing of the system of grammatical annotation for the Tatar Corpus, the problems of relevance of this system to the systemic organization of the Tatar language are very topical. The organization of grammatical categories, forms and their meanings is individual for every language. The system of annotation for the "Tugan Tel" Tatar National Corpus (TatNC) should reflect the uniqueness of the grammatical structure of the Tatar language (and in many aspects that of other Turkic languages) and should not simply copy the notions developed in the description of languages of other types [1]. The metalanguage for describing the grammatical categories of modern Tatar language has been created on the basis of books on Tatar grammar [2], research works on Turkic studies [3-5] and linguistic typology [6]. Tags for parts of speech and grammatical 7

8 categories have been created to meet the standards formed in the world, primarily the Leipzig Glossing Rules [7]. The grammatical annotation system of TatNC is focused on the representation of all the existing diversity of word forms in Tatar. For formal representation of the morphology of the language we use such a model, in which the word form is built upon consecutive addition of regular derivational and inflectional affixes to the base. Let us mark out a number of important problems related to the discussed global issue of relevance. 1. The necessity to overcome the influence of foreign languages (primarily those of Indo-European grammatical tradition) in the description of linguistic phenomena characteristic for the Tatar language as Turkic and agglutinative. For example, in the Tatar grammar, following the Indo-European grammatical tradition, the superlative is viewed as a separate form of the category of degrees of comparison of adjectives. In contrast with this point we believe that there is the category of "quality degree" with respect to some form (intensive) for a limited set of lexemes. As result, the annotation system of the Tatar Corpus has no special tags for superlatives. 2. Some grammatical forms and categories that actually exist in the speech are not described systemically or are not even reflected in the standard Tatar grammar. 3. Many forms do not have specific terms. This is especially relevant for the forms and categories that do not have direct counterparts in the Indo-European languages. For example, we use an international terminology (munitative, abessive, etc.) for a group of attributive affixes (forms on -ly, forms on syz, etc.). 4. The grouping of different forms within a category according to their semantics is questionable (for example, describing the imperative forms of the Tatar verb). 5. There is no clear distinction between the inflection of nouns and verbs in Turkic languages. For this reason, many of the categories in the annotation system are not linked to specific parts of speech. The developed system of grammatical tags is used for the annotation of the TatNC (http://web-corpora.net/tatarcorpus/search/index.php?interface_language=ru). The full tag set can be viewed in interface_language=ru&search_language=tatar&contexts_output_language=tatar. Régia Rúbia Oliveira and Marcus Vinícius Carvalho Guelpeli Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Building a Corpus in Italian Written Language This paper reports the building of a corpus in written Italian language formed by journalistic and medical domains. The research used texts extracted from the internet in the journalistic field, they were collected from high circulation newspapers: Corriere della Sera (http://www.corriere.it/), La Repubblica (http://www.repubblica.it/) EuroNews (http://it.euronews.com/) and SuperMoney (http://news.supermoney.eu/) and for the medical domain it was used the searching engine Google Scholar available in < link >. The research of the corpus followed the three phases known in literature: (1) project, which includes the selection of texts respecting the criteria of authenticity, representativeness, balancing, sampling, diversity and size; (2) capture and manipulation, appointment of text files; and (3) Notations. At the stage of selection of the texts this study followed a methodology in which were chosen journalistic and medical domains, and the ten categories that make up them, and even the criteria of 1. Gratuity, 2. Possibility of reproduction of the original files and 3. The selected texts have summaries, called manuals abstracts (prepared by their own authors). In the capture phase and manipulation were dropped of the texts the bibliographies, tables, footnotes, illustrations, page numbers and graphics, leaving only the body text. The 8

9 files have been converted from the original formats to the format "txt" and renamed, and prepared for the computational processing. In conclusion, the last phase was made note that understands the metadata of the corpus and the segmentation of the texts. The corpus has 353,121 words in total and has 400 text files, being 200 journalistic domain and 200 medical domain. Each domain has 100 source texts and 100 manual summaries. The journalistic domain consists of 100 news and their respective leads. The categories are: Economics, G-20, Green Business, real estate, politics, health, science, sport, entertainment and technology. The manual briefs have a total of 3,629 words and an overall average of of words per text. There is a balance in the size of the text, except for category G-20 which has relatively larger texts. The source texts totaling 40,516 words and have an overall average of of words per text. The categories economy and Sport have small text, while the Green Business categories, G-20 and Science have larger texts. The medical domain is formed by 100 scientific medical articles and their respective abstracts divided in categories: cardiology, dermatology, epidemiology, hematology, Geriatrics, Gynecology, Neurology, Oncology, orthopedics and Pediatrics. Words of the manual briefs total 16,867 and have overall average of per articles. The Dermatology category has the smaller items and the largest is Cardiology. The source texts have a total of 292,109 words an overall average of of words per text. There isn t great variation in texts sizes. The main contribution of this paper is to gather a corpus in Italian language and thus enabling the realization of simulations, primarily of automatic summarizers. The results of these simulations can be evaluated by specialized tools in the area of evaluation, like ROUGE. Thus, this corpus will make passable the study of the efficiency of these summarizers