DIRECTIONS IN DEVELOPMENT Environment and Sustainable Development. Building Urban Resilience. Principles, Tools, and Practice

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1 DIRECTIONS IN DEVELOPMENT Environment and Sustainable Development Building Urban Resilience Principles, Tools, and Practice Abhas K. Jha,Todd W. Miner, and Zuzana Stanton-Geddes, Editors Australian THE WORLD BANK Washington, D.C. AID^4^

2 Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Editors and Contributors Abbreviations %i xiii xv xvii xxi Executive Summary 1 Focus on Cities 1 Risk and Uncertainty 2 Building Urban Resilience: Principles, Tools, and Practice 3 Looking Forward 5 References 6 Chapter 1 Principles of Urban Resilience 9 Key Points 9 Key Resources 10 Urban Disaster Resilience 10 Risk, Uncertainty, and Complexity 11 Disaster Risk Management and Opportunities for Resilience 14 Social Resilience 22 Land Use Planning 26 Urban Ecosystems 29 Urban Upgrading 33 Incorporating Resilience into the Project Cycle 35 Further Reading 39 Notes 43 References 43 Chapter 2 Tools for Building Urban Resilience 47 Key Points 47 Key Resources 48 Risk Assessment 48 Risk-Based Land Use Planning 57 Urban Ecosystem Management 70 Building Urban Resilience v

3 vi Contents Urban Upgrading '" Community and Stakeholder Participation 91 Disaster Management Systems 104 Data Gathering, Analysis, and Application 111 Risk Financing and Transfer Approaches 118 Further Reading 133 Notes 134 References 134 Chapter 3 The Practice of Urban Resilience 141 Key Points 141 Key Resources 142 Water Supply and Wastewater Systems 142 Energy and Communications 150 Transportation Systems 155 Further Reading 164 Note 165 References 165 Appendix A Disaster Definitions and Classifications 167 Appendix B Checklist for Infrastructure Owners and Operators 173 Identify Risks 173 Understand Hazards 173 Assess Risk and Understand Vulnerability 174 Build Resilience 174 Evaluate Resilience 175 Appendix C Comparison of Spatial Plans for Urban Infrastructure 177 Appendix D Data Collection Guidelines 179 Terms of Spatial Data Delivery and Sharing 179 Capacity Requirements for Hosting GeoNode 180 Boxes 1.1 Enhancing Resilience in an Urban Region: Examples Increasing Accountability in the Philippines The Great California Shake-Out The Queensland Reconstruction Authority Combining Resources to Reduce Flood Impacts Urbanization and Flood Risk Using Vegetation to Limit Landslide Hazards in Seattle Country Assistance Strategy in the Philippines City-Wide Mapping in Uganda 51 Building Urban Resilience

4 Contents vii 2.2 CAPRA: A Probabilistic Risk Assessment Initiative Flood Risk Assessment for Mitigation Planning in Dhaka, Bangladesh Checklist for Feasibility Assessment and Definition of Scope Istanbul Earthquake Risk Reduction Plan Checklist for a Successful Relocation Hazard Zoning Initiatives Spatial Development Framework for Risk Reduction in Kaduna, Nigeria Master Plan for Risk Reduction in Constitution, Chile Checklist for Land Use Risk Management Strategy Institutional Capacity for Risk Reduction Rehabilitation of the Maasin Watershed Reserve in the Philippines Green and Blue Infrastructure Gray and Green Infrastructure Costs Compared Lake Matthews: Watershed for Urban Development London's Green Grid Slum Mapping in Pune and Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad, India Incentive-Based Regulations for Low-Income Housing in Jakarta, Indonesia Strategic Upgrading of Precarious Settlements in São Paulo, Brazil Scaling Up and Integrating CBDRM into Local Planning Processes Stakeholder Collaboration in Indonesia Stakeholder Participation in Climate Resilience Awareness-Raising and Planning Building Earthquake Risk Awareness and Safety in Nepal Monitoring the National Program for Community Empowerment in Indonesia Case Study: Lincolnshire Mapping of Critical Assets Risk Management and Business Continuity Standards Uses of Social Media in Disasters Sharing Data to Rebuild a Region Hazus The Pacific Risk Information System Key Terms Related to Risk Financing Financial Instruments for Cities and Provinces Mexican Natural Disaster Fund (FONDEN) Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option The Southeast Europe and Caucasus Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool Flood Insurance in the United Kingdom 130 Building Urban Resilience

