Digestion. What we ll cover. Main stages of digestion. Digestion: A Closer Look. A Tour of the Human Digestive System. Mechanical digestion

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1 Digestion What we ll cover What are the digestive system structures and their functions? Where does carbohydrate, protein and fat digestion and absorption occur? What are the 3 accessory organs of digestion? Diseases of digestive system Cheese protein (a polymer of amino acids in a specific sequence) Breakdown of protein by human digestive system Amino acid monomer Amino acids Absorption of amino acids by cells lining the small ; transport via bloodstream to other cells uman protein Main stages of digestion Ingestion intake of food Digestion breaking down food into subunits Absorption nutrients cross the GI tract Elimination removal of undigested food Food Mouth Small Cells use amino acids from the cheese and other foods to produce new human proteins Figure Large Anus Digestion: A Closer Look Mechanical digestion Involves physical processes like chewing Chemical digestion the breakdown of food by digestive enzymes. A Tour of the uman Digestive System The Digestive Tract (or alimentary canal) Accessory organs

2 ACCESSORY ORGANS ALIMENTARY CANAL Salivary glands Mouth Tongue The Oral Cavity Pharynx Mouth Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Salivary glands Teeth Tongue Functions: Small Colon of large Appendix Rectum Anus Eating and chewing Digestion of carbohydrates and lipids begins here Figure 22.5 Salivary Glands Produce saliva Lubrication Contains salivary amylase Enzyme that breaks down starch. Teeth Contains lysozyme Enzyme that prevents bacterial infection. eath Focus Gingivitis Inflammation of the gums, often caused by bacterial infection Can cause erosion of gums, root damage, and tooth loss Tooth decay Dental caries (cavities) occur when bacteria metabolize sugars and produce acids limiting sugar intake and brushing teeth reduces these Used for mechanical breakdown of food Each tooth is made of a crown and a root A hard covering called enamel covers the crown Inner pulp with nerves and blood vessels Tongue A muscle that shifts food around to the teeth Forms food into bolus Contains taste buds Secrets lingual lipase a digestive enzyme that begins to break down triglycerides

3 Pharynx and Swallowing Pharynx between the mouth and esophagus passageway for food long, muscular tube that carries food to the stomach Liver Oral cavity Pharynx Why doesn t food go down the wind pipe? During swallowing, a reflex tips the epiglottis Closes the entrance to the windpipe Tongue Pharynx Trachea (windpipe) open NOT SWALLOWING Ball of food Epiglottis up Esophageal sphincter (contracted) closed SWALLOWING STARTED Adam s apple Trachea closed Epiglottis down open SWALLOWING FINISED Trachea open Epiglottis up Esophageal sphincter (contracted) The esophagus: a muscular tube Connects the mouth to the stomach Moves food down by peristalsis, alternating waves of muscular contraction and relaxation Esophageal sphincter (contracted) Food ball Relaxed muscles Contracted muscles Relaxed muscles Figure What is a sphincter muscle? A circular muscle that closes off one end of an organ. The lower esophageal sphincter allows the bolus to drop into the upper part of the stomach Functions of the Churns food into a thick soup called chyme Secretes acid & starts protein digestion Stores food Controls movement of food into the small

4 The stomach has Figure deep21.9 folds2called rugae and gastric pits that lead into gastric glands that secrete gastric juice Digestion in the stomach Lamina propria Mucous epithelial cells Gastric pit Neck Cells of Gastric Glands Parietal cells (secrete intrinsic factor) G cells (produce a variety of hormones) Gastric glands Secretes gastric juice (2-3 quarts per day) Contains Cl Chief cells (secrete pepsinogen) Enzymes Why doesn t the stomach digest itself? Gives the stomach a p of 2 Converts pepsinogen to pepsin elps kill bacteria found in food. Pepsin: digests protein, active only at p 2 Gastric lipase: breaks down fats What causes gastric ulcers? It secretes mucus Protects Lubricates The bacteria elicobacter pylori. pylori is especially well-adapted for living in the stomach. It lives in the mucus It produces an enzyme that shields the bacterium from the acidity of the stomach Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. What causes eartburn? The backflow of chyme into the esophagus Pyloric Sphincter : Acid reflux Cl from the stomach contents irritates the esophageal wall Tips for decreasing heartburn: Avoid high fat meals Don t overeat Gastric Pits separates the stomach from the small. the strongest muscle in the GI tract. Controls how much chyme enters the small

