catania CORSI DI LINGUA INGLESE E SPAGNOLA GRUPPO Intermediate

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1 catania CORSI DI LINGUA INGLESE E SPAGNOLA GRUPPO Intermediate

2 Contents: 1. Present Simple and Present Continuous page 3 2. House and Home page Past Simple and Past Continuous page Daily Routines page Translate into English page Newspaper Article page Auxiliaries and Modals page For and Since page Reading and Comprehension page Reading: Binge Drinking page Present Perfect and Past Perfect page Using Conditionals page Conditionals 0, 1, 2, 3 page Spoken English: Understanding Native Speakers (no workbook material) 15. Futures page Using the Futures (no workbook material) 17. Extra English (no workbook material) 18. Advertising (no workbook material) 19. Recap 20. Recap.Reading material page 71.Irregular verbs page 74

3 1. IL PRESENTE (PRESENT SIMPLE) Le voci del presente del verbo be sono: I am you/we/they are he/she/it is Nella lingua parlata si usano le forme contratte: I'm you're/we're/they're he's/she's/it's La forma negativa si ottiene aggiungendo not. I am not you/we/they are not he/she/it is not Forme contratte: I'm not you/we/they aren't he/she/it isn't La forma interrogativa si ottiene invertendo la posizione del soggetto e del verbo. Forma interrogativa negativa: Am I? Are you/we/they? Is he/she/it? Forma interrogativa negativa: Am I not? Aren't you/we/they? Isn't he/she/it? I'm from Chicago. Where are you from? Io sono di Chicago. Tu di dove sei? Is Rita married? No she isn't Rita è sposata? No. My parents aren't at home today. I miei genitori non sono in casa oggi. Il Present Simple si forma con l'infinito senza to. I work you work we work they work Io lavoro tu lavori/voi lavorate noi lavoriamo loro/essi/esse lavorano Alla terza persona singolare (he/she/it) si aggiunge s. Con i verbi terminanti in o, s, ch, sh, x si aggiunge -es. Alcuni verbi, come be e have, sono irregolari. She works he goes Bob watches she misses he wishes he relaxes he has she is I verbi in -y preceduta da consonante terminano in -ies alla terza persona singolare. I play she plays I study he studies we try Bill tries

4 La forma negativa si costruisce con do not e il verbo all'infinito senza to. Alla terza persona singolare si usa does not nello stesso modo. I do not work she does not work Io non lavoro lei non lavora Nel parlato e nei testi scritti informali si usano le forme contratte don't e doesn't. I don't work she doesn't work Quando si usa? Realtà che sono sempre vere/ verità assolute The sun rises in the east Il sole sorge a est. Azioni abituali Every day I wake up at 7.30 Ogni mattina mi alzo alle 7:30.

5 IL PRESENTE (PRESENT SIMPLE) forma3interrogativa LeCformeCinterrogativeCdelCPresentCSimpleCsiCcostruisconoCconCdo3seguitoCdalCsoggettoCe dalcverbocall'infinitocsenzacto.3allacterzacpersonacsicusacdoes3invece: Do you3work?3 Does he3work? Forma3interrogativa3negativa: Don't you3work? Doesn't he3work? SiCusaCdo/does anchecnellecdomandecchecinizianocconcwhen,3what,3why,3where,3how etc...: What do you3want?3 Where does she3live? Tuttavia,CseCWho/What etc..cfungonocdacsoggettocnoncsicusacdo/does: Who lives here?3 Which of you speaks English? Quando usiamo il Present Simple? PerCesprimereCazioniCabituali Every3day3I3get up at37:303am. PerCesprimereCunaCveritàCassoluta The3sun3rises in3the3east PerCcomunicareCfattiCpersonali John3loves ice-cream. ConCilCPresentCsimpleCsiCusanoCspessoCgliCavverbiCdiCfrequenza:

6 always--> I always get up at 7:00. often--> Pat often goes to the cinema. usually --> It usually rains when I go on holiday! sometimes--> We sometimes eat pizza for lunch. rarely --> Jane rarely listens to jazz. never --> My bus never arrives on time. Il verbo have, spesso seguito da got, corrisponde al verbo avere in italiano con accezione di possesso: Forma affermativa: I/you/we/they have (got) he/she/it has (got) Forma negativa: I/you/we/they haven't (got) he/she/it has't (got) Forma interrogativa: have I/you/we/they (got)? Has he/she/it (got)? Secondo le regole del British English, come riportato quì sopra, essendo have un verbo ausiliare come be non necessita nella costruzione di negative e interrogative di do e does tuttavia nell'inglese americano il verbo have viene usato come un verbo qualunque e usa per tanto do e does nelle negative e nelle interrogative. *Nota Bene: il verbo have è ausiliare solo quando esprime possesso! Esempio: I haven't a car --> possesso I don't usually have lunch --> uso particolare (fare colazione) Exercises Put the verbs into the correct form.

7 IL PRESENTE (PRESENT SIMPLE) forma3interrogativa LeCformeCinterrogativeCdelCPresentCSimpleCsiCcostruisconoCconCdo3seguitoCdalCsoggettoCe dalcverbocall'infinitocsenzacto.3allacterzacpersonacsicusacdoes3invece: Do you3work?3 Does he3work? Forma3interrogativa3negativa: Don't you3work? Doesn't he3work? SiCusaCdo/does anchecnellecdomandecchecinizianocconcwhen,3what,3why,3where,3how etc...: What do you3want?3 Where does she3live? Tuttavia,CseCWho/What etc..cfungonocdacsoggettocnoncsicusacdo/does: Who lives here?3 Which of you speaks English? Quando usiamo il Present Simple? PerCesprimereCazioniCabituali Every3day3I3get up at37:303am. PerCesprimereCunaCveritàCassoluta The3sun3rises in3the3east PerCcomunicareCfattiCpersonali John3loves ice-cream. ConCilCPresentCsimpleCsiCusanoCspessoCgliCavverbiCdiCfrequenza:

8 always--> I always get up at 7:00. often--> Pat often goes to the cinema. usually --> It usually rains when I go on holiday! sometimes--> We sometimes eat pizza for lunch. rarely --> Jane rarely listens to jazz. never --> My bus never arrives on time. Il verbo have, spesso seguito da got, corrisponde al verbo avere in italiano con accezione di possesso: Forma affermativa: I/you/we/they have (got) he/she/it has (got) Forma negativa: I/you/we/they haven't (got) he/she/it has't (got) Forma interrogativa: have I/you/we/they (got)? Has he/she/it (got)? Secondo le regole del British English, come riportato quì sopra, essendo have un verbo ausiliare come be non necessita nella costruzione di negative e interrogative di do e does tuttavia nell'inglese americano il verbo have viene usato come un verbo qualunque e usa per tanto do e does nelle negative e nelle interrogative. *Nota Bene: il verbo have è ausiliare solo quando esprime possesso! Esempio: I haven't a car --> possesso I don't usually have lunch --> uso particolare (fare colazione) Exercises Put the verbs into the correct form.

