TERMS of REFERENCE (ToR)

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1 TERMS of REFERENCE (ToR) Project Name: Building Disaster Resilient Communities in Cambodia ActionAid (Cambodia) - DRR Program OVERALL PURPOSE OF THE CONSULTANCY Undertake an independent research study on The Impact of Flood on Women in Cambodia. This research forms part of the DCA/ ActionAid/ PIN Consortium DIPECHO VIII project: Building Disaster Resilient Communities in Cambodia, funded by the European Commission s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Department. BACKGROUND Natural disasters devastate lives and livelihoods. Cambodia is regularly exposed to a variety of natural hazards, most commonly: tropical storms, floods, drought and pest infestation. All of these hazards are highly likely to be aggravated by the foreseen impacts of Climate Change. According to the World Risk Index 2012 (173 countries) Cambodia is ranked fifteenth in the most exposed countries, but eighth in the disaster risk index. Cambodia is ranked higher in the disaster risk index than its position in the most exposed countries ranking due to its low absorptive capacity. Flooding is one of the most common hazards affecting many communities in Cambodia, and women headed households are disproportionately affected by these floods. 1 Women are most present in areas of employment within the agricultural and informal sectors, which are often the worst affected by disasters; thus the rates of unemployment among women after a disaster are high. In general, women are the most likely to be affected by floods, but their concerns are least likely to be addressed. Women are typically absent from the fora where Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) decisions/ planning are made, so when priorities are established, the interests of women are often poorly represented. Due to Cambodian social-cultural attitudes towards women they often have disproportionately poorer health, lower levels of literacy and education, and lower paid income-generating work - relative to men; which isolates women from decision-making processes/ structures and contributes to their reduced access to disaster related information and post-disaster relief/ recovery programmes. Women s vulnerabilities to natural disasters are different from the male population. ActionAid Cambodia has commissioned this study to better understand the socio-economic dynamics which affect the impact of flood on women in the Cambodian context. Further investigation into how these disparities operate during and after disasters is required to learn important lessons. Vulnerability and its underlying causes play important roles in determining the severity of impact on a particular social group; therefore it is essential to have a greater understand of the dynamics of the vulnerability of women in the Cambodian context, in terms of disaster risk. 1 The Cambodia Post-flood Relief and Recovery Survey (May 2012) found that a majority of flood-affected households in the Plains and Tonle Sap zones were headed by women (53 percent for both).

2 Gender-biased attitudes and stereotypes also complicate and prolong women s recovery from disasters. Therefore the Researcher is requested to examine in detail the most significant problems that women face during and after a disaster so that strategies for protection and mitigation can be re-examined through the information gained. In addition to this women s capacities and vulnerabilities are different from the male population. How these disparities operate during and after a disaster requires investigation so that the information gathered can positively feed into DRR preparedness plans and post-disaster responses. ActionAid Cambodia will utilise the findings of the research to reflect upon the findings to improve the design and implementation of future DRR and emergency response interventions. The findings of the research will also be distributed to the main stakeholders and will be used to advocate for the improved inclusion of women in DRR planning and consideration of womencentred emergency response interventions to mitigate the negative effects of the impact of flood on women. EVALUATION OBJECTIVES The Researcher is commissioned to examine in detail the impact of flood on women in Cambodia. The study is likely to investigate how floods affect women differentially from men, what are the most significant problems that women face during and after a disaster; and make recommendations on how to integrate gender analysis into disaster planning. The below are suggestions for the Consultants consideration as areas of potential investigation: Disaster Risk Reduction Planning: Women s representation and participation in national/ sub-national DRR/ disaster management government decision-making and management structures/ processes The level of involvement of women in pre/ post-disaster decision-making and activities Women s access to disaster management/ preparedness planning information If NGO/ Government DRR/ DM projects adequately consider/ provide for the needs of women. Disaster Phase: Do women have adequate access to disaster related early warning information Are women headed household disproportionately affected by floods in Cambodia Do women have equitable access to disaster response/ humanitarian aid distribution Do traditional gender roles change during/ in the aftermath of a flood (how and with what effects?) Are there gender-based differences in capacity to deal with natural disasters, as well as in the in the way coping mechanisms are employed What are the additional burdens placed upon women in fulfilling their role as carers for the family (carer for children, the sick and the elderly; and sourcing food, water, and fuel to prepare the next meal for their families) Do local level women groups/ social networks provide emergency survival support during floods and help reduce vulnerabilities/ enhance women s resilience. (If so, how?) Does the incidence of domestic abuse increase during times of disaster Designated Safe Areas provision of basic facilities for women hygiene and privacy needs Safe Areas Protection arrangements at designated Safe Areas Public health staff s provision of adequate services for the specific health needs of women during out-reach services (including sexual reproductive health services).

