1 1. IL PRESENTE (PRESENT SIMPLE) Le voci del presente del verbo be sono: I am you/we/they are he/she/it is Nella lingua parlata si usano le forme contratte: I'm you're/we're/they're he's/she's/it's La forma negativa si ottiene aggiungendo not. I am not you/we/they are not he/she/it is not Forme contratte: I'm not you/we/they aren't he/she/it isn't La forma interrogativa si ottiene invertendo la posizione del soggetto e del verbo. Forma interrogativa negativa: Am I? Are you/we/they? Is he/she/it? Forma interrogativa negativa: Am I not? Aren't you/we/they? Isn't he/she/it? I'm from Chicago. Where are you from? Io sono di Chicago. Tu di dove sei? Is Rita married? No she isn't Rita è sposata? No. My parents aren't at home today. I miei genitori non sono in casa oggi. Il Present Simple si forma con l'infinito senza to. I work you work we work they work Io lavoro tu lavori/voi lavorate noi lavoriamo loro/essi/esse lavorano Alla terza persona singolare (he/she/it) si aggiunge s. Con i verbi terminanti in o, s, ch, sh, x si aggiunge -es. Alcuni verbi, come be e have, sono irregolari. She works he goes Bob watches she misses he wishes he relaxes he has she is I verbi in -y preceduta da consonante terminano in -ies alla terza persona singolare. I play she plays I study he studies we try Bill tries
2 La forma negativa si costruisce con do not e il verbo all'infinito senza to. Alla terza persona singolare si usa does not nello stesso modo. I do not work she does not work Io non lavoro lei non lavora Nel parlato e nei testi scritti informali si usano le forme contratte don't e doesn't. I don't work she doesn't work Quando si usa? Realtà che sono sempre vere/ verità assolute The sun rises in the east Il sole sorge a est. Azioni abituali Every day I wake up at 7.30 Ogni mattina mi alzo alle 7:30.
3 IL PRESENTE (PRESENT SIMPLE) forma3interrogativa LeCformeCinterrogativeCdelCPresentCSimpleCsiCcostruisconoCconCdo3seguitoCdalCsoggettoCe dalcverbocall'infinitocsenzacto.3allacterzacpersonacsicusacdoes3invece: Do you3work?3 Does he3work? Forma3interrogativa3negativa: Don't you3work? Doesn't he3work? SiCusaCdo/does anchecnellecdomandecchecinizianocconcwhen,3what,3why,3where,3how etc...: What do you3want?3 Where does she3live? Tuttavia,CseCWho/What etc..cfungonocdacsoggettocnoncsicusacdo/does: Who lives here?3 Which of you speaks English? Quando usiamo il Present Simple? PerCesprimereCazioniCabituali Every3day3I3get up at37:303am. PerCesprimereCunaCveritàCassoluta The3sun3rises in3the3east PerCcomunicareCfattiCpersonali John3loves ice-cream. ConCilCPresentCsimpleCsiCusanoCspessoCgliCavverbiCdiCfrequenza:
4 always--> I always get up at 7:00. often--> Pat often goes to the cinema. usually --> It usually rains when I go on holiday! sometimes--> We sometimes eat pizza for lunch. rarely --> Jane rarely listens to jazz. never --> My bus never arrives on time. Il verbo have, spesso seguito da got, corrisponde al verbo avere in italiano con accezione di possesso: Forma affermativa: I/you/we/they have (got) he/she/it has (got) Forma negativa: I/you/we/they haven't (got) he/she/it has't (got) Forma interrogativa: have I/you/we/they (got)? Has he/she/it (got)? Secondo le regole del British English, come riportato quì sopra, essendo have un verbo ausiliare come be non necessita nella costruzione di negative e interrogative di do e does tuttavia nell'inglese americano il verbo have viene usato come un verbo qualunque e usa per tanto do e does nelle negative e nelle interrogative. *Nota Bene: il verbo have è ausiliare solo quando esprime possesso! Esempio: I haven't a car --> possesso I don't usually have lunch --> uso particolare (fare colazione) Exercises Put the verbs into the correct form.