in different domains like medical and journalism. Alena Vašíčková Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Design and Compilation of a Parallel Czech-English Corpus of Legal Texts The aim of the present paper is to describe the design and compilation of a corpus of legal English texts translated from Czech by Czech translators, i.e. non-native speakers of English. First, the need for a systematic study of this type of text is explained by a short description of the specifics of the Czech translation market. Although it is often recommended to translate solely into one s mother tongue, Czech translators are many a time assigned translations into foreign languages, mainly English. Moreover, legal translation requires a thorough knowledge of the source legal system, which could justify the selection of a translator working into their non-native language. In order to be able to compare the target text with its Czech source and identify source-language interference or explain certain targettext solutions, it was decided to compile a parallel corpus. Besides research, a parallel corpus can also be exploited as a translation memory in CAT (computer-assisted translation) tools and it also finds its use in terminology management. Second, the type of texts collected for the corpus is defined. Legal English is a broad term and as Goźdź-Roszkowski has demonstrated, it comprises several genres distinguished by quantifiable differences. Following a brief survey among translation agencies and courts outsourcing translations to freelance translators, it was determined that the largest volumes of legal translation performed fall within the following genres: court decisions, and contracts. The paper follows to discuss the feasibility of obtaining a sufficient amount of corpus material for the individual genres. In the case of contracts, it is not always an easy task since they are usually of confident nature and translators, bound by non-disclosure agreements or similar arrangements, and are not allowed to disclose them. The genre of choice was therefore a court decisions. 9

10 Third, the paper describes the compilation of a corpus of translations of 180 decisions of the Czech Constitutional Court published and translated between 1992 and These decisions, considered to be of major importance and containing subject-matters and legal and moral principles relevant to other jurisdictions, were translated into English to make the Court's opinions and reasonings available to the international audience. The corpus contains approximately 2 million tokens in each of its sub-corpora. A tool developed at the Faculty of Arts of Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic was used to compile the corpus. This tool allows great customization, which was necessary to deal with this type of text. The translated text was not always an exact translation of the source and some stretches, typically details that would be of little interest for a foreign reader, were omitted. Moreover, some parts of text (dissenting opinions of judges) were jumbled. The texts were first aligned at the paragraph level, which allowed for a more global view of the text and for the identification of the omitted or jumbled text. Subsequently, the two sub-corpora were aligned at the sentence level by an automatic aligner with manual correction. Since the segmentation rules were initially developed for general texts, it was necessary to adjust them to take into account the peculiarities of legal texts. Ayana Kuandykova and Amandyk Kartbayev Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Building English-Kazakh Parallel Corpus of legal texts from the Web This paper presents problems and solutions in developing English-Kazakh parallel corpus at the School of Mechanics and Mathematica of the Al-Farabi Kazakh national university. The research project included constructing a 1,000,000 word English-Kazakh parallel corpus of legal texts, developing an English-Kazakh translation memory of legal texts from the corpus and building a statistical machine translation system. The project aims to collect more than ten million words. The paper further elaborates on the procedures followed to construct the corpus and develop the other products of the research project. Methods used for collecting data and the results are discussed, errors during the process of collecting data and how to handle these errors will be described. Fiona Macarthur Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus English as academic lingua franca: A corpus of office hours consultations between Spanish Erasmus students and their lecturers in four European universities An international team of researchers has been studying the use of metaphor in face-to-face interactions between Spanish undergraduate students and their lecturers at four different European universities. In order to gather data on this hitherto unexplored aspect of academic discourse, 27 conversations between students and lecturers were video-recorded at universities in Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Sweden, and subsequently transcribed, using a slightly modified version of the transcription conventions developed by the compilers of the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English (VOICE). The resulting corpus (circa 60,000 words) has been made available online, in order to allow researchers interested in spoken academic discourse or intercultural communication generally to consult the linguistic data it contains. It thus makes a contribution to the growing body of corpora where spoken English is used as lingua franca in academic and non-academic contexts (e.g. the ELFA or VOICE corpora). However, it is somewhat different from other corpora of spoken discourse, in that the conversations recorded were not spontaneous encounters gathered informally but rather pre-arranged meetings whose purpose was to gather conversational data controlled for participants and topics. The aim of this presentation is to introduce this corpus, providing a full description of how it was gathered, the protocols developed for the semi-guided conversations recorded, the transcription conventions used, and the reliability of 10