9 1. I (to like) lemonade very much. 2. The girls always (to listen) to pop music. 3. Janet never (to wear) jeans. 4. Mr Smith (to teach) Spanish and French. 5. You (to do) your homework after school. Simple present with 'have' and 'be' Fill in the correct form of the verbs. 1. We (to have) a nice garden. 2. She (to be) six years old. 3. Simon (to have) two rabbits and five goldfish. 4. I (to be) from Vienna, Austria. 5. They (to be) Sandy's parents. Negative Sentences Make negative sentences. 1. My father makes breakfast. 2. They are eleven. 3. She writes a letter. 4. I speak Italian. 5. Danny phones his father on Sundays. Questions Make questions. 1. you / to speak / English 2. when / he / to go / home 3. they / to clean / the bathroom 4. where / she / to ride / her bike 5. Billy / to work / in the supermarket

10 3. IL PRESENT Continuous Il Present continuous si forma con il presente di be seguito dal verbo in -ing. I am relaxing? he is relaxing? I verbi in -e perdono la -e quando si aggiunge -ing: like liking decide deciding write writing I verbi monosillabici che terminano con una consonante preceduta da una sola vocale raddoppiano la consonante quando si aggiunge -ing: sit sitting swim swimming dig digging I verbi in -ie cambiano -ie in -y. lie lying tie tying die dying Quando usiamo il Present Continuous? Per esprimere azioni che accadono al momento What are you doing? We are playing cards Per riferirsi a un'azione prossima nel futuro e già stabilita I am going to the beach tomorrow Con always quando ci si lamenta di azioni o situazioni ricorrenti e fastidiose You are always forgetting your keys!

11 Esercizi 1 Completa le frasi con il Present Continuous dei verbi tra parentesi adfsamfhdrinkdf /////////////////////fsomefmilk/ bdfyoufhnotfflistendf ////////////////////ftofmev cdfwhyfhyoufflookd////////////////////////fatfmeflikefthat? ddfmikefhnotffstaydf ////////////////////fatfthisfhotel/ edfyoufhsitdf ////////////////////////////////finfmyfplacev fdfwefhhavedf ///////////////////////////////fafgoodftime/ gdfifcan2tftalkfnow/fifhwashdf /////////////////////////////fmyfhair/ hdfwhofhtalkd/////////////////////////////? idfwhatfhyoufwritedf ///////////////////////? jdfitfhsnowd////////////////////////////fnow/ 2 Volgi le seguenti frasi alla forma interrogativa. adfi2mfmakingftoofmuchfnoise/f ////////////////////////////////////////? bdfhelenfisfreading/f /////////////////////////////////////////? cdfyoufarefhavingfafgoodftime/f ///////////////////////////////////////////? ddfitfisfsnowing/f //////////////////////////////////////////? edfyoufarefwaitingfinfthefrightfplace/f ////////////////////////////////////////? fdfyoufarefsittingfhere/f ///////////////////////////////////////////////? gdfdavidfisfenjoyingftheffilm/f ///////////////////////////////////////////? hdfthefbusfisfstopping/f //////////////////////////////////////////////? idftomfandfjimfarefstudying/f //////////// ///////////////////////? jdfthosefgirlsfarefspeakingffrench/f //////////////////////////////////////? 3 Da ogni coppia scegli la parola scritta correttamente. adfwriting/writtingf bdfhaving/haveingf cdfwasheing/washing

12 d) diging/digging e) lieing/lying f) riding/rideing g) takeing/taking h) readding/reading i) flying/flyeing l) decideing/deciding m) useing/using n) waitting/waiting 4 Scegli la soluzione corretta. a) Jean is swimming/swiming in the ppol at the moment. b) Why you are/are you putting on your coat? c) Hurry up! We're/Wer'e waiting for you. d) Clare not is/is not doing her homework at the moment. e) What you are/are you reading? f) Look outside! Its/It's raining! g) Paula is studying/studing economics in Germany. h) Bob is watching/is Bob watching television? i) I can't come now. I'm writting/writing a letter. j) Jack is'nt/isn't having a very good time. 5 Esprimi il futuro mettendo i verbi al Present Continuous a) What (you do)... this evening. b) I (not come)... to school tomorrow! c) Tina (go)... to Italy next week? d) (you have)... a party this week? e) We (not go)... home on the bus after school. f) (Mrs Simpson teach)... us today? g) Catherine and George (not arrive)... tomorrow. h) (Tom go)... to the football match tomorrow? i) Ann (not work)... on Friday j) (you leave)... this afternoon?

13 6 Compleata le frasi scegliendo tra i verbi elencati come cook do get go have leave meet stay work a) I've enjoyed my holiday here, but..... home tomorrow b) Mark a party on his birthday. c) Some friends... to stay with me next week. d)... anything tonight? Would you like to come to the cinema? e) What time... in the morning? Do you want me to take you to the airport? f) Don't forget. You... dinner this evening. It's your turn! g) I can't see you at I... some friends at that time. h) Helen and Mike... married in June. i)... tomorrow? Or have you got a free day? j) I haven't got any lessons tomorrow, so I... at home. 7 Traduci in inglese a) Io esco, tu vieni? b) Il Milan gioca a Liverpool mercoledì prossimo. c) Dov'è Philip? è in camera sua. Dorme d) Ciao, Bill. Che fai qui? Aspetti qualcuno? e) Stanno costruendo una chiesa nuova. f) Cosa fate domani sera? g) Tim mangia continuamente caramelle. h) Il direttore è fuori. Sta pranzando con Mr. Swan. i) Lisa parte la settimana prossima. j) Piove. Non hai un ombrello?