5 IL PRESENTE (PRESENT SIMPLE) forma3interrogativa LeCformeCinterrogativeCdelCPresentCSimpleCsiCcostruisconoCconCdo3seguitoCdalCsoggettoCe dalcverbocall'infinitocsenzacto.3allacterzacpersonacsicusacdoes3invece: Do you3work?3 Does he3work? Forma3interrogativa3negativa: Don't you3work? Doesn't he3work? SiCusaCdo/does anchecnellecdomandecchecinizianocconcwhen,3what,3why,3where,3how etc...: What do you3want?3 Where does she3live? Tuttavia,CseCWho/What etc..cfungonocdacsoggettocnoncsicusacdo/does: Who lives here?3 Which of you speaks English? Quando usiamo il Present Simple? PerCesprimereCazioniCabituali Every3day3I3get up at37:303am. PerCesprimereCunaCveritàCassoluta The3sun3rises in3the3east PerCcomunicareCfattiCpersonali John3loves ice-cream. ConCilCPresentCsimpleCsiCusanoCspessoCgliCavverbiCdiCfrequenza:
6 always--> I always get up at 7:00. often--> Pat often goes to the cinema. usually --> It usually rains when I go on holiday! sometimes--> We sometimes eat pizza for lunch. rarely --> Jane rarely listens to jazz. never --> My bus never arrives on time. Il verbo have, spesso seguito da got, corrisponde al verbo avere in italiano con accezione di possesso: Forma affermativa: I/you/we/they have (got) he/she/it has (got) Forma negativa: I/you/we/they haven't (got) he/she/it has't (got) Forma interrogativa: have I/you/we/they (got)? Has he/she/it (got)? Secondo le regole del British English, come riportato quì sopra, essendo have un verbo ausiliare come be non necessita nella costruzione di negative e interrogative di do e does tuttavia nell'inglese americano il verbo have viene usato come un verbo qualunque e usa per tanto do e does nelle negative e nelle interrogative. *Nota Bene: il verbo have è ausiliare solo quando esprime possesso! Esempio: I haven't a car --> possesso I don't usually have lunch --> uso particolare (fare colazione) Exercises Put the verbs into the correct form.
7 1. I (to like) lemonade very much. 2. The girls always (to listen) to pop music. 3. Janet never (to wear) jeans. 4. Mr Smith (to teach) Spanish and French. 5. You (to do) your homework after school. Simple present with 'have' and 'be' Fill in the correct form of the verbs. 1. We (to have) a nice garden. 2. She (to be) six years old. 3. Simon (to have) two rabbits and five goldfish. 4. I (to be) from Vienna, Austria. 5. They (to be) Sandy's parents. Negative Sentences Make negative sentences. 1. My father makes breakfast. 2. They are eleven. 3. She writes a letter. 4. I speak Italian. 5. Danny phones his father on Sundays. Questions Make questions. 1. you / to speak / English 2. when / he / to go / home 3. they / to clean / the bathroom 4. where / she / to ride / her bike 5. Billy / to work / in the supermarket
8 3. IL PRESENT Continuous Il Present continuous si forma con il presente di be seguito dal verbo in -ing. I am relaxing? he is relaxing? I verbi in -e perdono la -e quando si aggiunge -ing: like liking decide deciding write writing I verbi monosillabici che terminano con una consonante preceduta da una sola vocale raddoppiano la consonante quando si aggiunge -ing: sit sitting swim swimming dig digging I verbi in -ie cambiano -ie in -y. lie lying tie tying die dying Quando usiamo il Present Continuous? Per esprimere azioni che accadono al momento What are you doing? We are playing cards Per riferirsi a un'azione prossima nel futuro e già stabilita I am going to the beach tomorrow Con always quando ci si lamenta di azioni o situazioni ricorrenti e fastidiose You are always forgetting your keys!