11 the data it contains. As will be explained, each transcript is accompanied by a file containing all the relevant contextual background, which includes not only details about the participants, the settings and the topics talked about, but also the results of the follow-up questionnaires administered to the participants, which sought their subjective impressions of the conversation they had just had. María Sandra Marrero Morales and María Del Pilar González de La Rosa Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus A Design of An English Corpus of Research s in the field of Physiotherapy This poster describes the design of a corpus of research abstracts in the field of Physical Therapy (Physiotherapy). The compilation of the corpus comprises 70 abstracts (texts which precede and summarize the content of a scientific article) which have been published from the period of time which ranges from 2001 to 2010 with no more than 400 words. The poster will present information concerning the transcript and handling of texts, specific details as to the criteria of text selection, tools for analysis, as well as prospects of future research. Ana Ruth Vidal-Luengo and María Teresa Cáceres-Lorenzo Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Arabismos en el español atlántico El léxico de las hablas canarias forma un corpus lexicográfico de trabajo que posibilita un gran número de investigaciones. Uno de esos análisis está aún sin delimitar acorde a los diccionarios dialectales que se han publicado durante los últimos años. Para ello hemos creado una base de datos que permitirá hacer un análisis y contraste cuantitativo y cualitativo de los arabismos presentes en el español de Canarias y América, sus coincidencias léxicas en otras lenguas (catalán, portugués, gallego) y variedades peninsulares (con especial atención al Occidente peninsular). Esta investigación interdisciplinar aporta mayor precisión y delimitación de los arabismos en el español de Canarias, a menudo solapados o erróneamente atribuidos a las hablas prehispánicas, y aborda de forma novedosa el aspecto lingüístico de la interculturación árabe-americana en diferentes fases, y el papel desempeñado por Canarias en este puente cultural. Katarzyna Klessa and Tomasz Wicherkiewicz Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Design and Implementation of an On-line Database for Endangered Languages: Multilingual Legacy of Poland 1. Introduction This paper discusses the design and implementation of an on-line database for the documentation of Poland s endangered languages. The project focuses on non-polish languages and their non-standard varieties spoken on the historically changing territory of Poland, and developed in - synchronic or diachronic - language contact(s) with Polish (unlike e.g. [1], dedicated specifically to the varieties and dialects of the Polish language). In terms of data sharing and popularisation, the goal of this work is to register, describe, arrange data into a user-friendly and straightforwardly accessible database with a view to make it useful both for research community and for school education. The present database can be accessed via an Internet website implemented in Polish - and English - language version. Creating the localised version of the service in Polish was particularly important considering the historical developments of the region's linguistic landscape as well as the lack of awareness among younger generation of Poles as regards the issues of linguistic diversity and language endangerment ([2]). As a result of the World War II and the following border changes, ethnic purges and the communist administration, the once multilingual and multiethnic state/territory of Poland turned to one of the most 11

12 monolingual states in Central & Eastern Europe with all its non-polish, non-standard varieties classified as critically endangered or highly vulnerable (if not entirely extinct). 2. Language inventory The database includes information on above 20 languages (varieties) all of which are currently at various, but serious stages of endangerment (some are already extinct). For each language in the database a comprehensive package of information is provided, including: language history, identity, typology, writing systems, characteristics of speakers, level of endangerment / language status, the current state of knowledge, and the available literature. Moreover, four languages have been chosen as the so called featured languages, namely: Latgalian ([3],[4]), Yiddish ([5], [6], [7]), Wilamowicean ([8], [9], [10]), Halcnowian. For these four languages, the database additionally provides unique, newly collected (and analysed) source materials: original texts, annotated audio and video recordings, detailed linguistic, sociolinguistic or phonetic studies. A crucial feature of the implemented database is the possibility of its further extensions by adding new languages and source materials. 3. Implementation and software solutions The database was implemented with SQL Server technology. To enable simultaneous data edition by multiple users (including non-programmers) an on-line data-management application was developed using ASP.NET. The solution does not require installation of additional software (all options are available via any Internet browser). Multimedia files are stored in their original formats even if they were temporarily converted to other formats (cf. [11]). The multimedia files were annotated with: Elan [12] (video), and Annotation Pro [13] (audio). 4. Conclusions The present project is the first attempt to create an integrated package instrument to document endangered language (varietie)s of once extremely diversified Poland s language inventory. In line with the project's fundamental assumptions, the final product has been implemented in an easily accessible form with a view to make it easily usable e.g. at schools. The database is freely accessible and easily extendable. Among further works, it appears worth considering to share the present source data also via some of the existing, wellestablished platforms for endangered languages (eg. [14]). Svetlana Toldova, Grishina Yulia, Alina Ladygina, Galina Sim, Matvej Kurzukov, Ilya Azerkovich and Maria Vasilyeva Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Coreference Corpus in Russian Creating a corpus annotated for coreferential relations for the Russian language is required for both empirical studies of anaphora and coreference resolution and the needs of computational linguistics. Although large-scale annotated corpora and annotation schemes for coreference are available, these resources are still limited to the major European languages. In our study we present the first open source corpus for the Russian language manually annotated for coreference and introduce the annotation guidelines and the software to perform the annotations created at the Moscow State University in 2013/2014. This corpus was developed as a set for the coreference resolution evaluation campaign Ru-eval-2014 (Russian forum for evaluation of Russian NLP resources Our corpus was designed considering the existing linguistic corpora for other European languages which contain coreferential annotations: OntoNotes [Hovy et al., 2006; Pradhan et al., 2007], Potsdam Commentary Corpus [Stede, 2004], ARRAU Corpus [Poesio & Artstein, 2008], Prague Dependency Treebank [Böhmová et al., 2003], VENEX Corpus 12