14 HouseandHome 1. Key Vocabulary House Flat/Apartment Bedroom Kitchen Lounge Room Bed Table/Desk Toilet Television Cosy Big/Huge Small/Tiny Traditional/Modern Inacity/town/village Quite Ilikelivingtherebecause Iwanttolive because Thereis/are Home CountryHouse Bathroom DiningRoom Garden SpareRoom/GuestRoom Bath Chair Sofa/Couch Shower Dark Light Quiet Loud Inthecitycentre/towncentre Very Idon tlikelivingtherebecause Idon twanttolive because Thereisn t/aren t Ilivein Iliveat 2. Talking about your home Wheredoyoulive? Ilivein Catania Iliveat Number 13, ViaStellata Howmanyroomsare thereinyourhouse? Inmyhousethere are rooms Whatisyourfavouriteroom? Myfavouriteroomisthe 3. Read Emily s description of her house: Inmyhouse,therearefiverooms:mybedroom,myparent sbedroom,a bathroomandakitchen.itisquite smallbutcosy. Myhouseisinasmalltown

15 andthere is not a lot to do.iwanttohavemyownflatinabigcitysoicanhave my own space. 4. Answer the questions below HowmanyroomsdoesEmilyhaveinherhouse? Wheredoesshelive? Whydoesn tshelikelivingthere? Whydoesshewantherownflat? KeyExpressions Quite Cosy Thereis(not)alottodo Myownspace 5. Now ask your partner about his/her home using the questions above. Write their answers below: 6. Tell the class what your partner said, using the third person: He/Shelives He/Shelikes/doesn t like He/Shewants/doesn twant Inhis house/inherhouse N.B.Rememberyourplurals! 7. Homework: Learnthevocabularyandexpressions Askyourfriendsabouttheirhomesandwritedowntheiranswers

16 4. IL PAST SIMPLE Verbi regolari Il Past Simple dei verbi regolari si forma aggiungendo ed all infinito senza to. Con I verbi terminanti in e si aggiunge solo d. I enjoyed the film. (da enjoy) Il film mi è piaciuto I loved the music (da love) La musica mi è piaciuta molto. La forma del Past Simple è la stessa per tutte le persone FI loved, you loved, he loved, ecc.+ Ortografia I verbi in y preceduta da consonante cambiano y in ied: Try Tried Cry Cried I verbi che terminano con una sola consonante preceduta da una sola vocale accentata raddoppiano la consonante finale: Regret Regretted Fit Fitted Stop Stopped Verbi irregolari Alcuni esempi: Past Simple Participio Passato Eat FMangiare+ Ate Eaten Drink FBere+ Drank Drunk Wake FSvegliare/Svegliarsi+ Woke Woken I paradigmi dei verbi irregolari si imparano con lo studio e con l uso. Forme interrogative Le forme interrogative si formano con did + soggetto + infinito senza to

17 Did you enjoy the film? Did you drink all the milk? Ti/Vi è piaciuto il film? Hai/Avete bevuto tutto il latte? What did you do yesterday? Why did she leave? Che cosa hai/avete fatto ieri? Perché è partita/se ne è andata? Non si usa did quando Who/What ecc. Fungono da soggetto. Who phoned? Chi ha telefonato? Forme negative Le forme negative si formano con did not e l infinito senza to. Nel parlato e nei testi scritti informali did not si contrae in didn t. The coat didn t fit me. Carol didn t eat very much. Il cappotto non mi andava bene. Carol non ha mangiato molto. Il verbo be è irregolare. Il paradigma è: be (infinito) was/were (Past Simple) been (participio passato). Le voci del Past Simple sono: Forma affermativa: I/he/she/it was You/we/they/were Forma negativa: I/he/she/it was not (wasn t) you/we/they were not (weren t) Forma interrogativa: Was I/he/she/it? Were you/we/they? It was very cold last Sunday. Era/E stato molto freddo domenica scorsa. Where were you yesterday afternoon? Dov eri/dove sei stato ieri pomeriggio? Il verbo have è irregolare. Il paradigma è: have (infinito) had (Past Simple) had (participio passato). Di solito non si usa got nel Past Simple. Ann had a car when she was a student. Ann aveva la macchina quando era studentessa Did you write the report yesterday? Non, I didn t have time. Hai scritto la relazione ieri? No. Non ho avuto tempo. What time did you have supper last night? A che ora hai/avete cenato ieri sera?

18 Il Past Simple: Significato Il Past Simple descrive azioni, situazioni o stati determinati nel passato. Puo essere accompagnato da un complemento che indica un tempo c I enjoyed the film we saw last night. Mi è piaciuto il film che abbiamo visto ieri sera. We listened to some new CDs yesterday afternoon. Abbiamo ascoltato dei CD nuovi ieri pomeriggio. Il Past Simple descrive anche azioni abituali del passato. In tal case, si traduce con l imperfetto. Every day we got up early and went to the beach. Ogni giorno ci alzavamo presto e andavamo alla spiaggia.

19 Esercizi 1 Completa ogni frase con il Past Simple del verbo tra parentesi a) Tom (look)... out of the window. b) We (take)... the bus from the airport to the city centre. c) Laura (read)... the book all afternoon. d) Kate (close)... all the windows and doors. e) Sam (live)... in a cottage in the country. f) An old friend (come)... to see me yesterday. g) I (see)... an interesting film last night. h) Sue (wait)... for her friends for more than an hour. i) Ruth (bring)... her sister to my party. j) The bus (stop)... opposite the school. 2 A partire da ogni affermazione scrivi una domanda. a) Tim wrote a lot. (Tim)...? b) Sam got up early. (Sam)...? c) Helen wanted to make a phone call. (Helen)...? d) Paul found the missing money. (Paul)...? e) Bill missed the bus. (Bill)...? f) George ate a sandwich. (George)...? g) Jim opened the window. (Jim)...? h) Emma helped the teacher. (Emma)...? i) Alice won a prize. (Alice)......? j) Robert enjoyed the film. (Robert)...? 3 Completa le frasi con il Past Simple di be o have. Usa le parole tra parentesi a) Lord Nelson... a famous English admiral.

20 b) What (you)... for breakfast this morning? c) I (not)... many toys when I... a child. d) (you)... at home yesterday evening? e) The party... super. We... a lot of fun. f) Mother (not)... very happy with my school report. g) Rod... an accident yesterday. h) We... in the park when it started to rain. i) There (not)... many people at the conference. j) I liked that shirt, but I (not)... enough money to buy it. 4 Usa la forma negativa di ciascuno dei verbi elencati per scrivere una frase che abbia lo stesso significato della prima Close fit forget get up like miss pass sit down stop win a) David caught the train.... b) Paula remembered her homework.... c) The lesson continued.... d) John opened the door.... e) Jean failed the French exam.... f) Tim's new trousers were too big....