9 Esercizi 1 Completa le frasi con il Present Continuous dei verbi tra parentesi adfsamfhdrinkdf /////////////////////fsomefmilk/ bdfyoufhnotfflistendf ////////////////////ftofmev cdfwhyfhyoufflookd////////////////////////fatfmeflikefthat? ddfmikefhnotffstaydf ////////////////////fatfthisfhotel/ edfyoufhsitdf ////////////////////////////////finfmyfplacev fdfwefhhavedf ///////////////////////////////fafgoodftime/ gdfifcan2tftalkfnow/fifhwashdf /////////////////////////////fmyfhair/ hdfwhofhtalkd/////////////////////////////? idfwhatfhyoufwritedf ///////////////////////? jdfitfhsnowd////////////////////////////fnow/ 2 Volgi le seguenti frasi alla forma interrogativa. adfi2mfmakingftoofmuchfnoise/f ////////////////////////////////////////? bdfhelenfisfreading/f /////////////////////////////////////////? cdfyoufarefhavingfafgoodftime/f ///////////////////////////////////////////? ddfitfisfsnowing/f //////////////////////////////////////////? edfyoufarefwaitingfinfthefrightfplace/f ////////////////////////////////////////? fdfyoufarefsittingfhere/f ///////////////////////////////////////////////? gdfdavidfisfenjoyingftheffilm/f ///////////////////////////////////////////? hdfthefbusfisfstopping/f //////////////////////////////////////////////? idftomfandfjimfarefstudying/f //////////// ///////////////////////? jdfthosefgirlsfarefspeakingffrench/f //////////////////////////////////////? 3 Da ogni coppia scegli la parola scritta correttamente. adfwriting/writtingf bdfhaving/haveingf cdfwasheing/washing
10 d) diging/digging e) lieing/lying f) riding/rideing g) takeing/taking h) readding/reading i) flying/flyeing l) decideing/deciding m) useing/using n) waitting/waiting 4 Scegli la soluzione corretta. a) Jean is swimming/swiming in the ppol at the moment. b) Why you are/are you putting on your coat? c) Hurry up! We're/Wer'e waiting for you. d) Clare not is/is not doing her homework at the moment. e) What you are/are you reading? f) Look outside! Its/It's raining! g) Paula is studying/studing economics in Germany. h) Bob is watching/is Bob watching television? i) I can't come now. I'm writting/writing a letter. j) Jack is'nt/isn't having a very good time. 5 Esprimi il futuro mettendo i verbi al Present Continuous a) What (you do)... this evening. b) I (not come)... to school tomorrow! c) Tina (go)... to Italy next week? d) (you have)... a party this week? e) We (not go)... home on the bus after school. f) (Mrs Simpson teach)... us today? g) Catherine and George (not arrive)... tomorrow. h) (Tom go)... to the football match tomorrow? i) Ann (not work)... on Friday j) (you leave)... this afternoon?
11 6 Compleata le frasi scegliendo tra i verbi elencati come cook do get go have leave meet stay work a) I've enjoyed my holiday here, but..... home tomorrow b) Mark a party on his birthday. c) Some friends... to stay with me next week. d)... anything tonight? Would you like to come to the cinema? e) What time... in the morning? Do you want me to take you to the airport? f) Don't forget. You... dinner this evening. It's your turn! g) I can't see you at I... some friends at that time. h) Helen and Mike... married in June. i)... tomorrow? Or have you got a free day? j) I haven't got any lessons tomorrow, so I... at home. 7 Traduci in inglese a) Io esco, tu vieni? b) Il Milan gioca a Liverpool mercoledì prossimo. c) Dov'è Philip? è in camera sua. Dorme d) Ciao, Bill. Che fai qui? Aspetti qualcuno? e) Stanno costruendo una chiesa nuova. f) Cosa fate domani sera? g) Tim mangia continuamente caramelle. h) Il direttore è fuori. Sta pranzando con Mr. Swan. i) Lisa parte la settimana prossima. j) Piove. Non hai un ombrello?