3 Post-disaster Phase: How, and to what extent do Cambodian social-cultural attitudes affect women s exposure to disaster impacts and losses, and their relative ability to recover. What are the main barriers faced by women in post-disaster recovery (social, economic, cultural, education, etc.) The impact of floods on women s debt levels What is the impact of disasters on girls education Does the design of current post-disaster relief and recovery programmes (food/ cash for work, etc.) limit women s access to post-disaster recovery opportunities Policy Level: How can gender perspectives and empirical knowledge about gender and disaster best be transferred to practitioners (policy-makers, sub-national planners, local officials, community representatives)? How can the Ministry of Women s Affairs and the Commune Women and Children Focal Points better represent the needs of women in pre- and post-disaster management/ decision making? What gender-specific data is available to institutional and community planners (e.g. on economic insecurity as a factor in disaster vulnerability, or gender patterns in post disaster economic recovery)? What models exist for effectively integrating gender analysis into disaster planning at the grassroots and institutional levels? TASKS The Consultant will undertake the following tasks in close and regular liaison with the DRR Program Manager during all phases of the consultancy: Desk review of literature on the hazards affecting Cambodia, gender dimensions of natural hazards/ disasters, the social-economic status of women in Cambodia, disaster management and disaster risk reduction Analysis of the operating environment, hazard vulnerability, socio-economic- cultural dynamics and women s livelihoods strategies Conduct Key Informant interviews in DIPECHO VIII project target province (provincial/ district/ commune/ village levels) Undertake FGDs and one-on-one interviews with community members/ local authority representatives Conduct semi-structured interviews with project staff, partners, counterpart government staff and project beneficiaries METHODOLOGY The evaluation process is required to be participatory in nature, the views of ActionAid/ local implementing NGO project staff and key stakeholders should be considered when developing recommendations. Both qualitative and quantitative data and information from both secondary and primary sources should be collected through assessment tools such as document reviews, focused group discussions and semi-structured interviews, etc.

4 OUTPUTS The Consultant will produce: 1. A final Research Report (adhering to guidelines stated below), including practical recommendations on: Improving women s participation in pre- and post-disaster planning and decisionmaking Increasing women s access to humanitarian relief and post disaster rehabilitation/ income generation activities Women focused post-disaster rehabilitation initiatives. FORMAT & STYLE The final report will be written in clear/ plain English so as to facilitate understanding, as well as its translation into Khmer and subsequent dissemination to donors/ stakeholders. The study needs to be in a brief, clear and cogent format with a balanced analysis of any issues identified; with clear recommendations for future development/ integration into programmes. The report should incorporate supporting documentation such as case studies and photographic documentation where appropriate. The report will be no more than 25 pages, plus appendices. Relevant statistical data should be included in the appendices. Appendices should be limited to those which are essential for explaining the text. Draft Template: Front cover Table of contents Acronyms 1. Executive Summary 2. Introduction - Basic data, map(s), background, purpose and methodologies used 3. Findings 4. Recommendations for future development 5. Conclusion Bibliography Appendices SCHEDULE & DATES The consultancy is for a period of days, to be agreed, between: November 2013 and December 2013 ARRANGEMENTS & RESOURCES The Consultant is required to: Be based in Phnom Penh and target province, and accommodation and meal costs are the Consultant s responsibility

5 Work from ActionAid s office as required by ActionAid Obtain approval from the Consultant s principal ActionAid contact for all field travel related to this work within Cambodia. Travel costs and arrangements outside of the Consultant s base will be in accordance with ActionAid s travel policies, practices, and per diem rates Provide own computer. REPORTING The Consultant will report directly to Andrew Martin, the DRR Project Manager, ActionAid s principal contact/s for this consultancy.

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