13 [Poesio et al., 2004]. In our work we tried to rethink the existing methodology and implement it to Russian. Our corpus consists of short texts or fragments of different genres: news, science, blogs and fiction; 2000 anaphoric pronoun - antecedent pairs and 1200 coreferential chains were annotated. A number of decisions on the annotations were highly influenced by the fact that our corpus was created to assess state-of-the-art of the Russian NLP systems. These are: selection of noun phrases amenable to annotation and their attributes, mark-up of referential expressions of maximal size (this and few other principles were introduced based on the annotation scheme of [Krasavina and Chiarcos, 2007]). We also decided to ignore some types of coreferential relations (bridging, coreference of events) based on the results of several experiments to evaluate the capacity of existing Russian coreference resolvers. Our task was to develop annotation guidelines taking into account language-specific features. In particular, we addressed the issue of determining the identity relation between coreferential NPs given that, in fact, in Russian we can not make use of articles for that purpose. As a result, additional problems occur: annotators need to distinguish between discourse-new and discourse-old mentions as well as mind the gap between specific and generic reference. Another goal of our mark-up scheme was to develop an approach to annotate such cases, where coreferential objects can not be viewed as completely identical, the so called near-identity [Recasens et al., 2010]. These specific features of referential ambiguity for languages without articles have influence on the inter-annotator agreement. Thus our experiments on coreference annotation in Russian have shown that above mentioned cases: (a) the new referent vs. previously mentioned and (b) the mixture of referential properties of an NP (generic vs. specific referential status) should be taken into consideration in the annotation guidelines and the latter should be incorporated into the analysis of near-identity. The developed corpus and annotation guidelines can be used for empirical study of anaphora and coreference in Russian as well as to train machine learning algorithms for automatic coreference resolution and evaluate the existing NLP systems. The societal impact of this project is a contribution to the linguistic processing of lowdomain languages and overcoming the gap between the major languages and underresourced languages, which is one of the main problems in NLP at present. Julia Lavid Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Compiling and annotating a register-controlled bilingual (English-Spanish) corpus: linguistic and computational issues The principal motivation for the work-in-progress reported in this paper lies in the increasing need for richly annotated corpora in different languages, both in the Linguistics and in the Language Engineering communities. The same holds for linguistically-interpreted parallel corpora in translation studies. However, existing corpora do not nearly reflect the complexity of linguistic knowledge we are used to dealing with in linguistic theory. Linguistic research questions are usually complex, often involving constraints and interactions between different linguistic categories or levels of linguistic description. Simple research questions can be answered on the basis of raw corpora or with the help of an automatic part-of-speech tagging (see Lavid 2008; Lavid et al. 2010), but when it investigating more challenging interactions and relations, it is necessary to count on resources with multiple levels of annotation which allow the extraction of features at different levels. A remarkable example of such a resource for the German-English language pair is the CroCo corpus (Hansen Schirra et al. forthcoming, 2006; Culo et al. 2008) and its extension, the GECCO corpus (Kunz and Steiner 2012). Both corpora include original and parallel texts in English and German, and are 13

14 annotated with multiple layers of linguistic information and aligned at at word, grammatical, clausal and sentence levels. Using a similar corpus design to the CroCo corpus, the paper outlines current work on the construction of a richly-annotated and register-controlled textual database for the English-Spanish language pair, as recently started within the MULTINOT project. The presentation focuses on a number of linguistic and computational issues which are problematic and are currently being investigated within the project. This includes corpus design decisions such as the corpus structure which includes four subcorpora: English originals (EO) and Spanish originals, English translations (Etrans) and Spanish translation (Strans)-, the number and types of registers to be included, the size of the samples and their comparability. The paper also discusses the types of information (annotation layers) that must be encoded in the texts for a semi-automatic analysis of complex linguistic phenomena, as well as for enabling applications in areas of statistical NLP approaches. The area of thematisation in English and Spanish is used as illustration of the problems encountered using the GATE platform (Cunningham et al. 2002) Maria J. Vera-Cazorla Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Diseño de un corpus de articulos de opinión con fines didácticos Este póster trata sobre la construcción de un corpus de textos escritos por alumnos de la ULPGC del Grado en Lenguas Modernas y, anteriormente, de la Licenciatura en Filología Inglesa con el fin de detectar los errores más frecuentes que se cometen cuando escriben un texto de tipo persuasivo, el artículo de opinión -opinion essay- en inglés. En una primera fase, se recopilarán 100 artículos de opinión con una extensión de unas 400 palabras que han sido escritos entre 2010 al En el poster se describirán los criterios de selección de dichos textos, además de cuestiones relacionadas con el método de compilación y otros aspectos tales como posibilidad de etiquetado, tagging, informatizado de las clases de palabras