12 IL PAST SIMPLE Verbi regolari Il Past Simple dei verbi regolari si forma aggiungendo ed all infinito senza to. Con I verbi terminanti in esi aggiunge solo d. I enjoyed thefilm. (da enjoy) Il film mi è piaciuto I loved themusic (da love) La musica mi è piaciuta molto. La forma del Past Simple è la stessa per tutte le persone FI loved, you loved, heloved, ecc.+ Ortografia I verbi in y preceduta da consonante cambiano y in ied: Try Tried Cry Cried I verbi che terminano con una sola consonante preceduta da una sola vocale accentata raddoppiano la consonante finale: Regret Regretted Fit Fitted Stop Stopped Verbi irregolari Alcuni esempi: Past Simple Participio Passato Eat FMangiare+ Ate Eaten Drink FBere+ Drank Drunk WakeFSvegliare/Svegliarsi+ Woke Woken I paradigmi dei verbi irregolari si imparano con lo studio e con l uso. Forme interrogative Le forme interrogative si formano con did + soggetto + infinito senza to
13 Did you enjoy the film? Did you drink all the milk? Ti/Vi è piaciuto il film? Hai/Avete bevuto tutto il latte? What did you do yesterday? Why did she leave? Che cosa hai/avete fatto ieri? Perché è partita/se ne è andata? Non si usa did quando Who/What ecc. Fungono da soggetto. Who phoned? Chi ha telefonato? Forme negative Le forme negative si formano con did not e l infinito senza to. Nel parlato e nei testi scritti informali did not si contrae in didn t. The coat didn t fit me. Carol didn t eat very much. Il cappotto non mi andava bene. Carol non ha mangiato molto. Il verbo be è irregolare. Il paradigma è: be (infinito) was/were (Past Simple) been (participio passato). Le voci del Past Simple sono: Forma affermativa: I/he/she/it was You/we/they/were Forma negativa: I/he/she/it was not (wasn t) you/we/they were not (weren t) Forma interrogativa: Was I/he/she/it? Were you/we/they? It was very cold last Sunday. Era/E stato molto freddo domenica scorsa. Where were you yesterday afternoon? Dov eri/dove sei stato ieri pomeriggio? Il verbo have è irregolare. Il paradigma è: have (infinito) had (Past Simple) had (participio passato). Di solito non si usa got nel Past Simple. Ann had a car when she was a student. Ann aveva la macchina quando era studentessa Did you write the report yesterday? Non, I didn t have time. Hai scritto la relazione ieri? No. Non ho avuto tempo. What time did you have supper last night? A che ora hai/avete cenato ieri sera?
14 Il Past Simple: Significato Il Past Simple descrive azioni, situazioni o stati determinati nel passato. Puo essere accompagnato da un complemento che indica un tempo c I enjoyed the film we saw last night. Mi è piaciuto il film che abbiamo visto ieri sera. We listened to some new CDs yesterday afternoon. Abbiamo ascoltato dei CD nuovi ieri pomeriggio. Il Past Simple descrive anche azioni abituali del passato. In tal case, si traduce con l imperfetto. Every day we got up early and went to the beach. Ogni giorno ci alzavamo presto e andavamo alla spiaggia.