5 Small Anatomy of the small The longest part of the digestive tract (~20 ft) Function: digestion and absorption of nutrients 3 regions duodenum, jejunum, and ileum The duodenum Surface area is increased by folding Small The first part of the small Receives chyme from stomach and digestive secretions from liver and pancreas Neutralizes acidic chyme Digestion is completed in the small Jejunum Majority of digestion and nutrient absorption occurs here. Ileum Final segment of small Foods are digested by hydrolysis Protein Carbohydrate pancreatic amylase + peptidase p = basic p = basic blood capillary a. Carbohydrate digestion blood capillary b. Protein digestion 2 O Sugar O monoglycerides and free fatty acids amino acids p = basic Carbohydrate lipase glucose lymphatic capillary Enzyme (pepsin) emulsification droplets peptides cell of intestinal villus Amino acid O bile salts trypsin maltase 2 O Fat globules Protein chylomicron Enzyme (amylase) Fat 2 O Fatty acid Glycerol 2 O O O O 2 O c. Fat digestion Enzyme (lipase) Figure 22.3

6 Nutrients are absorbed in the small Most nutrients (~90%) are absorbed in the small The rest? & large Nutrients are absorbed in the small Simple sugars Amino acids Fatty acids Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Blood goes from the to the liver Blood rich in amino acids and glucose travels from the digestive tract to the liver The liver Stores the glucose as glycogen Synthesizes proteins The three accessory organs Salivary glands Pancreas Liver Salivary Glands The pancreas Produce saliva Prevents bacterial infection Lubrication Secretes salivary amylase Enzyme that breaks down starch.. Secretes pancreatic juice into duodenum Secretes: Digestive enzymes Trypsin digests proteins Lipase digests fats Pancreatic amylase digests carbohydrates Bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acids ormones Insulin and glucagon regulate blood sugar levels

7 Fat digestion is completed in the small Liver role in fat digestion Makes bile Secretes bile into the duodenum after a meal Bile breaks down large fat globules to smaller ones = emulsification Bile is stored in the gallbladder Bile salts emulsify fats break down large fat globules to smaller ones Then pancreatic lipase digests fats into fatty acids Which are absorbed Fat globules + bile salts emulsification droplets lipase monoglycerides and free fatty acids p = basic chylomicron lymphatic capillary c. Fat digestion The Large Intestine The colon Large the main part of the Colon large Absorbs water Produces feces, the waste product of food The rectum stores feces Small Rectum Anus Figure 22.14a Involves chronic inflammation of all or part of your GI tract. Cause not known Virus or bacterium might trigger an autoimmune reaction Genetic makeup may play a role Treatment Anti-inflammatory drugs Immune system suppressors Antibiotics Expandable for temporary feces storage Fecal material within rectum triggers defecation urge Defecation ealth Focus: Inflammatory Bowel Disease Rectum Conscious control over external anal sphincter Diverticulitis Outpocketing of the bowel that becomes inflammed

8 Diarrhea Can quickly lead to dehydration Affects absorption of food, vitamins, Rids body of toxins Some antidiarrheals can prolong fever and delay clearance of causative pathogens Overview of Digestion Ingestion Food into mouth Digestion Mechanical digestion Chewing in mouth Churning in stomach Chemical digestion Saliva in mouth Acid and pepsin in stomach Enzymes in small Absorption Nutrients and water in small Water in large Elimination Feces formed in large Elimination from anus Food Mouth Small Large Anus Figure Why is digestion important? Digestion breaks down food to create: Molecules small enough for cells to absorb Monomers that can be recombined into new molecules Food as Fuel Cells Break down food molecules in cellular respiration. Generate many molecules of ATP.

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