para poder llevar a cabo estudios que permitan el análisis lexicogramatical y ayuden en el estudio pragmático de los textos. Toda esta información facilitará el análisis de errores, por una parte, pero también el análisis contextual que sugieran las posibles razones que provocan el error. Mercedes Cabrera-Abreu, Francisco Vizcaíno-Ortega, Yurena Gutiérrez-González and Eva Estebas-Vilaplana Panel 1. Corpus design, compilation and types /Diseño, elaboración y tipología de corpus Glissando: a corpus for multidisciplinary prosodic studies applied to the description of Spanish discourse structure Literature review on prosody reveals the lack of corpora designed for prosodic studies in languages such as Catalan and Spanish. In this paper, first, we present a description of the Glissando corpus (Garrido et al. 2013), intended to fill this gap. Thus, the corpus comprises two distinct data-sets, a news sub-corpus and a dialogue sub-corpus. Over 25 hours of speech are recorded by 28 speakers per language, 8 of which are professionals, either radio news broadcasters or advertising actors. The corpus is transcribed, aligned with the acoustic signal, and prosodically annotated. As far as the annotation conventions is concerned, these follow the ToBI system, and more precisely Cat-ToBI for Catalan (Prieto 2014) and Sp-ToBI for Spanish (Beckman et al 2002), and further revisions in Estebas and Prieto (2010), Cabrera-Abreu et al (in preparation), and Gutiérrez-García and Aguilar-Cuevas (in preparation). The annotation process is performed by a trained transcriber using PRAAT (Boersma and Weenink 2013). Secondly, we offer an analysis of 30 minutes of read news speech, essentially composed of long declarative sentences, which exhibit the typical chanting style of professional Spanish broadcasters (de-la-mota and Rodero 2010, 2011). Furthermore, the 14

15 edges of the individual prosodic pieces of the whole discourse are shown by specific markings such as i) initial pitch reset, accounted for by %H; ii) non-falling pitch movements which, in addition to signalling phrasing, they are interpreted as continuity, or non-finality (Labastía 2011); these are accounted for by H%,!H%, =%; and vi) rising-falling tunes which also signal phrasing, but, unlike non-falling tunes, they are interpreted as finality. Sp-ToBI, and more specifically the tonal inventory for phrasing described in Cabrera- Abreu et al. (in preparation), stand as an efficient tool for i) the identification of prosodic constituents which construct discourse in the specific case of a read news corpus, and ii) for the functional categorization signaled by the tune of such constituents in terms of the dichotomy finality/non-finality. Jianping Xie Panel 2. Discourse, literary analysis and corpora/ Discurso, análisis literario y corpus Direct or indirect? Critical or uncritical? Evaluation in Chinese English-major MA thesis literature reviews Literature review is an indispensable part in all academic texts, and evaluation plays an especially important role in achieving the communicative purpose of literature reviews. However, writing a sophisticated literature review with appropriate evaluation poses a big challenge for L2 novice academic writers. Therefore, how do L2 learners construe evaluation in writing literature reviews in English is a topic worth exploring. Previous studies, either by focusing on the general rhetorical features or some particular evaluative resources in isolation(e.g., citation, hedging), present inconsistent and discrete findings about the ways in which Chinese EFL learners express evaluation in English academic writing: some suggest that Chinese EFL students prefer an indirect and less critical way to construe evaluations in English academic writing; while others suggest that Chinese EFL learners could be as direct as NS writers in demonstrating their evaluations and that their evaluations could be equally as critical as those of the NS English writers. Besides, the particular genre of postgraduate thesis literature reviews has long been neglected in the literature. To fill in these gaps, this study applies appraisal theory (Martin & White, 2005), which is perhaps the most comprehensive analyzing tool for studying evaluation, and conducts a detailed appraisal analysis, with a quantitative perspective, of a corpus of 25 mainland Chinese English-major MA thesis literature reviews, aiming to achieve a comprehensive and integrated knowledge of the ways Chinese English-major MA students express evaluation in the texts. Findings of this study implicate that the ways Chinese English-major MA students express evaluation in their master thesis literature reviews is complicated, and could not be simply labeled in any one of the binary pairs as direct-indirect, critical-uncritical, or assertiveunassertive. Various cognitive and sociocultural factors may exert influence on the ways they express evaluation in their MA thesis literature reviews. Pedagogical implications can be drawn from this study for teaching English academic writing at the postgraduate level for Chinese EFL learners. Paula Pérez-Sobrino and Lorena Pérez-Hernández Panel 2. Discourse, literary analysis and corpora/ Discurso, análisis literario y corpus A critical corpus based approach to the study of personification in the international media coverage of the Iranian Green Revolution Recent research studies have highlighted the abundant presence of personification in the mass media representation of the development of international affairs, especially in the conceptualization of nations in terms of human bodies that interact in an international scenario (cf. Chilton 2005; Chilton & Lakoff 1995; Lakoff 2003; Kimie 2009). This study aims to demonstrate the potentiality of the metaphor NATION IS A PERSON as a persuasive tool to convey ideology in the international media coverage of the Iranian electoral crisis in June 15