15 Esercizi 1 Completa ogni frase con il Past Simple del verbo tra parentesi a) Tom (look)... out of the window. b) We (take)... the bus from the airport to the city centre. c) Laura (read)... the book all afternoon. d) Kate (close)... all the windows and doors. e) Sam (live)... in a cottage in the country. f) An old friend (come)... to see me yesterday. g) I (see)... an interesting film last night. h) Sue (wait)... for her friends for more than an hour. i) Ruth (bring)... her sister to my party. j) The bus (stop)... opposite the school. 2 A partire da ogni affermazione scrivi una domanda. a) Tim wrote a lot. (Tim)...? b) Sam got up early. (Sam)...? c) Helen wanted to make a phone call. (Helen)...? d) Paul found the missing money. (Paul)...? e) Bill missed the bus. (Bill)...? f) George ate a sandwich. (George)...? g) Jim opened the window. (Jim)...? h) Emma helped the teacher. (Emma)...? i) Alice won a prize. (Alice)......? j) Robert enjoyed the film. (Robert)...? 3 Completa le frasi con il Past Simple di be o have. Usa le parole tra parentesi a) Lord Nelson... a famous English admiral.
16 b) What (you)... for breakfast this morning? c) I (not)... many toys when I... a child. d) (you)... at home yesterday evening? e) The party... super. We... a lot of fun. f) Mother (not)... very happy with my school report. g) Rod... an accident yesterday. h) We... in the park when it started to rain. i) There (not)... many people at the conference. j) I liked that shirt, but I (not)... enough money to buy it. 4 Usa la forma negativa di ciascuno dei verbi elencati per scrivere una frase che abbia lo stesso significato della prima Close fit forget get up like miss pass sit down stop win a) David caught the train.... b) Paula remembered her homework.... c) The lesson continued.... d) John opened the door.... e) Jean failed the French exam.... f) Tim's new trousers were too big....
17 g) Terry stayed in bed.... h) Karen hated Chinese food.... i) Chris's team lost the match.... j) I stood up on the bus all the way home Trova gli errori nelle forme verbali e scrivi le frasi corrette a) Where did you went last night?... b) I didn't knew the answer.... c) Sue maked a lot of noise.... d) I didn't liked my new teacher.... e) Took you your medicine?... f) Helen comed home late last night.... g) I didn't got up early this morning.... h) What did you saw at the cinema...?
18 6 Compleata le frasi con il Past Simple dei verbi tra parentesi a) When (you, arrive)..... in this country? b) Jack (not turn on) the television. c) Pat (leave)... his coat in the hall. d) How many pages (you write)...? e) What (the teacher say)...? f) (you tell)... Tim the answer? g) (you go)... to the basketball match yesterday? h) Ann (not know)... the other girl's name. i) Which books (you take)... to school? j) (Jane phone)... you last night?
19 IL Past Continuous Il Past continuous si forma con il passato di be seguito dal verbo in -ing. I was sleeping he was driving She was crying Nelle(domande(al(Past(Continuous(si(inverte(la(posizione(della(voce(di(be: was I sleeping? Were you reading? Was she driving? Domande(specifiche((Wh-): what were(you(doing? Why were(you(talking(to(her? Forme negative. I wasn't listening( He wasn't playing Quando usiamo il Past Continuous? Per indicare azioni che erano in corso nel passato: I was having my(lunch when(ruth(phoned. Solitamente lo incontriamo con while o when: While we were waiting for(the(train(it(started(raining. I(cut(my(finger when I was peeling the(potatoes
20 Esercizi: 1 Scegli la soluzione corretta: a) What you were doing/were you doing at 6.00?. b) Ten people was waiting/ were waiting for the bus. c) It wasn't raining/weren't raining when I left. d) I was having/ were having breakfast when Pat phoned. e) What you were talking/ were you talking about? f) Mike and Jim were playing/was playing football at g) Was it snowing/ were it snowing when you went out? h) Kate and Jane wasn't carrying/weren't carrying any bags. i) Sorry, you were reading/ were you reading this book? j) While Helen was doing/were doing her homework, her friends arrived. 2 Completa le frasi con il past continuous dei verbi tra parentesi : a) (you,wait) for Bill when he arrived at the airport? b) While (Mary, have)... lunch, it started raining. c) When the bell rang (we, play) basketball. d) Who (dance) with you last night? e) While (Sue, shop) she met an old friend. f) (Some of the students, look)... out the window. g) While (we, wait) for a taxi, a bus stopped nearby. h) While (I, walk) home, I ate a sandwich. i) (Jim, work)... in a factory when he met Tina. j) Where (you, go)... when I met you?