21 g) Terry stayed in bed.... h) Karen hated Chinese food.... i) Chris's team lost the match.... j) I stood up on the bus all the way home Trova gli errori nelle forme verbali e scrivi le frasi corrette a) Where did you went last night?... b) I didn't knew the answer.... c) Sue maked a lot of noise.... d) I didn't liked my new teacher.... e) Took you your medicine?... f) Helen comed home late last night.... g) I didn't got up early this morning.... h) What did you saw at the cinema...?

22 6 Compleata le frasi con il Past Simple dei verbi tra parentesi a) When (you, arrive)..... in this country? b) Jack (not turn on) the television. c) Pat (leave)... his coat in the hall. d) How many pages (you write)...? e) What (the teacher say)...? f) (you tell)... Tim the answer? g) (you go)... to the basketball match yesterday? h) Ann (not know)... the other girl's name. i) Which books (you take)... to school? j) (Jane phone)... you last night?

23 IL Past Continuous Il Past continuous si forma con il passato di be seguito dal verbo in -ing. I was sleeping he was driving She was crying Nelle(domande(al(Past(Continuous(si(inverte(la(posizione(della(voce(di(be: was I sleeping? Were you reading? Was she driving? Domande(specifiche((Wh-): what were(you(doing? Why were(you(talking(to(her? Forme negative. I wasn't listening( He wasn't playing Quando usiamo il Past Continuous? Per indicare azioni che erano in corso nel passato: I was having my(lunch when(ruth(phoned. Solitamente lo incontriamo con while o when: While we were waiting for(the(train(it(started(raining. I(cut(my(finger when I was peeling the(potatoes

24 Esercizi: 1 Scegli la soluzione corretta: a) What you were doing/were you doing at 6.00?. b) Ten people was waiting/ were waiting for the bus. c) It wasn't raining/weren't raining when I left. d) I was having/ were having breakfast when Pat phoned. e) What you were talking/ were you talking about? f) Mike and Jim were playing/was playing football at g) Was it snowing/ were it snowing when you went out? h) Kate and Jane wasn't carrying/weren't carrying any bags. i) Sorry, you were reading/ were you reading this book? j) While Helen was doing/were doing her homework, her friends arrived. 2 Completa le frasi con il past continuous dei verbi tra parentesi : a) (you,wait) for Bill when he arrived at the airport? b) While (Mary, have)... lunch, it started raining. c) When the bell rang (we, play) basketball. d) Who (dance) with you last night? e) While (Sue, shop) she met an old friend. f) (Some of the students, look)... out the window. g) While (we, wait) for a taxi, a bus stopped nearby. h) While (I, walk) home, I ate a sandwich. i) (Jim, work)... in a factory when he met Tina. j) Where (you, go)... when I met you?

25 3 Scrivi le domande corrispondenti a queste risposte iniziando come indicato: a)were... Last night? No, I wasn't working last night. b)was... Yes, that's right. Tim was waiting at the bus-stop c)was... No, Mary wasn't talking. d)was... Yes, that's right. Kate was wearing jeans. e)were... Yes, Pat and Chris were playing football. f)was... Raining? Yes, it was. g)were... No, I wasn't reading. I was writing. h)was... Yes, that's right? Tina was doing her homework. i)were... Yes, the police were asking questions. j)were... No, David and Pat weren't living here then. 4 Trova l'errore: a) When I was arriving at David's house, he was waiting outside.

26 ... b) While we were writing a maths test, the head teacher was coming into the room.... c) While we swam, it started to rain.... d) While I was having a bath, the lights were going out.... e) John watched television when the storm began.... f) While I was walking to school I was losing my maths homework!... g) What were you doing when I was seeing you yesterday?.... h) I was walking up the stairs when I was hearing the fire alarm..... i) When Helen left her house, it snowed.... j) Ann was noticing a mistake while she was typing her letter Abbina ogni domanda alla risposta appropriata: 1) What was Carol doing when you knocked on the door? 2) How did Brenda spend her holiday? 3) What happened when the lights went out? 4) When did you meet Kate?

27 5) What did Jean do when Tony called? 6) Did Ann hear what David said? 7) What did Pat do when the bell rang at the end of the lesson? 8) Why did Helen leave so early? a) She went sailing most days, and sunbathed at the beach. b) She put the phone down. c) She was listening to the radio in the kitchen. d) She went to meet her parents at a restaurant. e) She came to my brother's birthday party. f) While Tina was looking for a torch, they came back on. g) She wasn't listening. h) She put her books away and left.

28 Daily Routines and Free Time Key Vocabulary Wakeup/Getup 0800 Eighto clock HaveBreakfast 0830 Eightthirty Haveashower/bath 0915 Ninefifteen Gotowork/university at 1020 Twentypastten HaveLunch 1.35pm Twenty fivetotwo Gohome 2.40pm Twentytothree Havedinner 6.45pm QuartertoSeven Gotobed/sleep 10.50pm TentoEleven 1 st Person Conjugation Iwakeupat Ihavebreakfastat Igotowork/universityat Ihavelunchat Igohomeat Ihavedinnerat Igotobed/sleepat 1. In pairs, ask each other about your daily routines. Write the answers on the next page. Forming a question Whattimedoyougetup? Whendoyouhavebreakfast/lunch/dinner? Whendoyougohome/touniversity/tobed/tosleep? 1

29 Followtheexamplesbelow,thentrytowriteoutyourownphrases: (Example) Carmelo getsupat 0830 hasbreakfastat goestoworkat 2. Listen to and read Maria s routine. Then answer the questions below the text. Maria: Inormallywakeupateighto clock.ihaveashowerthenihavebreakfast.ioften eatabowl of cerealandiusuallydrinkacupofcoffee.then, Igotoworkat thirty.ineverhavelunchbefore1o clockintheafternoon,becausei msobusy atwork.igohomeatseveno clock,andihavedinnerateight.ireadabookthen Igotobedatteno clockbecausei msotired. WhattimedoesMariawakeup? Whatdoesshehaveforbreakfast? WhydoesMarianeverhavelunchbefore1o clock? WhatdoesMariadobeforeshegoestobed? HowdoesMariafeelattheendoftheday? 2