16 2009, also known as the Green Revolution. We rely on two specialized newspaper corpora assembled of (a) 17 extracts from The New York Times and (b) the same number of extracts from Spanish newspaper El País, published between June and August 2009 in their corresponding online editions. Research into the subject of metaphorical conceptualization has consistently proven that metaphors are not neutral: some aspect of metaphor is always highlighted or hidden in accordance with previous purposes. The importance of this type of study lies in their critical approach, which aims to clarify the underlying ideology in the metaphors employed in the press coverage of this conflict. Our research questions are: how do newspapers portray abstract concepts such as international relations between antagonist powers into metaphorical constructs? Which are these metaphorical constructs and what is their scope of influence? How is verbal conflict (parliamentary debate) illustrated in comparison to physical conflict (disturbances, riots) in the media? Thus, this work tries to give feasible answers to these questions by (1) identifying the specifications of the NATION IS A PERSON metaphor, (2) establishing a metaphor gradation according to their ideological charge (if applies), and (3) compare the results of both corpora in terms of linguistic and ideological correspondence. We first provide some background to the Iranian election fraud and the subsequent backlash in the streets of Tehran in June 2009 and the way it was represented by the news media. This work is theoretically framed within Critical Metaphor Analysis (Charteris Black 2004), a fruitful intersection of Critical Discourse Analysis (Van Dijk 2001) and Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Lakoff & Johnson 1980, Lakoff 1993). Second, we expound our methodology for identifying; classifying and analyzing metaphorical related words in the corpora. Third, we show our frequency results for each of the identified parametrizations of the NATION IS A PERSON metaphor. Finally, we illustrate some metaphorical expressions and collocational profiles that may reveal the presence of hidden ideologies in the representation of the Western Friendly Us (i.e., the Western society, Moussavi and his supporters and the great bulk of the Iranian protesters) and the authoritarian government to the Evil Them (i.e., President Ahmadinejah and the theocratical elite). The synthesis of the results shows observable differences in the use of the specifications of the metaphor NATION IS A PERSON between the American and the Spanish corpora. This fact lends further evidence to the potentiality of metaphor as an essential resource in the construction and reproduction of ideological discourses in the news. Georgios Alexandropoulos Panel 2. Discourse, literary analysis and corpora/ Discurso, análisis literario y corpus Julian's political speeches: rhetorical and computational approach. The present study discusses the cognitive structure and the polyphonic construction of the Julian's political speeches. Based on the notion of coherence, as it is developed in the framework of the Rhetorical Structure Theory, the study examines how Julian, as political emperor, organizes his thought and reveals his ideological intentionality; his ideological intentionality is based on certain power, ideological, rhetorical relations. Based also on the notion of the intertextuality, as it is developed in the framework of critical discourse analysis, the certain study critically examines how the intertextualistic sources are integrated into political speeches. The analysis is organized around the below axes: i) ideological intentionality and cognitive structure, ii) rhetorical relations and political ideology, iii) intertextualistic sources and representation, iv) the object and means of representation, v) the modes and forms of representation, vi) the functions of discourse representation, vi) frequency words list, vi) frequency of the intertextualistic sources and reporting verbs in discourse representation. The combination of these mechanisms based on both Rhetorical Structure Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis gives us the opportunity to draw conclusions about the text, the 16

17 context of the speeches and Julian s political character. Thus, in this way the linguistic practice of Julian s political speeches is revealed. Steven Julius Panel 2. Discourse, literary analysis and corpora/ Discurso, análisis literario y corpus A Critical Approach to Speeches by Presidents of the USA to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee: Linguistic choice to condition connotative meaning The coalescing theme of this study is the use of language in public discourse to condition the speaker s intended meaning. The art of rhetoric has persistently demonstrated the ability of human beings to impress their views on others. The Presidents of the United States of America will be shown to have delivered certain rhetorical speeches of irrefutable inclination to the political lobby group, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee. While the state or condition of Palestine is rarely mentioned, support for Israel remains virtually unshakeable in Western thought and the language surrounding the topic provides intriguing evidence. History and current events shall always serve as linguistic mediator to the official story. Given the merciless turmoil in the Middle East, the relentless, unforgiving, and persuasive use of language has created generations of global citizens who are incapable of navigating the powerful words coming from the podium. These words are deserving of closer inspection. Lexical repetition, semantic repetition, and syntactic repetition will be studied in detail while semantic abstraction or loosening, collocations, and euphemistic metaphors will also be touched upon. The academic traditions of corpus linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis provide the medium by which to better understand where reality meets power through language. The aim is to remain objective throughout this presentation of a future doctoral dissertation, however the startling linguistic evidence is blatantly one-sided and really unparalleled in modern geo-political rhetoric. Emotions inhibit cognitive function and therefore this paper need be approached with an open mind as the manufacture of public opinion, accomplished through the perverted deployment of language in documented historical precedents, has long since framed any debate. Anna Pasolini Panel 2. Discourse, literary analysis and corpora/ Discurso, análisis literario y corpus Words which are very much her own A corpus stylistic analysis of The Bloody Chamber by A. Carter This paper endeavours to carry out a corpus stylistic analysis of the discursive construction of female identity in some fairy tales collected in The Bloody Chamber by Angela Carter (1979) with a twofold purpose. More generally, it aims at providing a further example of the application of corpus linguistic methods to the analysis of a literary text. Moreover, it also purports to emphasise that corpus stylistics can assist the examination of the poetics as well as the politics of a literary text. In particular, corpus linguistic methods will be shown to enable an analysis of the way in which the linguistic configuration of the text can be seen to map power relationships. My investigation addresses two main research questions stemming from corpusbased comparative enquiries, which analyse some keywords as triggers of ideological meanings: - if the fairy tale The Bloody Chamber is computationally compared to what is deemed to be its main source, Pearrult s Blue Beard, is it possible to show that Carter succeeds in challenging and amending the gender politics underlying Perrault s text through the use of language? - Can the intuitive insight that Carter manages to criticise women s compliance with patriarchy in their subordination, and to offer empowering alternatives through intertextual and intratextual references be proved with corpus linguistic methods? 17