21 3 Scrivi le domande corrispondenti a queste risposte iniziando come indicato: a)were... Last night? No, I wasn't working last night. b)was... Yes, that's right. Tim was waiting at the bus-stop c)was... No, Mary wasn't talking. d)was... Yes, that's right. Kate was wearing jeans. e)were... Yes, Pat and Chris were playing football. f)was... Raining? Yes, it was. g)were... No, I wasn't reading. I was writing. h)was... Yes, that's right? Tina was doing her homework. i)were... Yes, the police were asking questions. j)were... No, David and Pat weren't living here then. 4 Trova l'errore: a) When I was arriving at David's house, he was waiting outside.
22 ... b) While we were writing a maths test, the head teacher was coming into the room.... c) While we swam, it started to rain.... d) While I was having a bath, the lights were going out.... e) John watched television when the storm began.... f) While I was walking to school I was losing my maths homework!... g) What were you doing when I was seeing you yesterday?.... h) I was walking up the stairs when I was hearing the fire alarm..... i) When Helen left her house, it snowed.... j) Ann was noticing a mistake while she was typing her letter Abbina ogni domanda alla risposta appropriata: 1) What was Carol doing when you knocked on the door? 2) How did Brenda spend her holiday? 3) What happened when the lights went out? 4) When did you meet Kate?
23 5) What did Jean do when Tony called? 6) Did Ann hear what David said? 7) What did Pat do when the bell rang at the end of the lesson? 8) Why did Helen leave so early? a) She went sailing most days, and sunbathed at the beach. b) She put the phone down. c) She was listening to the radio in the kitchen. d) She went to meet her parents at a restaurant. e) She came to my brother's birthday party. f) While Tina was looking for a torch, they came back on. g) She wasn't listening. h) She put her books away and left.
24 IL PRESENT PERFECT Il)Present)Simple)si)costruisce)con)il)presente)dell'ausiliare)have)seguito)dal)participio passato)del)verbo.)la)forma)regolare)del)participio)passato)è)identica)a)quella)del)past simple)regolare)(-ed): Forma)affermativa I1have1decided1to1leave1tomorrow Forma1interrogativa: Have1you1decided? Forma1negativa: I1have1not1decided1/1haven't1decided. La)forma)irregolare)è)la)terza)voce)del)paradigma)dei)verbi)irregolare write) wrote) written Have1you1written1the1letter1yet? Fai)attenzione)l'ausiliare)è)sempre have/has e)non are/am/is.)si)dice: The1bus1hasn't1arrived1yet e)non The1bus1isn't1arrived1yet Quando usiamo il Present Perfect? Quando)ci)riferiamo)ad)azioni)che)sono)cominciate)nel)passato)e)che)continuano)nel presente: I1have1lived1here1for1101years.
25 I've often seen Jim with his dog in the park. Quando un'azione o situazione passata è senza riferimenti a un tempo determinato: Helen has broken her pencil. Per riferirsi a un'azione appena conclusa I have just finished eating Per parlare di esperienze: Have you been to Spain? I have been to Barcelona. Have you seen that movie? Il Present Perfect si usa con i seguenti avverbi: yet--> I haven't seen it yet just--> I have just done it. never --> Pat has never been to Italy. ever--> Have you ever played tennis? already--> I have already written the letter. So far --> How many pages have you written so far? Il Present Perfect si usa spesso con i seguenti avverbi: often--> I have always loved you always--> I have often visited Spain. Il present perfect può spesso essere confuso con il past simple perchè entrambi si traducono spesso con il passato prossimo in italiano Have you seen the film Armageddon? Hai visto il film Armageddon?