5 viii Contents 2.38 Insuring the Poor against Disasters 3.1 Impact of Cyclone Sidr on Bangladesh Water Supply and Sanitation Facilities 3.2 San Francisco Water Supply Improvement Program 3.3 Resilience through Mutual Aid: The U.K. Water Industry 3.4 Making Human Settlements More Flood-Resistant 3.5 Auckland Blackouts, 1998 and The Relevance of Social Networks to Disasters 3.7 Resilience Standards for Communications and Energy Infrastructure in the United Kingdom 3.8 Green Infrastructure and Urban Transportation Systems 3.9 Incentives for Emergency Repairs 3.10 Air Service Lessons from Hurricane Katrina, Figures 1.1 The Six Phases of the Disaster Cycle 1.2 Open Data for Resilience Cycle 1.3 Elements of Risk Calculation 1.4 Elements of Risk Reduction 1.5 Tsunami Early Warning System 1.6 The Human Ecosystem 1.7 Competing Interests in Land Use 1.8 World Bank Project Cycle 2.1 Dynamic Decision-Making Process 2.2 Risk Assessment Model B Green vs. Gray Infrastructure Costs B Green vs. Gray Infrastructure Costs for Securing Clean Drinking Water (Portland, Maine) 2.3 Illustration of OpenStreetMap Use: Critical Infrastructure in Kelurahan Tomang in Jakarta, Indonesia 2.4 Illustration of InaSAFE Output: Historical Flood in Kelurahan Tomang in Jakarta, Indonesia B Field-Surveyed Bridge in Fiji with Photo Validation B Cyclone Wind Hazard Map for the Solomon Islands B The Role of FONDEN's Instruments in Mexico's System of Civil Protection 2.5 World Bank Approach to Disaster Risk Financing and Insurance 2.6 Sources of Post-Disaster Funding 2.7 Types of Risk and Possible Sources of Funding 3.1 Wastewater Treatment Process 3.2 Mitigation Infrastructure: Communal Toilets Elevated Against Flooding, Cambodia 3.3 Hurricane Evacuation Routes in Texas, United States 3.4 A New Zealand Railbed after an Earthquake Building Urban Resilience

6 Contents A.l Natural and Technological Disaster Classification 168 A.2 Natural Disaster Subgroup Types 169 Tables 1.1 Challenges in Integrating Social Resilience Urban Poverty, Everyday Hazards, and Disaster Risks World Bank Project Cycle: Opportunities for Enhancing Resilience Disaster Resilience Indicators Resilience Components in World Bank Projects: Examples Types of Disaster Impact Summary of Socioeconomic Cost-Benefit Analysis Risk-Based Land Use Planning in Urban Infrastructure Projects The Risk-Based Planning Process: Actors and Roles Incorporating Ecosystem Management into Land Use Planning Common Ecosystem Management Interventions Risk Management in Urban Upgrading Projects 81 B Characterization of Precarious Settlements for Strategic Intervention ' Examples of Asset-Based Actions to Build Resilience to Extreme Weather Opportunities for Community and Stakeholder Participation in Urban Investment Projects World Bank Contingent and Emergency Crisis Response Instruments Pre- and Post-Disaster Transportation Policies Summarized 165 C.1 Comparison of Spatial Plans for Urban Infrastructure 177 Building Urban Resilience /

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