18 The first question will be tackled through the computational comparison between the tales The Bloody Chamber and an English translation of La Barbe Bleue by Charles Perrault; the second through the comparative analysis of the two versions of Beauty and the Beast re-written by Carter and included in the same collection The Courtship of Mr Lyon and The Tiger s Bride. Of course, the extremely small size of the corpora taken into consideration has a significant impact both on the chosen methodologies and on the results of the analysis ( The Bloody Chamber counts tokens whereas its counterpart Blue Beard only As for the second set of texts, The Courtship of Mr Lyon amounts to 4643 tokens, and The Tiger s Bride to 7753). As regards the methodologies, three main techniques will be deployed: the study and comparison of the wordlists of the tales through some purposely-generated concordance lines, the analysis of collocations and to a lesser extent that of keywords. The software used for the analyses is WordSmith Tools (Scott 1999), which generates statistical data on a text or corpus through three main functions: wordlist, concord, and keywords. Even though it will not be possible to draw general conclusions about Carter s style or about the ways in which fairy tale as a genre changes thanks to her revolutionary manipulations (which will hopefully be the focus of future research) sample-examples will be offered of the ways in which a computer-assisted analysis could support, validate and even enrich an intuitive one performed through the methodological and critical tools offered by cultural and literary studies. In both cases, indeed, intuitive insight will be proved through computer-generated textual evidence and new knowledge will hopefully be gained as well. This paper includes part of the results of my PhD thesis, although as has already been pointed out is also work in progress. If the results meet the expectations, indeed, a broader comparative study is devisable. Judit Papp Panel 2. Discourse, literary analysis and corpora/ Discurso, análisis literario y corpus Medical terminology and the description of diseases in the 16th century Hungarian Epic The epic song (históriás ének) is the most prevalent and representative expression of the Hungarian poetry of the Sixteenth century. The whole corpus, which is the subject of my analysis, contains 173 texts of different length and metrical structure. Beyond the religious songs and the romances an important part of the corpus is composed by songs on contemporary events and chronicles which often describe battles and duels and frequently also their consequences on the health of the participants. Based on my own electronic corpus my aim is to identify the medical terms present in these texts, to explore which diseases and illnesses are mentioned and/or described and to illustrate the most important characters depicted in particular situations in which they are tortured by physical and mental sufferings. Elena Dominguez Romero Panel 2. Discourse, literary analysis and corpora/ Discurso, análisis literario y corpus Say by Looking: Speaking Eyes in Abraham Fraunce s Arcadian Rhetorike (1587) The present paper focuses on the expression of evidentiality by verbs of perception and applies present day categorizational models of evidentiality (Plungian 2001; Aikhenvald 2004; Squartini 2008; Boye 2010a). Different subdivisions of the domain of evidentiality can be found in the literature. However, drawing on Chafe s (1986: 263) identification of four characterising features within the evidential system the reliability of the information or the probability of its truth, the modes of knowing or the ways in which knowledge is acquired (belief, induction, hearsay, deduction), and the sources of knowledge (language in the case of hearsay, evidence in the case of induction, and hypothesis for deduction) this paper is aimed at pointing to a looksay alternative to hearsay evidentiality as present in Abraham s 18

19 Fraunce s Arcadian Rhetorike (1587). By the time it was published, this Rhetorike was considered a highly influential and innovative work that united Logic, Literature, and Rhetoric, and combined an up to day textbook on rhetoric with an illustrative anthology. Not in vain, narrative rhetoric definitions appeared followed by examples taken from literary texts written in English, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish and French. These considerations made, the present study is intended to trace and analyze the alternative looksay evidentiary occurrences in the corpus contained in the text by Fraunce, the ultimate goal being the definition and contextualization of this Early Modern type of evidentiality. Patin Stephane and Pineira Tresmontant Carmen Panel 2. Discourse, literary analysis and corpora/ Discurso, análisis literario y corpus Estudio textométrico de los debates sobre el estado de la Nación. De Aznar a Zapatero. La comunicación propone estudiar, desde la perspectiva del Análisis del discurso y según el enfoque lexicométrico, el léxico de los debates sobre el estado de la Nación empleado por los Presidentes del Gobierno, Aznar y Zapatero, durante sus dos mandatos respectivamente , y , El corpus de estudio de ocurrencias está constituido por los 12 discursos de presentación general. El estudio, basándose en algunos conceptos teóricos del Análisis del discurso, se centrará en analizar los fenómenos léxico insertados en el contexto sociopolítico y sociohistórico del periodo abarcado por los discursos, en cómo la comunicación política y parlamentaria es un actuar retórico y enunciativo constituido por estrategias comunicativas específicas y con finalidades precisas (informar, convencer, seducir, etc.). La