26 Did you see the film last night? Hai visto il film ieri sera? Di solito si usa il Past Simple quando ci si riferisce a un tempo completamente trascorso (when, what time, yesterday, last week, two days ago, etc..) When did you arrive in Prague? I arrived here in September two years ago. Si usa il past simple anche nei racconti e per parlare di fatti storici o remoti (passato remoto italiano): There was someone in the corridor. Inspector Davis moved quietly towards the door, switched off the light and listened. Exercises 1 Scegli la soluzione corretta. 1. Tim hasn't finish/ hasn't finished his homework yet. 2. What has David decided/ have David decided to do? 3. You have seen/have you seen the new film about Napoleon? 4. I haven't been/ haven't be very well lately. 5. Have you ate yet/ have you eaten yet? 6. Helen have done/ has done a lot of work today. 7. Has there been / has there be any phone-calls for me? 8. The lights have gone/ have go out. What has happen/ has happened?
27 2 Completa le frasi con la forma del present perfect dei verbi tra parentesi 1. What's the matter? (You cut) yourself? 2. The ship (not sink), but it's in a dangerous condition. 3. (Your sisters write) to you yet? 4. I (have) a headache ever since lunchtime. 5. Nadia (never see) any Chinese films. 6. Someone (steal) Mr Grant's bike 7. My brothers are tired because they (not sleep) all night. 8. I am afraid we (just break) your window. Sorry! 9. David (not win) a prize this time, I'm afraid. 10.(you ever eat) Spanish food? It's great! 3 Completa la seconda frase con il present perfect del verbo indicato mantenendo il significato della prima. 1. Do you have any more homework to do? (do) Have...your homework? 2. Brian isn't here. (leave) Brian Sue goes to a different school now. (change) Sue... school. 4. Martin isn't a child any more. (grow up) Martin I'm writing my third letter at the moment. (already write) I... two letters. 6. This is not my first visit here. (be) I... before. 7. Is your dog still missing? (find) Have..... yet? 8. Bill is still reading my book. (finish) Bill... yet. 9. I have never seen Stonehenge before. (see) This is the first time I... Stonehenge. 10. Jane isn't at home at the moment. (go out) Jane... 4 Completa le frasi con le espressioni di tempo elencate.
28 Yet never since (2) often ever never already so far just always 1. Carlos has lived in the city centre Thanks for the present! I've... wanted a pet goldfish.! 3. Have you... drunk pineapple juice? It's fantastic! 4. I've... heard some fantastic news! I've passed my exams! 5. Harry up! Haven't you finished...? You are a slow-coach! 6. This is my first pet frog. I've... had one before 7. I've... been on a big ship before. It's an interesting experience 8. We're very busy today... we've sold over a hundred bikes. 9. I've... passed this building, but this is the first time I've been inside. 10. Can I have a different book? I've... read this one. 5 Metti i verbi al Past Simple o al Present Perfect. 1. Where (you go)... for your holidays last year? 2. I can't play any more. I (just hurt)... my foot. 3. Jane is a famous writer, and (write)... over fifty books. 4. Sorry, I( not finish)... my letters yet. 5. I (miss)... the end of the film last night. What (happen)...? 6. I (lose)... my keys on Monday but I (find)... them on Tuesday. 7. We had a great party last week. Who (you, invite)...? 8. Where (you, meet)... Sam? At the sports centre? 9. Juventus (not play)... very well last Sunday. 10. (you, see)... my ruler? It was here a moment ago. 11. Tina isn' t here. She (just go)... to school. 12. What time (you get up)... this morning? 13. Paul (have)... a bad car accident three years ago. 14. I ( live)... in the same house since What (you do)... last night? 16. Brian (not finish)... his work yet. 17. Tina (arrive)... here in (you see)... Hidden Danger? It' s a really interesting film. 19. Oh no! I (forget)... my keys! 20. When ( Mary leave)...?