30 Stefano: Igetupat10.30andnormallyhavetorunto catch the bus becauseiamalways running late. Iarriveatuniversityataround 11o clock.ihavealatelunchat3 o clockforacouple of hours. AfterlunchIgohometostudy.Ihavedinnerand thenget ready to go out. Imeetmyfriendsinthecitycentreuntil midnight whenigohomeandgostraight to bed. WhydoesStefanohavetoruntocatchthebus? WhendoesStefanogohome? WheredoesStefanomeethisfriends? Whatdoeshedowhenhegoesbackhomeatnight? 3

31 5 TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH 1. Rimpiango di non aver sposato il mio primo amore 2. Nonostante il brutto tempo siamo andati in montagna 3. Hanno trascorso la settimana litigando 4. Se Berlusconi non avesse vinto l elezione, si sarebbe ritirato dalla politica 5. Dicono che il razzismo sia diventando sempre più diffuso 6. Sta diventando sempre più ricco 7. Ho chiesto scusa a mia madre per aver rotto il vaso 8. Devo fare riparare mio orologio 9.Era stanca, quindi si è fermata per riposarsi 10.Ho una sorella, suo nome è Marta 11.Ho una buona notizia da dirti 12.Se l aereo fosse caduto sulla terra sarebbe stato peggio 13.Vorrei non dover alzarmi presto la mattina 14. I mobili moderni non sono fatti bene 15. Il poliziotto mi ha fatto pagare un multa 16.La guida turistica ci ha fatto vedere molti monumenti 17.Hanno discusso il film che avevano appena visto 18.Non lavorano bene perché non sono stati addestrati nel modo giusto 19. Sarebbe meglio se vado 20. Non e colpa mia se non hai soldi! 21. Se esci di meno, avrai più soldi 22. Sicuramente Giovanni sarà ricco un giorno 23. Se avessi le sue capacità, anch io sarei ricco 24. Abbiamo fatto un bel viaggio il mese scorso 25. Hai letto i viaggi di Marco Polo? 26. Siamo andati in Calabria con il traghetto ma il mare era mosso quindi l attraversato era brutto 27. I suoi figli sono grandi ora ma sono stati cresciuti senza un padre 28. E ora che ti comporti meglio 29. Non sono abituata ad avere problemi economici 30. Il libro è in prestito dalla biblioteca 31. E difficile che John verrà 32. Quando pensi di poter restituirmi i soldi? 33. Se solo potessi sciare! TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH 1. Ascoltare questa musica mi fa ricordare mia madre 2. Pranzeremo appena John finirà di lavorare 3. Mio padre pensa sempre di avere ragione 4. Non dipende da me

32 5. La signora seduta daccanto alla finestra ha visto l incidente 6. Non mi ami quanto io ti amo 7. Ogni volta vado al mare, piove 8. Non puoi avere una caramella perché non ce ne sono più 9. Non mi ami più 10.Non potevo resistere dirla mio segreto 11. Se non avessi tagliato le cipolle, non avrei pianto 12.Ti ho detto mille volte di non chiamarmi di notte 13. Il colore di questo vestito sta bene con i tuoi occhi 14. Se devi lamentare, devi parlare con la persona responsabile 15. Andare in un villaggio turistico è molto rilassante 16.Non ho i soldi forse li ho dimenticati a casa 17. Finalmente è smesso di piovere ieri. Ha piovuto per 15 giorni 18. Non esco quasi mai 19. Ho comprato un pollo vivo 20. Mussolini è morto da più di 50 anni Translate into English 1. Ti dispiacerebbe chiamare Pietro per informarlo della riunione? 2. Non avrei comprato l aragosta se avesse saputo che non ti piace il pesce 3. Vorrei che Pietro mi amasse! 4. Non è facile cucinare per 20 persone 5. Ho fatto riparare la macchina ieri 6. Dovresti cercare un altro lavoro nel caso che ti licenziano 7. Dovevo smettere di fumare a causa della mia salute 8. La fiducia è una cosa fondamentale in un matrimonio 9. E difficile che nevichi a maggio 10. Una laurea in lingue ti permette di viaggiare il mondo 11. Abbiamo scelto il villaggio turistico per le nostre vacanze estive. Eravamo già stati lì per nostro luna di miele 12. Non vedo l ora di andare in vacanza 13. Mia madre è a Roma per gli affari 14. Ho una brutta notizia mi hanno bocciato! 15. Vuoi un consiglio? Non indossare più quel capello! 16. Tranne Giovanni, nessuno degli studenti ha superato l esame 17. La decisione non dipende da me chiede al direttore 18. Vorrei non avreti incontrato (I wish..) 19. Rimpiango di averti incontrato 20.Ho pochissimi soldi in fatti, non posso uscire mai! 21.Bertolini ha detto che avrebbe ridotto le tasse di reddito 22.Prima di andare a letto, sono abituato a leggere per 20 minuti 23. Mi potresti dire quando ti sposi?

33 EDB UIGroupW3L1 LawandOrderDiscussion Court verdicts that shocked Italy Six Italian scientists were found guilty of multiple manslaughter for underestimating the risks of a killer earthquake in L'Aquila in Photograph: Filippo Monteforte/AFP/Getty Images On Monday, seven Italian seismologists were sentenced to six years' jail for manslaughter for not predicting an earthquake that hit the city of L'Aquila in 2009, killing 300 people. It's not the first verdict that has caused jaws to drop there. Women wearing jeans cannot be raped In February 1999 an appeal court overturned the rape conviction of a 45-year-old man after noting his 18-year-old victim had been wearing jeans. "It is common knowledge," ruled the court, "that jeans cannot even be partly removed without the help of the person wearing them... and it is impossible if the victim is struggling with all her might." Judge orders father to pay 32-year-old daughter pocket money Eight years into her degree in philosophy, Marina Casagrande, 32, was still living at home and took offence when her father tried to halt her 350-a-month allowance. So did a judge, who ordered her dad to keep up the payments and hand over 12,000 in arrears. You cannot say "You don't have the balls" Italy's highest court of appeal this summer decided it is crime to tell someone "You don't have the balls" after a lawyer sued his cousin for hurling the insult. In its ruling, the court said the insult implied a "lack of determination, competence and consistency virtues which, rightly or wrongly, continue to be regarded as suggestive of the male sex". Marriage annulled owing to husband being a mummy's boy Vatican judges are called upon to annul marriages by couples who do not want to divorce since they would not then be allowed to remarry in church. Annulments are supposed to be issued only in exceptional circumstances, but popes often rail against their judges for accepting the dodgiest motivations, including, in 2006, the fact that one husband was too attached to his mother. 1