comunicación se preocupará por el estudio del léxico en la medida en que aparece como un canal potente de ideas e intenciones. Además, en el plano textual, el léxico contribuye en la construcción del texto en que las palabras se entrelazan, se atraen unas a otras bajo la forma de asociaciones léxicas, participando en la elaboración de redes léxicas. Para llegar a tales objetivos, se utilizará el método lexicométrico con dos programas (LEXICO 3 y COOCS 2). La estadística léxica, como método de análisis textual, se basa en programas informáticos y estadísticos que cuantifican las frecuencias de las palabras en su contexto con el fin de corroborar hipótesis o problemáticas de índole histórica, sociológica, sociopolítica, estilística, lingüística, etc. Con dicho método, se adoptará una perspectiva contrastiva. La segmentación de los discursos en unidades gráficas aislables permite su comparación en cuanto en frecuencia y distribución. De esta manera, se puede caracterizar el vocabulario de un discurso, de una parte o de un locutor, destacando sistemas de oposición o de evolución léxica a lo largo del tiempo, que conviene interpretar en el plano lingüístico y sociopolítico. M. Pınar Babanoğlu Panel 2. Discourse, literary analysis and corpora/ Discurso, análisis literario y corpus A corpus-based study on the use of feelings and emotions vocabulary by EFL learners Research on the relationship between gender and language has been a challenging inquiry as being closely related to social issues. Particular interest has mainly been centered around whether women and men use the language differently. As a factor of sociolinguistics, most of earlier literature on gender and language studies has concentrated on the identification and characterization of male/female language and how language users speak and write in ways that reflect their genders (Labov, 1966; Trudgill, 1972; Lackoff, 1975; Coates, 1998). For instance, a characterization by Lakoff (1975) suggests some diversifications such as women use more tag questions, more correct grammar, more intensifiers and even more empty adjectives than man such as charming and nice. Holmes (1998) draws attention to a range of sociolinguistic universal keynotes differing in gender such as women and men develop 19

20 different patterns of language, women tend use linguistic devices that stress solidarity more often than men do and also women are stylistically more flexible than man. In terms of emotive issues from a cognitive perspective, a study on gender difference states that women significantly use more emotional words than man (Goldsmidt & Weller, 2000). The linguistic aspects of this study are feeling and emotion words such as happy, afraid, nervous, cruel, brave and eager are used to describe emotional state in spoken and written discourse. In second language research field, researchers as Rintell (1985) and Graham (2001) who studied emotion words in interlanguage reported some degree of deficiency in the use and judging of emotion words. Another research the use of emotion words has been correlated not only to just gender variations but also to proficiency level, socio-cultural competence and linguistic devices by Dewaele & Pavlenko (2002) and they concluded that gender is not the only key variable determining the amount and the range of emotion words used in a speech. Although the majority of previous research were conversational based, however, as Xiao & Tao (2007) claims that gender differences from women and men also vary from speaking to writing and it is therefore worth to examine the written contexts considering gender differences. Corpus approach is rather recent application in language and gender relation research, yet corpus methodology may provide empirical and natural language data source for better understanding for both socio-cultural and sociolinguistic investigations in gender studies. This study investigates the lexical uses of feeling and emotion words in written productions of female and male EFL learners. Major aim is to examine whether there are differences in the use of feeling and emotion words between male and female EFL learners and also between male and female native English speakers. Two types of comparisons as of male/female and learner/native speaker are emphasized to highlight the possible differences between and within gender and speaker groups. Methodology of learner corpus depends on Contrastive Interlanguage Analysis (CIA) that involves comparing learner data with native speaker (NS) data (L2 vs. L1) or comparing different types of non-native speaker (NNS) or learner data (L2 vs. L2) (Granger, 2002). NS/NNS comparisons are intended to shed light on non-native features of learner writing and speech through detailed comparisons of linguistic features in native and non-native corpora. Data collection procedure is based upon identification of selected emotion and feeling words throughout four corpora by means of Wordsmith tools. Frequency counts and log-likelihood measurement are utilized for quantitative process of the analysis. Oriana Deeni Mendoza Olivares Panel 2. Discourse, literary analysis and corpora/ Discurso, análisis literario y corpus Negociar con Dios. Metáforas estructurales en el discurso de adolescentes de la Ciudad de Puebla, México. El lenguaje es una ventana hacia la cultura, y por lo tanto hacia la religiosidad de los hablantes; pero, cómo nos podemos dar cuenta de esto? Una forma de acercarnos a la respuesta es a través de las expresiones religiosas que se usan en el habla cotidiana. En el presente trabajo se plantea un análisis sobre las expresiones relacionadas con la religión que los estudiantes de la Preparatoria Lázaro Cárdenas de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla reportan utilizar en diferentes situaciones de su vida. El objetivo es comprender cómo esta población expresa a través de la lengua su religiosidad o la falta de ésta. Para la recopilación de datos se realizaron nueve entrevistas grupales en las que participaron: 53 mujeres y 44 hombres, cuyas edades oscilan entre los 15 y 19 años. El análisis de los resultados se centrará en explicar las metáforas encontradas en el corpus de acuerdo a la teoría planteada por Lakoff y Johnson (1980), en Metáforas de la Vida Cotidiana. Dentro de los tres tipos de expresiones metafóricas que se esbozan se encuentran las metáforas estructurales, en las que una actividad o experiencia se entiende en términos de otra; como en el tiempo es dinero o el discurso es un hilo. Se ha 20

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