29 Past Perfect Il Past Perfect si forma con il passato del verbo avere had + il participio passato del verbo in questione. Quando si usa? Il Past Perfect si usa per indicare un'azione che è iniziata nel passato, che ha avuto una certa durata, ma che è adesso conclusa. I had lived in England for 3 years, but now I live in Italy Ho vissuto in Inghilterra per 3 anni, ma ora vivo in Italia Il Past Perfect si usa si usa anche per riferirsi a un'azione anteriore rispetto a un'azione già passata When we arrived there, he had already left Quando siamo arrivati li lui se n'era già andato
30 IL FUTURO (FUTURE) Forme: Will e Shall Questa struttura si costruisce con will seguito dal verbo all'infinito senza to. Forma affermativa: Jane will leave. Forma interrogativa: Will Jane leave? Forma negativa: Jane will not leave. Shall utilizza la stessa costruzione. Be going to Il futuro con be going to si costruisce con le voci di be + going + il verbo all'infinito. Jeane is going to learn to drive Jean ha intenzione di imparare a guidare Tim and Ann are going to travel abroad next year. Tim e Ann faranno dei viaggi all'estero il prossimo anno. Le forme negative e interrogative si applicano alle voci di be. Are you going to study? I am not going to study. Present Continuous (con significato di futuro) Il futuro con il Present Continuous si costruisce con le voci di be + il gerundio (forma in -ing) del verbo in questione. Are you doing anything on Friday evening? Fai qualcosa venerdì sera?
32 Esercizi 1 Riscrivi le frasi inserendo le parole indicate tra parentesi. a) I'll see you this evening. (perhaps)... b) You'll enjoy the play. (probably)... c) Kate won't mind. (definitely)... d) Our teacher won't notice. (perhaps)... e) I won't be here tomorrow. (definitely)... f) It'll rain later. (probably)... g) The train won't arrive on time. (definitely)... h) There won't be any lessons today. (perhaps)... 2 Riscrivi le frasi inserendo le espressioni indicate tra parentesi. a) It'll be cold tomorrow. (I'm sure)... b) We'll win. (I expect)... c) I'll leave now (I think)... d) Jim won't be late. (I'm sure)... e) It won't take long. (I expect)...
33 f) You won't have any problems. (I think)... g) You'll enjoy the party. (I'm sure)... h) They won't decide anything yet. (I think)... i) The weather won't change. (I expect)... j) The new rules won't make any difference. (I think)... 3 Riformula le frasi utilizzando le forme adatte di be going to a) Joe plans to buy a new computer.... b) We don't plan to play tennis this weekend.... c) Does Nick plan to join the sports club?... d) What are your plans for next summer?... e) Look! That tree is about to fall over!... f) Do you plan to work hard this year?... g) The forecast for tomorrow is rain.... h) Do Mike and Pat plan to make some sandwiches for the party?... i) I think it's about to snow... j) I don't plan to have a birthday party this year.
34 ... 4 Compleata le frasi scegliendo tra i verbi elencati come cook do get go have leave meet stay work a) I've enjoyed my holiday here, but..... home tomorrow b) Mark a party on his birthday. c) Some friends... to stay with me next week. d)... anything tonight? Would you like to come to the cinema? e) What time... in the morning? Do you want me to take you to the airport? f) Don't forget. You... dinner this evening. It's your turn! g) I can't see you at I... some friends at that time. h) Helen and Mike... married in June. i)... tomorrow? Or have you got a free day? j) I haven't got any lessons tomorrow, so I... at home. 5 Scegli la risposta o le risposte più adatte (tra A,B,C) a) Are you busy on Saturday evening? A I'm going to the cinema B I'll go to the cinema C I'm going to go to the cinema b) I need some help with the shopping A All right, I'm helping you B All right, I'll help you C All right, I'm going to help you c) We've got some great news for you A We're getting married
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