Long Term Recovery and Rehabilitation. Issues for discussion. Recovery

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1 Long Term Recovery and Rehabilitation Issues for discussion Recovery The restoration, and improvement where appropriate, of facilities, livelihoods and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce disaster risk factors. UNISDR

2 Recovery in Hyogo Framework of Action Priority Action 5: Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response and recovery at all levels At times of disaster, impacts and losses can be substantially reduced if authorities, individuals and communities in hazard-prone areas are well prepared and ready to act and are equipped with the knowledge and capacities for effective disaster management. Key activities 1. Strengthen policy, technical and institutional capacities in regional, national and local disaster management, including those related to technology, training, and human and material resources. 2. Promote and support dialogue, exchange of information and coordination among early warning, disaster risk reduction, disaster response, development and other relevant agencies and institutions at all levels, with the aim of fostering a holistic approach towards disaster risk reduction. 3. Strengthen and when necessary develop coordinated regional approaches, and create or upgrade regional policies, operational mechanisms, plans and communication systems to prepare for and ensure rapid and effective disaster response in situations that exceed national coping capacities.

3 4. Prepare or review and periodically update disaster preparedness and contingency plans and policies at all levels, with a particular focus on the most vulnerable areas and groups. Promote regular disaster preparedness exercises, including evacuation drills, with a view to ensuring rapid and effective disaster response and access to essential food and non-food relief supplies, as appropriate, to local needs. 5. Promote the establishment of emergency funds, where and as appropriate, to support response, recovery and preparedness measures. 6. Develop specific mechanisms to engage the active participation and ownership of relevant stakeholders, including communities, in disaster risk reduction, in particular building on the spirit of volunteerism.!" # $%&

4 Experiences from recovery Disasters galore all over the world, but our limited research on disaster recovery Most of the studies on disaster recovery are sponsored by multi-lateral funding institutions Most of such studies focus on physical recovery Very few studies on economic, social, psychosocial and environmental recovery Based on current research principles and framework on disaster recovery has been suggested Work of IRP Documentation of disaster recovery o Guidance notes on o Gender o Governance o Livelihoods o Environment o Shelter o Infrastructure o Health o Psycho-social issues and o Climate change adaptation in recovery.

5 Five principles of recovery 1. Holistic - cover housing, infrastructure, education, livelihood, health, psycho-social care etc. 2. Long term - provide livelihood support including development of skill, provisioning of credit and marketing support etc 3. Build back better - ensure that houses and infrastructure constructed after disasters withstand the hazards and risks of nature and the hazards do not become disasters again 4. Sustainable - integrate environmental issues, such regeneration of mangroves, conservation of water, 5. Inclusive - care for poor and vulnerable - women, children, aged, physically and mentally challenged people Recovery framework Damage, Loss and Need Assessment Recovery Planning Short Term (0-30 days) Search and rescue Emergency health Temporary shelter Food, clothes Restoration of critical infrastructure (power, telecom, water Intermediate (I to 6 months) ' Intermediate shelter Health Care Continuation of support for food, clothes etc School and day care Resource mobilisation Institutional mechanism Long Term (6 m to 3 years) Permanent housing Livelihood support Restoration of physical Infrastructure Reconstruction of social infrastructure Psycho-social recovery Documentation

6 Issue: 2 What are the current gaps in our knowledge and understanding of disaster recovery and how such gaps should be met? Recovery deficit Even the best of recovery is not good enough There is always recovery deficit Such deficit is seen in catastrophic disasters that are relatively better funded Such deficits more prominent in minor or medium scale disasters which usually do not go beyond early recovery Very few countries have mechanism to deal with issues of recovery from minor and middle scale disasters In the absence of any long term recovery poor people are often drawn into the cycles of disaster and poverty and never manage to get out of it (

7 Issue: 3 How to develop mechanism for long term recovery and rehabilitation from every type of disaster mega, medium & small? Disasters in India Global Comparisons: Name of Country Number of disaster events Global Rank Number of Victims (Million) Global Rank Mean annual victims per 100,000 population Global Rank Damage US$ (Million) India , , ,378 5 China , , ,279 3 USA ,923 1 Japan ,928 2 UK , Brazil , , South Africa , Bangladesh , , Philippines , , *+!,-* *,. Global Rank )

8 Disaster events, deaths and damages ( ) in India Disaster types Events Deaths Affected Damages (US$ 000) Drought Earthquake Epidemic Extreme temperature Flood Insect infestation Mass movement dry Mass movement wet Storm Wildfire Total *+!,-* *,. Average Annual Loss Loss of human life: 7734 Crop area affected: 1.42 million hec. Houses damaged: 2.36 million Direct loss: 2.25% of GDP* Indirect psycho-social loss that can not be quantified Revenue loss due to less industrial production: 12%* Expenses on relief & rehab: Rs crores Expenses on reconstruction: Rs crores *World Bank, Financing Rapid Onset Natural Disaster Losses in India: A Risk Management Approach, /

9 Wide gap between Damage, Loss, Need and Recovery Total damages due to natural disasters during as per conservative estimate o US$ 4857,23,80,000 = Rs. 242,258 crores o Average annual damage = Rs crores Total allocations under Margin Money + CRF(SDRF) + NCCF (NDRF) during 1955 to 2010 o Rs. 48,258 crores o Average annual allocation Rs. 804 crores Norms of relief expenditure The relief norms permit expenditure on 26 items under 6 categories: 1. Response 4. Housing 2. Immediate relief 5. Infrastructure 3. Gratuitous relief 6. Preparedness Expenditure on recovery and reconstruction except those which are intrinsically connected with relief operations and connectivity with the affected area and population should be met from the plan funds 0

10 Some success stories Latur earthquake Earthquake resistant construction technology developed for non-engineered structures NGOs and community involved in reconstruction programs Gender issues in recovery acknowledged Orissa super cyclone Network of cyclone shelters built Livelihood restoration integrated in poverty alleviation program Emergency evacuation plans for coastal communities based on storm surge models Some success stories Gujarat earthquake Owner driven housing reconstruction Joint ownership of wife and husband in reconstructed houses Insurance built into housing reconstruction Ensuring standards and building back better Knowledge transfer resulting in long-term capacity building Public-Private-People Partnership Programme in reconstruction Transparency in delivery of services to the affected population Urban re-engineering

11 Some success stories: Tsunami The government here has worked cooperatively with civil society to respond to issues of social exclusion. In its housing and livelihoods programs, the government is creating opportunities for traditionally marginalized groups to own assets and resources for the first time in their lives. What has been done here, I would like to see copied throughout the world. Bill Clinton UN Special Envoy on Tsunami Recovery A few successes shadows plenty of wasted opportunities

12 NPDM 2009 The approach to the reconstruction process has to be comprehensive so as to convert adversity into opportunity. Incorporating disaster resilient features to build back better will be the guiding principle. Efforts will be made to support and enhance the viability of the livelihood systems, education, health-care facilities, care of the elderly, women and children, etc. Other aspects warranting attention will be roads, housing, drinking water sources, provision for sanitary facilities, availability of credit, supply of agricultural inputs, upgradation of technologies in the on-farm and offfarm activities, storage, processing, marketing, etc. Opportunity lost 13 th Finance Commission provided an opportunity to institutionalize and mainstream disaster recovery into existing institutional and financial arrangements for post disaster relief and reconstruction. Unfortunately the opportunity was lost. The issue needs to be raised before the 14 th Commission.

13 Issue: 4 What should be done to institutionalize disaster recovery in the disaster management system of India?

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