34 EDB UIGroupW3L1 LawandOrderDiscussion Group Discussion Activity 1: Answer the questions below 1. Do you agree with any of the decisions? Explain your reasons 2. Do any of the articles shock you? Why? 3. Which article is the most shocking? 4. If you were Prime Minister, what new law would you implement? 5. What are you opinions on the state of the Italian justice system? 6. Try to use the following expressions in an extended phrase: Mummy s boy You don t have the balls A jaw dropping decision Hurled an insult The dodgiest To take offence/to be offended by With all my might 7. Looking at the style of writing, how would you describe this blog? 8. Can you think of any shocking international judicial decisions? Discuss with your partner and make a list. 2

35 EDB UIGroupW3L1 LawandOrderDiscussion 9. Have you ever witnessed a crime? Do you know anyone who has been a victim of a crime? 10. What do you think about the police in your country? 11. Do you think there is more crime in the past than in the present? 12. Would you like to be a Police Officer? Why/Why not? 13. What do you think about the death penalty? 14. What punishments, apart from imprisonment, are carried out in your country? 15. Should Police Officers be paid more? 16. How should young offenders be dealt with? Should they be sent to prison? Activity 2: Role Play In this activity, one student will play the role of the defendant. The other students will ask questions to find out more about the incident, and whether he or she is guilty (N.B EDB will provide scripts for this part) 3

36 Auxiliaries (Verbi Ausiliari) In lingua inglese I verbi ausiliari hanno le seguenti proprietà. Formano le frasi negative al presente e al passato senza l'aggiunta di don't, doesn't e didn't i.e. She isn't a bad person I wasn't happy Formano le frasi interrogative al presente e al passato senza l'aggiunta di do, does e did i.e. Are you ready? Can you swim? Were you there? Per formare il presente e il passato hanno generalmente delle forme proprie i.e. John is tall Mike had a dog when I was a child

37 3. I VERBI MODALI I verbi modali sono: can, could, may,might, must, shall, should, ought to, will, would, needn't. Hanno la stessa forma per tutte le persone; formano le interrogative con l'inversione e le negative con l'aggiunta di not; ad eccezione di ought, sono seguiti dall'infinito senza to; sono difettivi, cioè non si coniugano nei diversi tempi verbali. I can swim? Can she swim? We can't swim Capacità *can, can't, cannot In questo caso I can do significa So fare/sono in grado di fare/riesco a fare I can sing. Can you sing? No I can't. Io so cantare. Tu sai cantare? No * be able to è una perifrasi che può essere usata in tutti i tempi e che sostituisce can per coniugare il tempo futuro. Will you be able to help me lift the forniture tomorrow? Permesso can, can't si usano per parlare di ciò che è e che non è permesso. Can I leave early, please? Posso andare via prima, per favore? I can't come skating tomorrow Non posso venire a pattinare domani Probabilità o incertezza may e might I may/might do significa Può darsi che io faccia

38 President Jones might win the next election Può darsi che il presidente Jones vinca le prossime elezioni I may not have time to finish tonight Può darsi non abbia tempo di finire oggi * Alcuni ritengono che may si più formale e che might indicherebbe maggiore incertezza could Anche could soprattutto con il verbo be può esprimere incertezza. Deduzioni: certezza e impossibilità (must e can't) can't indica spesso impossibilità: President Jones can't win the next election. Il presidente Jones non può vincere le prossime elezioni / Non è possibile che il presidente Jones vinca le prossime elezioni. Quando si deduce dai fatti il grado di certezza o impossibilità di un evento, si usano must e can't: He must be stuck in the traffic Dev'essere bloccato nel traffico She can't be in France! I saw her today! Non può essere/non è possibile che sia in Francia! L'ho vista oggi Obbligo (must e have to) Per dire che qualcosa è necessario si può usare must o have to: must è un obbligo che viene imposto o che ci si impone I must finish my homework before 8.00 Devo finire i compiti prima delle 8:00 have to è un obbligo che viene dalla situazione che lo richiede

39 I have to phone Jane at 9.00 Devo telefonare a Jane alle 9:00 Le forme negative di must e have to sono musn't e don't/doesn't have to You mustn't cross the road when the red light is showing Non si deve/ Non devi attraversare quando il semaforo è rosso You don't have to turn on the central heating. It's automatic Non devi/ Non è necessario accendere il riscaldamento. È automatico Consigli, opinioni, previsioni (should e shouldn't) Normalmente l'uso di should e shouldn't corrisponde a quello del condizionale del verbo dovere: Consigli: I think you should talk to your teacher about it. Penso che dovresti parlarne con il tuo insegnante. Opinioni: I think the police should arrest hooligans. Credo che la polizia dovrebbe arrestare gli hooligans. Previsioni: They should arrive here at about Dovrebbero arrivare qui verso le 6:30 should può essere sostituito da ought to (anche se questo è meno frequente) I think you ought to talk to your teacher about it. Con significato simile a should e ought to si può usare per dare consigli had better che di solito si contrae in 'd better I think you had better talk to your teacher about it.

40 Esercizi 1 Inserisci la parola mancante in ogni spazio. a) Jack has to be home before b) Emma... swim very well for a child her age. c) Students... not leave coats in this room. d) We... to get up before 6.00 tomorrow. e) I think we... go home now. f) Jenny... to leave in the morning. g) You don't... to do this if you don't want to. h) Tim... got to do all his homework again. i) You... sign the form and return it by next Monday. j) Sorry, but I'm not... to come to the meeting tomorrow. 2 Volgi le seguenti frasi alla forma negativa. a) Kate has got to take an exam tomorrow.... b) Jim has to get up early... c) I have to make a phone call.... d) George has got to do the shopping.... e) You must sit here.... f) We've got to decide now.... g) Helen has to do her homework now....

41 h) You must forget about it Riformula ogni frase utilizzando la parola data e mantenendo il significato. a) It's very important for you to be here at must... b) It's impossible for me to see you tomorrow. can't... c) It's necessary to press the button twice. have got... d) It's not a good idea to eat lots of sweets. shouldn't... e) It's not possible for Jean to come to the party. able... f) It's not necessary for you to pay now. don't... g) Parking here is forbidden. mustn't... h) It's necessary for you to work harder. should... i) It's a good idea for you to rest now. ought... j) It's against the law to cross the road here. not...

42 4 Scegli la soluzione corretta. a) Look at those clouds. I think it can/might rain. b) This is impossible! It can't be/mustn't be/may not be the answer. c) Well done! You may be/must be/might be very pleased. d) I have no idea where Jane is. She could be/must be anywhere! e) I suppose it's possible. I might/can/must come to your party. f) I'm not sure. I must not/may be able to get there in time. g) That can't be/mustn't be/ may not be David. He hasn't got a bike h) Lisa isn't here yet. She can be/ must be on her way. i) There's someone at the door. It can be/could be the postman. j) Sorry, I can't/ may not come out. I have to do my homework. 5 Riformula ogni frase completando la seconda con can't, might o must. a) Helen is really good at swimming. Helen...well. b) It's impossible that our team will win. Our team...win. c) I'm sure this isn't the right road This...the right road. d) I'm sure you work very hard! You... very hard. e) Carol isn't allowed to come to our party. Carol... to our party. f) It's possible that I'll see you tomorrow, but I'm not sure. I..., but I'm not sure. g) I'm afraid that your teacher is unable to come today. I'm afraid that... today. h) I'm sure it's very hot here in the summer. It... here in summer.

43 i) Excuse, is it all right if I open the window? Excuse... the window? j) I suppose you are Mrs Perry. How do you do? You...Mrs Perry. How do you do? 6 Traduci in inglese a) Ti conviene prendere un taxi. b) Penso che Tom non dovrebbe bere tanto. c) Domani non dobbiamo andare a lavoro. È festa. d) Non si deve fare rumore nella biblioteca. e) Sanno usare il computer I tuoi bambini? f) Non potremo andare allo stadio domani pomeriggio. g) Può darsi che arrivino due nuove insegnanti il mese prossimo. h) Ci deve essere un errore. Non può essere vero! i) Marta deve lavorare anche il sabato. j) Posso usare la tua bicicletta per 2 ore?

44 EDB ElementaryGroup PrepositionsofTime Article1:Prepositionsoftime:Since/For For+ period Aperiodisadurationoftime,forexample:5minutes,2weeks,6years.Formeans "fromthebeginningoftheperioduntiltheendoftheperiod."forcanbeusedwith alltenses. Since+point Apointisaprecisemomentintime,forexample:9o'clock,1stJanuary,Monday. Sincemeans"fromapointinthepastuntilnow."Sinceisnormallyusedwithperfect tenses. FOR SINCE for20minutes forthreedays for6months for4years for2centuries foralongtime forever 1 since9am sincemonday sincejanuary since1997 since1500 sinceileftschool sincethebeginningoftime Exercises 1.Fillinthegapswiththecorrectpreposition A)Ihavebeenatthiscompany 20yearsnow,Ireallyloveit here B) howlonghaveyoulivedthere? C)TheUniversityhasbeendeliveringexcellence itwas foundedin1901. D) Ileftwork,Ihavehadmoretimetospendwithmy family. E) threedaysjamesdidnotleavethehouse F)Mygrandparentswalk twentyminuteseveryday. G)Wehavebeendating alongtime

45 EDB ElementaryGroup H)Myteacherhasbeensick lastmonday I)Istudiedforthetest twowholeweeks J)Wherehaveyoubeen?Ihavebeencallingyou halfan hour K)Thatladyhasbeenwaitingforthebus noon. L) sheleftcollege,shehasbeenworkingatthelocal restaurant M)Myfamilyhaslivedhere lastmarch N)Nextyear,I mgoingtotravelling sixmonths O)I mreallytired,i vebeenawake 5o clockthismorning 2.SoloWork Write5phrasesusing Since,and5phrasesusing For. Article2:PrepositionsofTime:In,On,At In On At Years DaysoftheWeek Time Months SpecialDays Night Seasons Dates TheWeekend PartsoftheDay* SpecialOccasions (*Exception:Atnight) Exercises 1.Writethecorrectprepositioninthegapbelow: 1. Isawher Christmas 2. Igoshopping Monday 3. Theleavesfallfromthetrees autumn 2

46 EDB ElementaryGroup 4. Thetrainleaves aquarterpastthree 5. Whatdoyounormallydo Christmasday? 6. Hewasborn 3 rd July, ,ItalywontheWorldCup 8. Igetupearly themorningtogotowork 9. Sunday,wealwaysgotoChurch 10. Sheoftengoesout night 11. Ithappened Sheoftengoesout Fridaynight 13. IntheUK,itrainsalot Spring 14. Igetup 7am 15. Theclassis TuesdaysandThursdays 2.Nowwriteyourownsentences.Trytoincorporateasmanytimeprepositionsasyoucan: Article3:PrepositionsofTime:During/While During Duringisused: Tosaywhensomethinghashappened,althoughitdoesnotspecifyforhowlong. Beforeanounoraphrase While Whileisused: 3

47 EDB ElementaryGroup Beforeasubjectandverb Todescribetwoactionsthatarehappeningatthesametime Exercises Completethephrasesbelow: 1. Iwascookingdinner Giorgiowastalkingonthephone 2. Thechildrenwereasleep thefilm 3. thesecondworldwar,manypeoplewerekilled 4. Iwaswalkingthroughtheforest,Iheardanoise 5. Iambusy themorning,butiwilltrytocallyouintheafternoon 6. shewasgettingreadyforbed,giuliarealizedthatshehadleftthelighton 7. Nobodyspoke thepresentation 8. Hefellasleep themeeting 9. Somebodystolemybag Iwaslisteningtomymusic 10. Thedogwasbarking IwastryingtowatchTV 11. Pleasedon tsmoke I meating 12. Batssleep theday 13. Hekepttryingtotalktome Iwasreading. 14. Wegetplentyofsnowhere thewinter 4

48 9 Reading and comprehension So we were doing this thing, this launch party, for Speaking with the Angel, a book of short stories I d put together to raise money for my son s school, and we the school, the publishers of the book, me and my partner were nervous about it. We didn t know if people would turn up, we didn t know whether the mixture of music and live recordings would work, we didn t know if anyone would enjoy themselves. I arrived at The Hammersmith Palais early, and when I walked in, I noticed two things simultaneously. One was that the venue looked great: there had been some big office party the night before, and there was all this tinsel and glitter everywhere; at the time, it seemed like a cheesy but effective way to symbolise magic. The other was that Teenage Fanclub, who had postponed a gig in Europe to play for us, were going through a soundcheck. They were playing Your Love Is The Place Where I come From, one of my favourite ever songs. It sounded great, a perfect musical expression of the tinsel; and I knew the moment I heard it that the evening, far from being a flop, would be special. And it was it turned into one of the most memorable events with which I have been professionally connected. Now, whenever I hear this song, I think about that night, of course how could it be otherwise? And, initially, when I decided that I wanted to write a little book of essays about songs I loved, I presumed that the songs might be full of time-and-place-connections like this, but they re not, not really. In fact, Your Love is The Place Where I Come from is just about the only one. And when I thought about why this should be so, why so few of the songs that are important to me come with associative feelings or sensations, it occurred to me that the answer was obvious: if you love a song, love it enough for it to accompany you through the different stages of your life, then any specific memory is rubbed away by use. I have listened to Thunder Road, for example, which I first heard in 1975, at alarmingly frequent intervals ever since. This song only really reminds me of myself, and, I suppose, of my life since I was eighteen that is to say, of nothing much and too much. A. Match the following words with the correct synonym a) turn up 1. failure b) venue 2. decoration c) tinsel 3. concert d) cheesy 4. eliminated e) gig 5. location f) flop 6. arrive g) turn into 7. become h) rubbed away 8. in bad taste Answer the following questions on the text 1) Speaking with the angel is about the writer s son is a novel was written for charity TRUE FALSE 2) The writer was worried there would be too many people at the launch

49 TRUE FALSE 3) The writer thought the venue was wonderful needed cleaning c) was too big 4) The writer had never heard Your Love Is The Place Where I come From before. TRUE FALSE 5) This song is different from the other songs the writer wrote about because it is the only one the writer likes it reminds the writer of one specific place and moment it has no particular significance for the writer The songs the writer loves do not have time and place connections because he listens to them so much that... ( complete )

50 Christmas carnage kicks off across Britain as drunken revellers stretch emergency services to the limit Drunken yobs cause carnage in cities across the country Calls to 999 skyrocket as drinkers fight and fall over Army-style triage units in street to deal with chaos 500,000 emergency centre just for drunks set up in London A young woman dressed in next to nothing lies prostrate on a soaking pavement, one of thousands of binge-drinking revellers who caused chaos on Britain's streets on 'Black Friday'. With just nine days until Christmas, hordes of party-goers ignored the driving rain and freezing conditions to pack out pubs, bars and clubs on festive parties, and many were so drunk they could barely stand.! In scenes of carnage repeated across the country, women stumbled in the middle of the road and yobs fought in and outside bars, while some thugs hurled rubbish at each other.

51 To prepare for what is traditionally one of the biggest weekends of the year, police and paramedics set up army-style field hospitals to treat the wounded and intoxicated. In London, a centre for drunks in Soho was set up at a cost of 500,000. All beds were taken by 11.30pm on Friday. Paramedics in the major cities were stretched to the limit, with Newcastle's ambulance service taking up to 1,200 calls on Friday alone. In Cardiff, emergency nurse Wayne Parsons, 44, treated scores of people at a special mobile triage unit, some of whom had injured themselves by simply falling over blind drunk. He said many people had been on all-day binge sessions which started at lunchtime and finished in the early hours of the morning. The patients' ailments range from various states of intoxication to head injuries and recreational drug use,' he said. 'Many patients, who are mostly aged between 18 and 25, are found covered in vomit. 'Most people we see, their consciousness level is unconscious really.' Call-centre worker Callum Davies, 22, summed up the attitude of many revelers, saying: 'We're out to get hammered and have a great night out - that's what this time of year is all about. 'Once you've got five or six pints down you, you don't really feel the cold, you're just interested in having a big one. 'Sometimes things go bad, people get into fights or end up being sick but that's just part of the fun.' Much of the carnage was fueled by cheap drinks deals, with dozens of bars offering discounted alcohol. In Newcastle, some men threw bin bags at passing traffic, while women stumbled around in bare feet. Police made scores of arrests in an attempt to bring the thuggery under control. In Birmingham, hundreds of officers were drafted in to maintain order. One man was so drunk, he narrowly avoided being hit by a car when he stumbled into the road and collapsed in the gutter. Another man admitted having a 'scrap with a bloke' but brushed off the incident, saying: 'I've had six beers and 15 Sambucca shots. There's no harm done.' Sniffer dogs mingled with drinkers in Liverpool, with one man caught by one of the animals before being handcuffed and bundled into a van. Other men were seen openly drug-dealing. One security worker said: 'We always get more trouble at Christmas. People go mental and girls are the worst.'!

52 IL PRESENT PERFECT Il)Present)Simple)si)costruisce)con)il)presente)dell'ausiliare)have)seguito)dal)participio passato)del)verbo.)la)forma)regolare)del)participio)passato)è)identica)a)quella)del)past simple)regolare)(-ed): Forma)affermativa I1have1decided1to1leave1tomorrow Forma1interrogativa: Have1you1decided? Forma1negativa: I1have1not1decided1/1haven't1decided. La)forma)irregolare)è)la)terza)voce)del)paradigma)dei)verbi)irregolare write) wrote) written Have1you1written1the1letter1yet? Fai)attenzione)l'ausiliare)è)sempre have/has e)non are/am/is.)si)dice: The1bus1hasn't1arrived1yet e)non The1bus1isn't1arrived1yet Quando usiamo il Present Perfect? Quando)ci)riferiamo)ad)azioni)che)sono)cominciate)nel)passato)e)che)continuano)nel presente: I1have1lived1here1for1101years.

53 I've often seen Jim with his dog in the park. Quando un'azione o situazione passata è senza riferimenti a un tempo determinato: Helen has broken her pencil. Per riferirsi a un'azione appena conclusa I have just finished eating Per parlare di esperienze: Have you been to Spain? I have been to Barcelona. Have you seen that movie? Il Present Perfect si usa con i seguenti avverbi: yet--> I haven't seen it yet just--> I have just done it. never --> Pat has never been to Italy. ever--> Have you ever played tennis? already--> I have already written the letter. So far --> How many pages have you written so far? Il Present Perfect si usa spesso con i seguenti avverbi: often--> I have always loved you always--> I have often visited Spain. Il present perfect può spesso essere confuso con il past simple perchè entrambi si traducono spesso con il passato prossimo in italiano Have you seen the film Armageddon? Hai visto il film Armageddon?

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